Jean Nouvel is a French architect. Nouvel studied at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris and was a founding member of Mars 1976 and Syndicat de l'Architecture, he has obtained a number of prestigious distinctions over the course of his career, including the Aga Khan Award for Architecture, the Wolf Prize in Arts in 2005 and the Pritzker Prize in 2008. A number of museums and architectural centres have presented retrospectives of his work. Nouvel was born on 12 August 1945 in France, he is the son of Roger Nouvel who were teachers. His family moved when his father became the county's chief school superintendent, his parents encouraged Nouvel to study mathematics and language, but when he was 16 years old he was captivated by art when a teacher taught him drawing. Although he said he thought that his parents were guiding him to pursue a career in education or engineering, the family reached a compromise that he could study architecture which they thought was less risky than art; when Nouvel failed an entrance examination at the École des Beaux-Arts of Bordeaux, he moved to Paris where he won first prize in a national competition to attend the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts.
From 1967 to 1970, Nouvel earned his income as an assistant to architects Claude Parent and Paul Virilio, who after only one year, made him a project manager in charge of building a large apartment complex. Nouvel and filmmaker Odile Fillion married and have two sons, a post-doctorate computer scientist working at Mindstorm Multitouch in London, Pierre, a theater producer and designer at his company, Factoid. With his second wife Catherine Richard, Nouvel has Sarah, he lives now with Mia Hägg, a Swedish architect working at her practice Habiter Autrement in Paris. By age 25, Nouvel entered into his own partnership with François Seigneur. Parents sent them work, gave Nouvel a valuable recommendation to the chairperson of the seventh edition of the Biennale de Paris where for fifteen years, Nouvel designed exhibits and made contacts in the arts and theater. Early on in his career, Nouvel became a key participant in intellectual debates about architecture in France: he co-founded the Mars 1976 movement in 1976 and, a year the Syndicat de l'Architecture.
Nouvel was one of the organizers of the competition for the rejuvenation of the Les Halles district and he founded the first Paris architecture biennale in 1980. In 1981, together with Architecture-Studio, won the design competition for the Institut du Monde Arabe building in Paris, whose construction was completed in 1987 and brought Nouvel international fame. Mechanical lenses reminiscent of Arabic latticework in its south wall open and shut automatically, controlling interior lighting as the lenses' photoelectric cells respond to exterior light levels. Nouvel had three different partners between 1972 and 1984: Gilbert Lezenes, Jean-François Guyot, Pierre Soria. In 1985, with his junior architects Emmanuel Blamont, Jean-Marc Ibos and Mirto Vitart, he founded Jean Nouvel et Associés. With Emmanuel Gattani, he formed JNEC in 1988. Ateliers Jean Nouvel, his present practice, was formed in 1994 with Michel Pélissié and is one of the largest in France, with 140 people in the main office in Paris.
Ateliers Jean Nouvel site offices are Rome, Geneva and Barcelona. They are working on 30 active projects in 13 countries. Nouvel designed a flacon for L'Homme, an Yves Saint Laurent fragrance, in a limited edition launched in 2008. Nouvel was awarded the Pritzker Prize, architecture's highest honour, in 2008, for his work on more than 200 projects, among them, in the words of The New York Times, the "exotically louvered" Arab World Institute, the bullet-shaped and "candy-colored" Torre Agbar in Barcelona, the "muscular" Guthrie Theater with its cantilevered bridge in Minneapolis, in Paris, the "defiant and wildly eccentric" Musée du quai Branly and the Philharmonie de Paris. Pritzker points to several more major works: in Europe, the Cartier Foundation for Contemporary Art, the Culture and Convention Center in Lucerne, the Opéra Nouvel in Lyon, Expo 2002 in Switzerland and, under construction, the Copenhagen Concert Hall and the courthouse in Nantes; the jury acknowledged the'persistence, exuberance, above all, an insatiable urge for creative experimentation' as qualities abundant in Nouvel's work.
