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Arabinose is an aldopentose – a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, including an aldehyde functional group. For biosynthetic reasons, most saccharides are always more abundant in nature as the "D"-form, or structurally analogous to D-glyceraldehyde. However, L-arabinose is in fact more common than D-arabinose in nature and is found in nature as a component of biopolymers such as hemicellulose and pectin; the L-arabinose operon known as the araBAD operon, has been the subject of much biomolecular research. The operon directs the catabolism of arabinose in E. coli, it is dynamically activated in the presence of arabinose and the absence of glucose. A classic method for the organic synthesis of arabinose from glucose is the Wohl degradation. Arabinose gets its name from gum arabic. In synthetic biology, arabinose is used as a one-way or reversible switch for protein expression under the Pbad promoter in E. coli. This on-switch can be negated by the presence of glucose or reversed off by the addition of glucose in the culture medium, a form of catabolite repression.

Some organic acid tests check for the presence of arabinose, which may indicate overgrowth of intestinal yeast such as Candida albicans or other yeast/fungus species. Commercialized as a sweetener, arabinose is an inhibitor of sucrase, the enzyme that breaks down sucrose into glucose and fructose in the small intestine; this inhibitory effect has been validated both in humans. Therefore, arabinose could be used in foods to attenuate the peak of glycemic response after the consumption of sucrose; the long-term effects of arabinose consumption on blood glucose parameters such as HbA1c and fasting blood glucose levels are unknown. Foods that contain arabinose are designed for prediabetic and diabetic patients; these foods are popular in Japan and China, where arabinose is used as a food additive. Arabinose is a potential prebiotic, because it cannot be absorbed by human intestine and could be utilized by probiotics such as bifidobacteria; this claim requires further validation. Arabinosyl nucleosides

Key Sounds Label discography

Key Sounds Label is a Japanese independent record label based in Osaka, that specializes in trance music. The label formed in 2001 as a brand of the publishing company VisualArt's and was established to catalog and release music related to visual novels produced by the brand Key under VisualArt's; when Key Sounds Label formed, Jun Maeda, Shinji Orito, Magome Togoshi were Key's signature composers and have continued to produce the majority of the music on the label, though Togoshi resigned in October 2006 and is no longer affiliated with Key or VisualArt's. Key and VisualArt's released one single and two remix albums between 1999 and 2000, leading to the formation of Key Sounds Label the following year; the first official releases on the label were Work-S' debut studio album Humanity... and Lia's debut single "Natsukage / Nostalgia" at the convention Comiket 60 in 2001. The first release to chart on Japan's Oricon charts was the Clannad Original Soundtrack released in 2004. Between 2006 and 2008, eight more releases—five singles and three albums—also charted on Oricon.

The six singles and two albums released for the anime series Angel Beats! Charted on Oricon in 2010. Key Sounds Label's roster features Japanese bands and singers, several of which originated from the I've Sound techno/trance music production group under VisualArt's, such as Ayana, Lia and Eiko Shimamiya. Other artists including Annabel, Eufonius, Karuta, LiSA, Runa Mizutani, Psychic Lover, Harumi Sakurai, Haruka Shimotsuki, Keiko Suzuki, Miyako Suzuta, Aoi Tada, Tomoe Tamiyasu, Nagi Yanagi have released records through the label. Key Sounds Label catalogs their releases on three indexes: KSLA/KSLM, KSLC and KSLV; the albums on KSLA/KSLM and KSLC are released on CD format, while video albums on KSLV are released on DVD and Blu-ray Disc. "—" denotes unassigned catalog numbers or releases not applicable to music artists. A This album was limited to 500 copies. B This album was limited to 500 copies. General Specific Key Sounds Label's official website

Larry Emdur

Larry Emdur is an Australian television personality. Emdur is co-host of The Morning Show alongside Kylie Gillies; the duo hosted the Australian version of Celebrity Splash!. He hosted the Australian version of game show The Price Is Right from 1993 to 1998 and 2003 to 2005 on the Nine Network and again when the show returned to the Seven Network on 7 May 2012; the show was cancelled that year. He is known to Australian audiences for his hosting duties on several other game shows, including Cash Bonanza, Wheel of Fortune. Emdur hosted Hey Hey it's Saturday five times, once in 1994, twice in 1998, twice, back to back, in 1999, substituted as host of It Takes Two once in 2006 and again in 2007, he has hosted Celebrity Dog School on Network Ten. Growing up near the beach in Bondi, New South Wales, Emdur developed a keen interest in surfing from an early age. Dropping out of school at age 15, Emdur began his career as a copyboy at The Sydney Morning Herald, before moving into television, where at age 17 he became Australia's youngest national newsreader, presenting the overnight news for Seven Network in Australia.

