The Arabian Peninsula, or Arabia, is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate. From a geographical perspective, it is considered a subcontinent of Asia, it is the largest peninsula in the world, at 3,237,500 km2. The peninsula consists of the countries Yemen, Qatar, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates; the peninsula formed as a result of the rifting of the Red Sea between 56 and 23 million years ago, is bordered by the Red Sea to the west and southwest, the Persian Gulf to the northeast, the Levant to the north and the Indian Ocean to the southeast. The peninsula plays a critical geopolitical role in the Arab world due to its vast reserves of oil and natural gas; the most populous cities on the Arabian Peninsula are Riyadh, Jeddah, Abu Dhabi, Kuwait City, Sanaʽa, Mecca and Muscat. Before the modern era, it was divided into four distinct regions: Red Sea Coast, Central Plateau, Indian Ocean Coast and Persian Gulf Coast. Hejaz and Najd make up most of Saudi Arabia.
Southern Arabia consists of some parts of Saudi Arabia and Oman. Eastern Arabia consists of the entire coastal strip of the Persian Gulf; the Arabian Peninsula is located in the continent of Asia and bounded by the Persian Gulf on the northeast, the Strait of Hormuz and the Gulf of Oman on the east, the Arabian Sea on the southeast and south, the Gulf of Aden on the south, the Bab-el-Mandeb Strait on the southwest and the Red Sea, located on the southwest and west. The northern portion of the peninsula merges with the Syrian Desert with no clear borderline, although the northern boundary of the peninsula is considered to be the northern borders of Saudi Arabia and Kuwait; the most prominent feature of the peninsula is desert, but in the southwest, there are mountain ranges, which receive greater rainfall than the rest of the peninsula. Harrat ash Shaam is a large volcanic field that extends from northwestern Arabia into Jordan and southern Syria; the peninsula's constituent countries are Kuwait, Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates on the east, Oman on the southeast, Yemen on the south and Saudi Arabia at the center.
The island nation of Bahrain lies off the east coast of the peninsula. Six countries form the Gulf Cooperation Council; the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia covers the greater part of the peninsula. The majority of the population of the peninsula live in Saudi Yemen; the peninsula contains the world's largest reserves of oil. Saudi Arabia and the UAE are economically the wealthiest in the region. Qatar, a small peninsula in the Persian Gulf on the larger peninsula, is home to the Arabic-language television station Al Jazeera and its English-language subsidiary Al Jazeera English. Kuwait, on the border with Iraq, is an important country strategically, forming one of the main staging grounds for coalition forces mounting the United States-led 2003 invasion of Iraq. Though lightly populated, political Arabia is noted for a high population growth rate – as the result of both strong inflows of migrant labor as well as sustained high birth rates; the population tends to be young and skewed gender ratio dominated by males.
In many states, the number of South Asians exceeds that of the local citizenry. The four smallest states, which have their entire coastlines on the Persian Gulf, exhibit the world's most extreme population growth tripling every 20 years. In 2014, the estimated population of the Arabian Peninsula was 77,983,936; the Arabian Peninsula is known for having one of the most uneven adult sex ratios in the world with females in some regions constituting only a quarter of vicenarians and tricenarians. Listed here are the human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups in Arabia Haplogroup J is the most abundant component in the Arabian peninsula, embracing more than 50% of its Y-chromosomes, its two main subclades, show opposite latitudinal gradients in the Middle East. J1-M267 is more abundant in the southern areas, reaching a frequency around 73% in Yemen, whereas J2-M172 is more common in the Levant. J Accounts for the majority of in Saudi Arabia, it seems to be an Adnani marker. Haplogroup J 54.8% Haplogroup E 17.5% R 11.6% Haplogroup T-M184 5.1% Geologically, this region is more appropriately called the Arabian subcontinent because it lies on a tectonic plate of its own, the Arabian Plate, moving incrementally away from the rest of Africa and north, toward Asia, into the Eurasian Plate.
The rocks exposed vary systematically across Arabia, with the oldest rocks exposed in the Arabian-Nubian Shield near the Red Sea, overlain by earlier sediments that become younger towards the Persian Gulf. The best-preserved ophiolite on Earth, the Semail Ophiolite, lies exposed in the mountains of the UAE and northern Oman; the peninsula consists of: A central plateau, the Najd, with fertile valleys and pastures used for the grazing of sheep and other livestock A range of deserts: the Nefud in the north, stony.