Nouvel has designed a number of notable buildings across the world, the most significant of which are listed below. As part of the announcement of Nouvel's Pritzker Prize, the Hyatt Foundation, which awards the prize, published a full illustrated list of Nouvel's architectural work, including projects which were never built, projects in construction and designs for which construction has yet to start. In 2001 director Beat Kuert filmed a documentary about five of Nouvel's projects titled Jean Nouvel. 1987 – Nemausus 1, Nîmes, France 1987 – Arab World Institute, France 1994 – Fondation Cartier pour l'Art Contemporain, France 1995 – Euralille, (Retail / Office
Arabs are a population inhabiting the Arab world. They live in the Arab states in Western Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa and western Indian Ocean islands, they form a significant diaspora, with Arab communities established around the world. The first mention of Arabs is from the mid-ninth century BCE as a tribal people in eastern and southern Syria and the north of the Arabian Peninsula; the Arabs appear to have been under the vassalage of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, the succeeding Neo-Babylonian, Achaemenid and Parthian empires. Arab tribes, most notably the Ghassanids and Lakhmids, begin to appear in the southern Syrian Desert from the mid 3rd century CE onward, during the mid to stages of the Roman and Sasanian empires. Before the expansion of the Rashidun Caliphate, "Arab" referred to any of the nomadic and settled Semitic people from the Arabian Peninsula, Syrian Desert, North and Lower Mesopotamia. Today, "Arab" refers to a large number of people whose native regions form the Arab world due to the spread of Arabs and the Arabic language throughout the region during the early Muslim conquests of the 7th and 8th centuries and the subsequent Arabisation of indigenous populations.
The Arabs forged the Rashidun, Umayyad and the Fatimid caliphates, whose borders reached southern France in the west, China in the east, Anatolia in the north, the Sudan in the south. This was one of the largest land empires in history. In the early 20th century, the First World War signalled the end of the Ottoman Empire; this resulted in the defeat and dissolution of the empire and the partition of its territories, forming the modern Arab states. Following the adoption of the Alexandria Protocol in 1944, the Arab League was founded on 22 March 1945; the Charter of the Arab League endorsed the principle of an Arab homeland whilst respecting the individual sovereignty of its member states. Today, Arabs inhabit the 22 Arab states within the Arab League: Algeria, Comoros, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Mauritania, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen; the Arab world stretches around 13 million km2, from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea in the east, from the Mediterranean Sea in the north to the Horn of Africa and the Indian Ocean in the southeast.
Beyond the boundaries of the League of Arab States, Arabs can be found in the global diaspora. The ties that bind Arabs are ethnic, cultural, identical, nationalist and political; the Arabs have their own customs, architecture, literature, dance, cuisine, society and mythology. The total number of Arabs are an estimated 450 million. Arabs are a diverse group in terms of religious practices. In the pre-Islamic era, most Arabs followed polytheistic religions; some tribes had adopted Christianity or Judaism, a few individuals, the hanifs observed monotheism. Today, about 93% of Arabs are adherents of Islam, there are sizable Christian minorities. Arab Muslims belong to the Sunni, Shiite and Alawite denominations. Arab Christians follow one of the Eastern Christian Churches, such as the Greek Orthodox or Greek Catholic churches. Other smaller minority religions are followed, such as the Bahá'í Faith and Druze. Arabs have influenced and contributed to diverse fields, notably the arts and architecture, philosophy, ethics, politics, music, cinema, medicine and technology in the ancient and modern history.
The earliest documented use of the word "Arab" to refer to a people appears in the Kurkh Monoliths, an Akkadian language record of the ninth century BCE Assyrian conquest of Aram, which referred to Bedouins of the Arabian Peninsula under King Gindibu, who fought as part of a coalition opposed to Assyria. Listed among the booty captured by the army of king Shalmaneser III of Assyria in the Battle of Qarqar are 1000 camels of "Gi-in-di-bu'u the ar-ba-a-a" or " Gindibu belonging to the Arab; the related word ʾaʿrāb is used to refer to Bedouins today, in contrast to ʿarab which refers to Arabs in general. The term Arab and ʾaʿrāb are mentioned around 40 times in pre-Islamic Sabaean inscriptions; the term Arab occurs in the titles of the Himyarite kings from the time of'Abu Karab Asad until MadiKarib Ya'fur. The term ʾaʿrāb is driven from the term Arab according to Sabaean grammar; the term is mentioned in Quranic verses referring to people who were living in Madina and it might be a south Arabian loan-word into Quranic language.