After some time in news and current affairs as a reporter and newsreader, presenter on Good Morning Australia, Emdur switched to hosting game shows and variety television. Emdur is known as the host of The Price Is Right on the Nine Network, which he hosted from 1993 to 1998, before its cancellation, it was revived on 23 June 2003 and ran until 24 November 2005 due to poor ratings and high costs of production. To commemorate the United States version's 40th season in 2011–12, on a July 2011 trip to the United States, Emdur called down a contestant and served as a guest host for Cliff Hangers, under recommendation of host Drew Carey. Emdur modeled a trip to Australia in one of the two Showcases that are presented on the United States version. Emdur was one of numerous hosts who have hosted the format to appear as part of the 40th anniversary celebration. Emdur filled in for Daryl Somers on the family show. After being "rested" by the Nine Network following the cancellation of The Price Is Right, Emdur became host of the Seven Network's Wheel of Fortune.

His contract with Seven was signed mere hours. While in the first few weeks of his run with Seven's Wheel in the 5:00 pm weekday timeslot, Emdur continued to appear on Nine in re-runs of The Price Is Right, until Bert's Family Feud took over the 5:30 pm timeslot on Nine in mid-February 2006. On 19 June 2006, news emerged of Wheel of Fortune's cancellation at the end of the 2006 season. Channel 10's Rove Live started a campaign to "Save Larry Emdur", although Seven soon put an end to Rove's jokes by issuing a statement that Emdur would be staying with the Seven Network. Emdur has been a fill-in host for It Takes Two and has filled in for Andrew O'Keefe on Weekend Sunrise and David Koch on Sunrise. Emdur signed up with Network Ten in 2007, he had joined up to host a new show Celebrity Dog School. Emdur is co-hosting The Morning Show with Kylie Gillies, a morning talk show airing on the Seven Network; the show began in mid-2007. Emdur was invited to participate in the 2009 Sydney to Hobart by finance commentator Anthony Bell.

Upon reaching Hobart, Emdur said on The Morning Show. However, in 2010 Emdur signed on to participate in the Sydney to Hobart again, his crew on the yacht'Investec LOYAL' finished second. On 4 February 2011, Emdur renewed his contract with the Seven Network worth in excess of $800,000 a year; this contract stopped him from defecting to the Nine Network to co-host Today. The contract allows him to stay on as co-host of The Morning Show and'other opportunities'. In February 2010, Seven announced that Emdur would co-host Weekend Sunrise on Saturday mornings alongside Samantha Armytage, he held this position until the end of 2010. Emdur is currently a regular fill in co-host for David Koch on Sunrise, Basil Zempilas on Weekend Sunrise and Ryan Phelan on The Daily Edition if they are away on holidays, sick or on assignment. In September 2013, Emdur produced and hosted a pilot for a late night talk show titled Larry on Late in Sydney, which featured guests Guy Sebastian, Samantha Armytage and Manon Youdale.

Seven Network passed on the show after viewing the pilot. In December 2013, Emdur was a crew member aboard racing supermaxi yacht Perpetual Loyal in the 2013 Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race, with his other celebrity crew members, Karl Stefanovic, Guillaume Brahimi, Tom Slingsby, Phil Waugh and Jude Bolton. In 2014, Emdur and co-host of The Morning Show, Kylie Gillies, whose studio is across from the Sydney Lindt Cafe, were able to view and report on the events of the Martin Place siege, as it unfolded, before transmission handed over to the Seven Network Melbourne studios. Emdur appeared in the fifteenth season of Dancing with the Stars. Emdur married his wife Sylvie in 1995, they have two children together. Larry Emdur on IMDb

Khari Wendell McClelland

Khari Wendell McClelland is an American musician and music historian living and working in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. He is a member of the gospel trio Soujourners, he is known for his multimedia show, Freedom Singer, which depicts his research into the music of slaves who travelled on the underground railway to Canada. McClelland grew up in Detroit, Michigan, he moved to Canada in about 2006. McCLelland joined the gospel trio Sojourners in 2011. In 2015 McClelland travelled around Canada with CBC's Jodie Martinson and studying traditional songs and gospel music brought to Canada by fugitive slaves; the trip was the subject of a one-hour documentary. McClelland released his debut solo album, Fleeting is the Time, in 2016. In 2017, with Martinson and director Andrew Kushnir, he developed a multimedia show, Freedom Singer, showing the results of his research and performing his own versions of songs that he had discovered; the show was performed across Canada in 2017 and 2018. In 2018 McClelland took over as MC of the Eastside Heart of the City Festival in Vancouver.