Rēzekne is a city in the Rēzekne River valley in Latgale region of eastern Latvia. It is called The Heart of Latgale. Built on seven hills, Rēzekne is situated 242 kilometres east of Riga, 63 kilometres west of the Latvian-Russian border, at the intersection of the Moscow – Ventspils and Warsaw – Saint Petersburg Railways, it has a population of 31,216 making it the 7th largest city in Latvia. In Latgalian name of the city is Rēzekne pronounced. Rēzekne was known as Rositten in German. A Russian name from the time of the Russian Empire was Рѣжица although Резекне pronounced is now used; some other names for the city include: Polish: Yiddish: רעזשיצע Reżice. A Latgalian hill fort is known to have existed at Rēzekne from the 9th to the 13th centuries, until its destruction at the hands of German crusaders of the Livonian Order. In 1285, the knights built a stone fortress on the site, today known as Rēzekne castle ruins, to serve as a border post on their eastern frontier; the name Rēzekne was first documented in 1285.
Throughout its early history, Rēzekne was attacked many times by Lithuanian forces. The town became part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth after the Peace of Jam Zapolski in 1582 during the Livonian War. Rēzekne received Magdeburg rights from Poland in the 17th century, but fell to the Russian Empire during the Partitions of Poland. In 1773, Rēzekne received city rights. Known as "Rezhitsa" during Russian rule, it was an uyezd center first in Pskov Governorate between 1772 and 1776 Polotsk between 1776 and 1796, Belarus between 1796 and 1802 and in Vitebsk Governorate between 1802 and 1917. During the 19th century, the construction of the Moscow-Ventspils and Saint Petersburg-Warsaw railways transformed Rēzekne from a sleepy country town into an important city with two stations. In the spring of 1917, the first Latgalian congress was held in Rēzekne, in which Latgale was declared to unite with the other Latvian regions. Following Latvia's declaration of independence in 1918, the Latvian War of Independence and the driving out of both the German and Red armies from Latvia, the city became a cultural centre for all of Latgale.
Rēzekne was damaged by both Nazi and Soviet armies during World War II. It was captured by troops of the German Army Group North on 4 July 1941 and placed under the administration of the newly created Reichskommissariat Ostland on 25 July 1941. Rēzekne was recaptured by troops of the Soviet 2nd Belorussian Front on 27 July 1944. Due to the heavy air-bombing by Soviet forces in 1944, ⅔ of its buildings were destroyed. Out of a pre-war population of 13,300, only 5,000 people remained in the city at the end of the war. Rēzekne was rebuilt after the war with an emphasis on industrial development. Rēzekne had the 5th highest industrial output in the Latvian SSR, including a dairy processor, a lumber mill, an electric-instrument factory. During this time, many Russians moved to the city. Based on the data provided by Latvijas Statistika, the population of Rēzekne was 10,795 in the year 1897, it decreased to 9,997 in 1920, while increasing again to 12,620 in 1925 and 13,139 in 1935. As a result of the Pale of Settlement, many Jews settled in Latgalia and were confined to the cities.
In the 19th century, the population of Rēzekne was around 60% Jewish, while Russians formed the largest minority. The remainder of the population included Poles, a small number of native Latgalians. With the economic development following the arrival of the railroad, the population grew reaching 23,000 by the eve of World War I. After Latvia's independence in 1918, the population of ethnic Latvians in the city grew but Jews still made up over a quarter of the population In 1939, the population was 13,000. During World War II, the Jewish population was annihilated due to the Holocaust, most other residents were either deported to Gulag camps in Siberia, or fled westwards; as a result, the post-war population was only 5,000. As part of the Soviet Union's policy of Russification, many Russians and Belarusians moved to the city after the Soviet occupation of Latvia at the end of World War II. By 1989, Russians accounted for the majority of the population, at 53%. After Latvia's independence in 1991, many repatriated to Russia.
In 1991, the population of Rēzekne was 43,156. Since the population has decreased to 30,800, due to a low birth rate, an aging population, a high rate of emigration abroad and to larger cities such as Riga. Due to Rēzekne's multi-ethnic character throughout the centuries, many religious communities have settled in the city. Ethnic differences were distinguished on religious lines; the Polish influence over Latgalia in the 17th and 18th centuries strengthened Catholicism among the native Latgalians. Incoming populations of Russian Old Believers introduced Russian Orthodoxy, up to the 1940s, Rēzekne had a large Jewish population, therefore, many synagogues; the Catholic Cathedral "Vissvētā Jēzus Sirds", dominates Rēzekne's skyline looking from the castle hill. The Cathedral was consecrated in 1901, it was built on the site of a previous wooden chu
Dean W. Kelley was an American attorney and former president of the State Bar of Michigan, he was the head football coach of the Michigan State Normal School for the 1892 season, compiling a record of 2–1. Kelley studied law in St. Johns and enrolled at Michigan State Normal School from which he graduated in 1899, he next attended the University of Michigan Law School. He began his practice of law in St. Johns, holding positions as city attorney, probate judge, county prosecutor, he taught in St. Johns and served as president of the board of education, he lived in Lansing, for 34 years. He was the president of the State Bar of Michigan in 1943, he was president of the Wolverine Insurance Company for a time