The oldest surviving indication of an Arab national identity is an inscription made in an archaic form of Arabic in 328 using the Nabataean alphabet, which refers to Imru' al-Qays ibn'Amr as "King of all the Arabs". Herodotus refers to the Arabs in the Sinai, southern Palestine, the frankincense region. Other ancient Greek historians like Agatharchides, Diodorus Siculus and Strabo mention Arabs living in Mesopotamia, in Egypt, southern Jordan, the Syrian steppe and in eastern Arabia. Inscriptions dating to the 6th century BCE in Yemen include the term "Arab"; the most popular Arab account holds that the word "Arab" came from an eponymous father called Ya'rub, the first to speak Arabic. A
Pierre and Marie Curie University
Pierre and Marie Curie University, titled as UPMC from 2007–2017 and known as Paris 6, was a public research university in Paris, France from 1971 to 2017. The university is located on the Jussieu Campus in the Latin Quarter of the 5th arrondissement of Paris, France. In 2010, the Sorbonne University group of cooperating institutions was created, with UPMC as a member. UPMC merged with Paris-Sorbonne University, a fellow Sorbonne group member, into a new combined Sorbonne University on 1 January 2018. Paris VI was one of the inheritors of the faculty of Sciences of the University of Paris, divided into several universities in 1970 after the student protests of May 1968. In 1971, the five faculties of the former University of Paris were split and re-formed into thirteen universities by the Faure Law; the campus of Paris VI was built in the 1950s and 1960s, on a site occupied by wine storehouses. The Dean, Marc Zamanski, saw the Jussieu campus standing as a tangible symbol of scientific thought in the heart of Paris, with the Faculty of Science, set in the Latin Quarter, as part of an intellectual and spiritual continuum linked to the university history of Paris.
Paris 6 shared the Jussieu campus with the University of Paris 7 and the Paris Geophysical Institute. In 1974, the University of Paris VI adopted the name Université Pierre et Marie Curie, after physicists Pierre and Marie Curie. In 2006, Pierre and Marie Curie University entered into a partnership with the government of the United Arab Emirates to create Paris-Sorbonne University Abu Dhabi, a spinoff in Abu Dhabi. In 2007, the university shortened its name to UPMC. In 2008 the university joined the association Paris Universitas changing its logo accordingly and adding the name of the association after its own. UPMC was a large scientific and medical complex in France, active in many fields of research with scope and achievements at a high level. Several university rankings put UPMC at the 1st place in France, it has been ranked as one of the top universities in the world; the ARWU in 2014 ranked UPMC as the 1st in France, 6th in Europe and 35th in the world and 4th in field of mathematics, 25th in field of physics, 14th in field of natural sciences and 32nd in field of engineering and computer science.
UPMC had more than 125 laboratories, most of them in association with the Centre national de la recherche scientifique. Some of its most notable institutes and laboratories include the Institut Henri Poincaré, Institut d'astrophysique de Paris, Laboratoire d'informatique de Paris 6, Institut de mathématiques de Jussieu and the Laboratoire Kastler-Brossel; the University's Faculty of Medicine Pierre and Marie Curie is located in the teaching hospitals Pitié-Salpêtrière and Saint-Antoine. In 2010, the Sorbonne University group was created, including the Pantheon-Assas University, the Paris-Sorbonne University, the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, the INSEAD, the University of Technology of Compiègne. UPMC merged with Paris-Sorbonne University into a combined Sorbonne University on 1 January 2018. Official website
Louvre Abu Dhabi
The Louvre Abu Dhabi is an art and civilization museum, located in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. The museum was inaugurated on 8 November 2017 by French President Emmanuel Macron and United Arab Emirates Vice President Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum and Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan; the museum is part of a thirty-year agreement between the city of Abu Dhabi and the French government. The museum is located on the Saadiyat Island Cultural District, it is 24,000 square metres in size, with 8,000 square metres of galleries, making it the largest art museum in the Arabian peninsula. The final cost of the construction is expected to be about €600 million. In addition, US$525 million was paid by Abu Dhabi to be associated with the Louvre name, an additional US$747 million will be paid in exchange for art loans, special exhibitions and management advice. Artworks from around the world are showcased at the museum, with particular focus placed upon bridging the gap between Eastern and Western art.