That year he performed as part of the Mad Dogs and Vancouverites concert in Vancouver, continued to perform with the Sojourners, including a concert with blues musician Jim Byrnes. Official website

Article Six of the United States Constitution

Article Six of the United States Constitution establishes the laws and treaties of the United States made in accordance with it as the supreme law of the land, forbids a religious test as a requirement for holding a governmental position, holds the United States under the Constitution responsible for debts incurred by the United States under the Articles of Confederation. All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation; this Constitution, the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof. The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, the Members of the several State Legislatures, all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; the first clause of the Article provides that debts contracted prior to the adoption of the Constitution remain valid, as they were under the Articles of Confederation.

Clause two provides that the Constitution, federal laws made pursuant to it, treaties made under its authority constitute the supreme law of the land. It provides. State constitutions are subordinate to federal law; the Supreme Court under John Marshall was influential in construing the supremacy clause. It first ruled that it had the power to review the decisions of state courts in conflict with the supreme law, claims of "state sovereignty" notwithstanding. In Martin v. Hunter's Lessee, the Supreme Court confronted the Chief Justice of Virginia, Spencer Roane, who had declared a Supreme Court decision unconstitutional and refused to permit the state courts to abide by it; the Court upheld the Judiciary Act, which permitted it to hear appeals from state courts, on the grounds that Congress had passed it under the supremacy clause. The Supreme Court has struck down attempts by states to control or direct the affairs of federal institutions. McCulloch v. Maryland was a significant case in this regard.

The state of Maryland had levied a tax on banks not chartered by the state. Marshall wrote that "the States have no power, by taxation or otherwise, to retard, burden, or in any manner control, the operations of the constitutional laws enacted by Congress to carry into execution the powers vested in the general government." United States property is wholly immune to state taxation, as are government activities and institutions. Congress may explicitly provide immunity from taxation in certain cases, for instance by immunizing a federal contractor. Federal employees, may not be immunized from taxes, as the tax would not in any way impede government activities. Gibbons v. Ogden was another influential case involving the supremacy clause; the state of New York had granted Aaron Ogden a monopoly over the steamboat business in the Hudson River. The other party, Thomas Gibbons, had obtained a federal permit under the Coastal Licensing Act to perform the same task; the Supreme Court upheld the federal permit.

John Marshall wrote, "The nullity of an act, inconsistent with the Constitution, is produced by the declaration, that the Constitution is the supreme law. The appropriate application of that part of the clause which confers the same supremacy on laws and treaties, is to such acts of the State legislatures as do not transcend their powers, but though enacted in the execution of acknowledged State powers, interfere with, or are contrary to the laws of Congress, made in pursuance of the Constitution, or some treaty made under the authority of the United States. In every such case, the act of Congress, or the treaty, is supreme. Reid v. Covert ruled that no branch of the United States Government can have powers conferred upon it by treaty that have not been conferred by the United States Constitution. Federal and state legislators, executive officers and judges are, by the third clause of the article, bound by oath or affirmation to support the Constitution. Congress may determine the form of such an oath.

In Ex parte Garland, the Supreme Court held that a test oath would violate the Constitution, so it invalidated the law requiring the following oath: I, A. B. do solemnly swear that I have never voluntarily borne arms against the United States since I have been a citizen thereof. The Supreme Court found that the law constituted an unconstitutional ex post facto law, for it retroactively punished the offenses mentioned in the oath by preventing those who committed them from taking office. Congress may not require religious tests for a

Emil Stang (jurist)

Emil Stang, Jr. was a Norwegian jurist and politician for the Norwegian Labour Party and for the Communist Party of Norway. He was the 13th Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Norway. Stang finished his secondary education in 1900, graduated as cand.jur. in 1905. He practised as a barrister in Kristiania from 1911, he joined the Norwegian Labour Party in 1911, was elected vice chairman from 1918. He was a delegate to the Founding Congress of Comintern in Moscow in 1919. After the death of Kyrre Grepp he was acting leader of the Norwegian Labour Party, from 1922 to 1923, he participated in the formation of the Communist Party of Norway in 1923, where he became a member of the Central Committee. He left the Communist Party in 1928, he was a member of the Kristiania City Council from 1917 to 1928. He was a substitute to the Parliament of Norway from 1922 to 1924, he was a member of a number of committees on law reforms. From 1928 Stang concentrated on his juridical career, he was appointed Supreme Court judge from 1937.

During the occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany he was arrested and held at the prison Møllergata 19 in Oslo and at the Sachsenhausen concentration camp in Germany. He was Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Norway from 1946 to 1952. Stang was born in Kristiania as the son of Prime Minister and chairman of the Conservative Party, Emil Stang, his wife Adelaide Pauline Berg, he was married to Fredrikke Elise Nicoline Bøckman Otto from 1907 to 1920, to Sigrid Friis from 1925. He was a grandson of Prime Minister Frederik Stang, brother of politician Fredrik Stang and uncle of Christian Schweigaard Stang. Further out in the family, he was a third cousin of Ole A. Stang, Jørgen Breder Stang and Olaf Stang