The establishment of this museum was approved by the French Parliament on 9 October 2007. The architect for the building is Jean Nouvel and the engineers are BuroHappold Engineering. Jean Nouvel designed the Institut du Monde Arabe in Paris; the museum is part of a US$27 billion tourist and cultural development for Saadiyat Island, a complex, planned to include three other museums, including a Guggenheim Museum and the Zayed National Museum. According to the government-sponsored website UAE Interact: "The French Museums Agency will operate in collaboration with the Tourism Development and Investment Company, behind the transformation of Saadiyat Island, it will be chaired by French financier and member of the country's Académie des Beaux-Arts, Marc Ladreit de Lacharrière, publisher of the periodical Revue des Deux Mondes." Bruno Maquart, the former Executive Director of Centre Georges Pompidou, will take the position of Executive Director. By choosing the Louvre, the emirate of Abu Dhabi not only sealed a partnership with the world’s most visited and well-known museum, but selected one which, from its inception, had a vocation to reach out to the world, to the essence of mankind, through the contemplation of works of art.
Saadiyat Island's Cultural District plans to house the largest single cluster of world-class cultural assets. In addition to the Louvre Abu Dhabi these are intended to include: Zayed National Museum, to be designed by United Kingdom-based architectural company Foster and Partners under the direction of Lord Norman Foster; the museum is designed as a "seemingly floating dome structure". The overall effect is meant to represent "rays of sunlight passing through date palm fronds in an oasis." The total area of the museum will be 24,000 square metres. The permanent collection will occupy 6,000 square metres, the temporary exhibitions will take place over 2,000 square metres. BuroHappold Engineering provided multidisciplinary engineering services across the project, including structural engineering, geotechnical engineering and environmental consultancy, water engineering, facade engineering, lighting design, people movement consultancy, security services and inclusive design, their structural engineers realised the "floating dome" from 7,850 aluminium stars of varying sizes, which tessellate over eight layers to create a perforated roof structure that allows sunlight through to the spaces below.
A team of specialist geotechnical and water engineers designed a watertight basement and tidal pools within the galleries to give the illusion of a "museum in the sea" while protecting artwork and visitors from the corrosive marine environment. Construction works at Louvre Abu Dhabi started on 26 May 2009. Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan, the Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi and the President of France, Nicolas Sarkozy inaugurated an exhibition titled, Talking Art: Louvre Abu Dhabi at the Gallery One of the Emirates Palace hotel which includes 19 works of art bought over the last 18 months for the Louvre Abu Dhabi, as well as loans from the French national museums to mark the beginning of the construction work. Piling works at the Louvre were to be completed by August 2010, with the piling and enabling works package awarded to the German specialized company; the total of 4536 piles consisted of RC Piles and H-Piles and was completed on 3 August 2010. On 29 October 2011, Tourism Development & Investment Company, the project manager owned by the government of Abu Dhabi, announced it would delay establishing the museum.
The company gave no new date. According to the UAE newspapers Gulf News and The National, the delay could be explained by a review of the emirate's economic strategy. In January 2012 it was confirmed that the Louvre Abu Dhabi's new opening date would be 2015. Construction on the main phase of the museum began in early 2013 by a consortium headed by Arabtec, Constructora San José and Oger Abu Dhabi; this stage includes waterproofing and the two basement levels, along with four concrete pillars that will support the 7,000-tonne dome. Work on the construction of the gallery spaces and initial preparation for the dome began in the fourth quarter of 2013. On 5 December 2013, the first element of the museum's canopy was lifted into place. On 17 March 2014 TDIC announced the completion of the first permanent gallery structure to mark the first anniversary of the start of construction
Jack Lang (French politician)
Jack Mathieu Émile Lang is a French politician. A member of the Socialist Party, he served as France's Minister of Culture from 1981 to 1986 and 1988 to 1992, as Minister of Education from 1992 to 1993 and 2000 to 2002, he was the Mayor of Blois from 1989 to 2000. He served until 2012 in the National Assembly from the sixth district of Pas-de-Calais. Lang originated the Fête de la Musique, an all day public music festival which occurs yearly on 21 June in France and throughout the world. Jack Lang was born to Roger Lang and Marie-Luce Bouchet in the département of Vosges, his father's family were a secular, well-to-do Jewish family based in Nancy. Roger Lang was the commercial manager of the family business, founded by Jack's grandfather Albert. Roger and Albert were both freemasons. Jack's mother, Marie-Luce Bouchet, a Catholic, was born in 1919 as the daughter of Emile Bouchet, who died in 1926, Berthe Boulanger, a nurse, a freemason. In 1938, Albert and Roger sent their wives to Vichy because of the threat of war with Germany.
After the German invasion, Albert Lang and his wife moved to Brive la Gaillarde in Corrèze. The young Jack and his mother went to stay with his great grandmother in Cholet and subsequently moved to Bordeaux, his father Roger was first mobilized in Luneville, joined his parents and his brother-in-law Luc Bouchet in Brive. Jack and his mother joined them in Brive after the bombing of Bordeaux. Jack Lang's father was sentenced by the court in Brive for failure to report his children as Jews, but was acquitted by the Court of Appeal on the ground that the children's mother was a Catholic. Roger Lang was placed under house arrest. Berthe Bouchet visited the Langs in April 1942 when her daughter was about to give birth to her third child, Marianne. In 1943, Berthe was arrested in Nancy by the Gestapo for acts of resistance, she was deported to Ravensbrück and died in the spring of 1945. Jack Lang studied political science at the Institut d'Études Politiques de Paris, went on to receive a postgraduate degree in public law.
His career focused on a combination of teaching and culture and the arts. He was the founder and producer of Festival du Monde in Nancy, was director of the Nancy University Theatre from 1963 to 1972, director of the Théâtre national de Chaillot from 1972 to 1974. At the same time he was a professor of international law from 1971 to 1981, he married Monique Buczynski in 1961. The couple have two daughters. In 1997, he was President of Jury to the 47th Berlin International Film Festival. Lang entered politics as a Socialist member of the French National Assembly from Paris in 1977, he is best known for having served as Minister of Education. In 1981, while Minister of Culture, he created the Fête de la Musique, a massive celebration of music held on 21 June each year, where many amateur musicians give free open-air performances, he is the president of the Union of the Theatres of Europe. In August 1981, he created the Lang Law, which allows publishers to enforce a minimum sale price for books. Lang was a Member of the European Parliament from 1994 to 1997.
In 2000, he stood unsuccessfully for Mayor of Paris. While he had planned to stand for president in 2007, he decided not to register as a candidate in the Socialist primary for the sake of party unity. In 2007, Lang agreed to become co-chairman of a commission drafting changes to the Constitution that were supported by President Nicolas Sarkozy but opposed by the Socialist Party; this decision provoked strong criticism from his party, leading him to end his role in the party leadership. When Parliament voted on the constitutional changes on 21 July 2008, he voted in favour, becoming the only Socialist deputy so to do. A three-fifths majority was required, the changes passed by a vote of 539 to 357, meaning that Lang's support enabled the bill to pass by a one-vote margin; the Socialist Party denounced Lang for this vote. Lang replied by saying that it "is in nobody's power to strike me from the map of the French political landscape". In late 2009, Sarkozy appointed Lang his special envoy to North Korea, following a similar assignment earlier in the year to Cuba.
Lang travelled to Pyongyang on 9 November 2009 for a self-described "listening mission" aimed at exploring bilateral ties and discussing the North Korean nuclear program, among other things. Lang briefed American officials including Deputy Secretary of State James Steinberg and special envoy Sung Kim, as well as ambassadors of countries involved such as Russia, before the assignment was publicly announced; some critics questioned Lang's qualifications, but Lang said he would be driven by his "intuition" that change was afoot in North Korea. In August 2010, Lang became special adviser on piracy at the United Nations, he was brought in to advise on the prosecution of pirates off the coast of Somalia. In 2012 Lang was chosen as the Socialist Party candidate for the National Assembly in the second district in the Vosges department. A controversial figure in the Socialist Party since his collaboration with Sarkozy, Lang's constituency was abolished during the national reapportionment and he failed to be nominated in several other constituencies before succeeding in the Vosges.
Libya the State of Libya, is a country in the Maghreb region in North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad to the south, Niger to the southwest, Algeria to the west, Tunisia to the northwest. The sovereign state is made of three historical regions: Tripolitania and Cyrenaica. With an area of 1.8 million square kilometres, Libya is the fourth largest country in Africa, is the 16th largest country in the world. Libya has the 10th-largest proven oil reserves of any country in the world; the largest city and capital, Tripoli, is located in western Libya and contains over one million of Libya's six million people. The second-largest city is Benghazi, located in eastern Libya. Libya has been inhabited by Berbers since the late Bronze Age; the Phoenicians established trading posts in western Libya, ancient Greek colonists established city-states in eastern Libya. Libya was variously ruled by Carthaginians, Persians and Greeks before becoming a part of the Roman Empire.
Libya was an early centre of Christianity. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the area of Libya was occupied by the Vandals until the 7th century, when invasions brought Islam to the region. In the 16th century, the Spanish Empire and the Knights of St John occupied Tripoli, until Ottoman rule began in 1551. Libya was involved in the Barbary Wars of the 19th centuries. Ottoman rule continued until the Italian occupation of Libya resulted in the temporary Italian Libya colony from 1911 to 1947. During the Second World War, Libya was an important area of warfare in the North African Campaign; the Italian population went into decline. Libya became independent as a kingdom in 1951. A military coup in 1969 overthrew King Idris I; the "bloodless" coup leader Muammar Gaddafi ruled the country from 1969 and the Libyan Cultural Revolution in 1973 until he was overthrown and killed in the 2011 Libyan Civil War. Two authorities claimed to govern Libya: the Council of Deputies in Tobruk and the 2014 General National Congress in Tripoli, which considered itself the continuation of the General National Congress, elected in 2012.
After UN-led peace talks between the Tobruk and Tripoli governments, a unified interim UN-backed Government of National Accord was established in 2015, the GNC disbanded to support it. Parts of Libya remain outside either government's control, with various Islamist and tribal militias administering some areas; as of July 2017, talks are still ongoing between the GNA and the Tobruk-based authorities to end the strife and unify the divided establishments of the state, including the Libyan National Army and the Central Bank of Libya. Libya is a member of the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Arab League, the OIC and OPEC; the country's official religion is Islam, with 96.6% of the Libyan population being Sunni Muslims. The Latin name Libya referred to the region west of the Nile corresponding to its central location in North Africa visited by many Mediterranean cultures which referred to its original inhabitants as the "Libúē." The name Libya was introduced in 1934 for Italian Libya, reviving the historical name for Northwest Africa, from the ancient Greek Λιβύη.
It was intended to supplant terms applied to Ottoman Tripolitania, the coastal region of what is today Libya having been ruled by the Ottoman Empire from 1551 to 1911, as the Eyalet of Tripolitania. The name "Libya" was brought back into use in 1903 by Italian geographer Federico Minutilli. Libya gained independence in 1951 as the United Libyan Kingdom, changing its name to the Kingdom of Libya in 1963. Following a coup d'état led by Muammar Gaddafi in 1969, the name of the state was changed to the Libyan Arab Republic; the official name was "Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya" from 1977 to 1986, "Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya" from 1986 to 2011. The National Transitional Council, established in 2011, referred to the state as "Libya"; the UN formally recognized the country as "Libya" in September 2011, based on a request from the Permanent Mission of Libya citing the Libyan interim Constitutional Declaration of 3 August 2011. In November 2011, the ISO 3166-1 was altered to reflect the new country name "Libya" in English, "Libye" in French.
In December 2017 the Permanent Mission of Libya to the United Nations informed the United Nations that the country's official name was henceforth the "State of Libya". The coastal plain of Libya was inhabited by Neolithic peoples from as early as 8000 BC; the Afroasiatic ancestors of the Berber people are assumed to have spread into the area by the Late Bronze Age. The earliest known name of such a tribe was the Garamantes, based in Germa; the Phoenicians were the first to establish trading posts in Libya. By the 5th century BC, the greatest of the Phoenician colonies, had extended its hegemony across much of North Africa, where a distinctive civilization, known as Punic, came into being. In 630 BC, the ancient Greeks colonized the area around Barca in Eastern Libya and founded the city of Cyrene. Within 200 years, four more important Greek cities were established in the area that became known as
Aga Khan Award for Architecture
The Aga Khan Award for Architecture is an architectural prize established by Aga Khan IV in 1977. It aims to identify and reward architectural concepts that address the needs and aspirations of Islamic societies in the fields of contemporary design, social housing, community development and improvement, restoration and area conservation, as well as landscape design and improvement of the environment, it is presented in three-year cycles to multiple projects and has a monetary award, with prizes totalling US$1 million. Uniquely among architectural awards, it recognizes projects and stakeholders in addition to buildings and people; the award is associated with the Aga Khan Trust for Culture, an agency of the Aga Khan Development Network. The award is aimed at societies, it is organised on the basis of a three-year cycle and is governed by a steering committee chaired by the Aga Khan IV. A new committee is constituted each cycle to establish the eligibility criteria for projects, provide thematic direction with reference to current concerns, to develop plans for the long-term future of the award.
The Steering Committee is responsible for the selection of the Master Jury appointed for each award cycle, for activities such as seminars and field visits, the award ceremony and exhibitions. The Chairman's Award is given in honour of accomplishments that fall outside the mandate of the Master Jury, it recognises lifetime achievements. It has been presented four times: in 1980 to Egyptian architect and urban planner Hassan Fathy, in 1986 to Iraqi architect and educator Rifat Chadirji, in 2001 to Sri Lankan architect Geoffrey Bawa, in 2010 to historian of Islamic art and architecture Oleg Grabar; the Aga Khan Foundation funded the television series Architects on the Frontline, about entries to the competition. The media watchdog Ofcom criticised BBC World News for breaking United Kingdom broadcasting rules with the series, which praised the competition. Prizes totalling up to US$1m, constituting the largest architectural award in the world, are presented every three years to projects selected by the Master Jury.
Since 1977, documentation has been compiled on over 7500 building projects located throughout the world, of which over 100 projects have received awards. The 1980 award ceremony took place at the Shalimar Gardens in Pakistan. During this cycle, the Chairman's Award was given to Hassan Fathy in recognition of his lifelong commitment to architecture in the Muslim world. Prominent architect Muzharul Islam was a member of the Master Jury of the first Aga Khan Award for Architecture. Award recipients: Kampung Improvement Programme, Indonesia Pondok Pesantren Pabelan, Central Java, Indonesia Ertegün House, Turkey Turkish Historical Society, Turkey Mughal Sheraton Hotel, India Conservation of Sidi Bou Saïd, Tunisia Rüstem Pasa Caravanserai, Turkey National Museum, Qatar Ali Qapu, Chehel Sutun, Hasht Behesht, Iran Halawa House, Egypt Medical Centre, Mali Courtyard Houses, Morocco Water Towers, Kuwait City, Kuwait Intercontinental Hotel and Conference Centre, Saudi Arabia, by Rolf Gutbrod and Frei Otto Agricultural Training Centre, Senegal The 1983 award ceremony took place at the Topkapı Palace in Istanbul.
Award recipients: Great Mosque of Niono, Mali Šerefudin's White Mosque, Visoko and Herzegovina Ramses Wissa Wassef Arts Centre, Egypt Nail Çakirhan Residence, Akyaka Village, Muğla, Turkey Hafsia Quarter I, Tunisia Tanjong Jara Beach Hotel and Rantau Abang Visitors' Centre, Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia Résidence Andalous, Tunisia Hajj Terminal, King Abdulaziz International Airport, Saudi Arabia, by Fazlur Khan Tomb of Shah Rukn-i-'Alam, Pakistan Darb Qirmiz Quarter, Egypt Azem Palace, Syria The 1986 award ceremony took place at El Badi Palace in Marrakesh, Morocco. The brief prepared by the Steering Committee for this award cycle focused on the preservation and continuation of cultural heritage, community building and social housing, excellence in contemporary architectural expression. Six winners were chosen from among 213 entries; the conservation of Mostar Old Town and restoration of Al-Aqsa Mosque were examples of cultural heritage, the first theme, while the Yama Mosque and Bhong Mosque were noted for their innovation in translating traditional techniques and materials to meet contemporary requirements.
The Social Security Complex and Dar Lamane Housing address the issues of community and social housing while remaining sensitive to local culture. The Chairman's Award for Lifetime Achievements was given to Iraqi architect Rifat Chadirji. Award recipients: Social Security Complex, Turkey Dar Lamane Housing, Morocco Conservation of Mostar Old Town and Herzegovina Restoration of Al-Aqsa Mosque, Noble Sanctuary, Jerusalem Yaama Mosque, Tahoua, Niger Bhong Mosque, Rahim Yar Khan District, Pakistan The 1989 award ceremony took place at the Citadel of Salah Ed-Din in Cairo; the fourth cycle of the award considered 241 project nominations. Of these, 32 were short-listed for technical review and the Master Jury selected 11 winners. Two themes were noted as areas of focus in this cycle: Revival of past vernacular traditions, projects that reflect the efforts of individual patrons and of non-governmental organisations in improving society. Projects such as the Great Omari Mosque and the Rehabilitation of Asilah seek to reconstruct and preserve heritage buildings for continued use, demonstrating the significance of these spaces within their communities.
Meanwhile, the Grameen Bank Housing Programme and