Arachnophobia is an intense and unreasonable fear of spiders and other arachnids such as scorpions. Treatment is by exposure therapy, where the person is presented with pictures of spiders or the spiders themselves. People with arachnophobia tend to feel uneasy in any area they believe could harbor spiders or that has visible signs of their presence, such as webs. If arachnophobes see a spider, they may not enter the general vicinity until they have overcome the panic attack, associated with their phobia; some people run away, cry, have emotional outbursts, experience trouble breathing, have increased heart rates, or faint when they come in contact with an area near spiders or their webs. In some extreme cases a picture or a realistic drawing of a spider can trigger intense fear. Arachnophobia may be an exaggerated form of an instinctive response that helped early humans to survive, or a cultural phenomenon, most common in predominantly European societies. An evolutionary reason for the phobia remains unresolved.
One view held in evolutionary psychology, is that the presence of venomous spiders led to the evolution of a fear of spiders, or made acquisition of a fear of spiders easy. Like all traits, there is variability in the intensity of fear of spiders, those with more intense fears are classified as phobic. Being small, spiders do not fit the usual criterion for a threat in the animal kingdom where size is a factor, but they can have medically significant venom. However, a phobia is an irrational fear as opposed to a rational fear. By ensuring that their surroundings were free from spiders, arachnophobes would have had a reduced risk of being bitten in ancestral environments, giving them a slight advantage over non-arachnophobes in terms of survival. However, having a disproportionate fear of spiders in comparison to other dangerous creatures present during Homo sapiens' environment of evolutionary adaptiveness may have had drawbacks. A 2001 study found that people could detect images of spiders among images of flowers and mushrooms more than they could detect images of flowers or mushrooms among images of spiders.
The researchers suggested that this was because fast response to spiders was more relevant to human evolution. The alternative view is that the dangers, such as from spiders, are overrated and not sufficient to influence evolution. Instead, inheriting phobias would have restrictive and debilitating effects upon survival, rather than being an aid. For some communities such as in Papua New Guinea and Cambodia spiders are included in traditional foods; this suggests. The fear of spiders can be treated by any of the general techniques suggested for specific phobias; the first line of treatment is systematic desensitization – known as exposure therapy. Before engaging in systematic desensitization, it is common to train the individual with arachnophobia in relaxation techniques, which will help keep the patient calm. Systematic desensitization can be done in vivo or by getting the individual to imagine situations involving spiders modelling interaction with spiders for the person affected and interacting with real spiders.
This technique can be effective in just one session, although it takes more time. Recent advances in technology have enabled the use of virtual or augmented reality spiders for use in therapy; these techniques have proven to be effective. It has been suggested that exposure to short clips from the Spider-Man movies may help to reduce an individual's arachnophobia. Arachnophobia affects 3.5 to 6.1 percent of the global population. Arachnophobia Apiphobia Entomophobia Myrmecophobia Zoophobia Stiemerling, D.. "Analysis of a spider and monster phobia". Z Psychosom Med Psychoanal. 19: 327–45. PMID 4129447. National Geographic: "Fear of Snakes, Spiders Rooted in Evolution, Study Finds"
The twenty-first season of the American animated sitcom South Park premiered on Comedy Central on September 13, 2017, contains ten episodes. This season had planned "dark weeks" after episode three, episode six, episode eight; the season lampooned many events and cultural institutions such as the Trump administration, the Unite the Right rally in Charlottesville, the MCU, themes of self-victimization. The season received mixed to positive reviews, with many reviewers praising the shows ability to remain relevant and choice of abandoning the linear narrative that dominated much of the previous season, despite many of the previous story elements being carried over into this season such as Cartman's relationship with Heidi; the seasons ratings declined overall in comparison to the previous season. The second episode "Put It Down" received an Emmy nomination. Comedy Central announced on August 22 that the network would be running a marathon of South Park consisting of 254 episodes, all airing over eight days, in a similar vein to The Simpsons 600 episode marathon that aired over 13 days of the previous year.
The marathon drew more than 10 million unique viewers to the network. Online across Instagram and Twitter over 7 million video views were generated as well as 500,000 engagements; the stunt helped increase the ratings of other Comedy Central programs as well such as Broad City, which premiered directly after South Park. Jesse Schedeen with IGN rated the entire season an 8.2 out of 10, praising the creators Trey Parker and Matt Stone for shifting away from continuity-heavy storylines and commentary on current events and returning to its roots in absurdity-based situational humor. Schedeen commented, "It's not that this season ignored what was going on in the world this year, but it wasn't quite so obsessed with lampooning current events from week to week; that shift, more than anything else, resulted in a stronger, more well-rounded show." This season was released in its entirety on DVD and Blu-ray on June 5, 2018
Badminton competitions at the 2015 Pan American Games in Toronto were held from July 11 to 16 at the Markham Pan Am Centre in Markham. Due to naming rights the arena was known as the latter for the duration of the games. A total of five badminton events will be held: two each for men and women, along with a mixed doubles event; the competitions took at the Atos Markham Pan Am Centre located in the city of Markham, about 31 kilometers from the athletes village. The arena had a capacity of 2,000 people per session; the venue hosted table tennis competitions during the games. The venue hosted the water polo in the other side of the centre; the following was the competition schedule for the badminton competitions: * Host nation A total of 18 countries qualified athletes. The number of athletes a nation entered is in parentheses beside the name of the country. A maximum total of 88 athletes qualified to compete at the games. A nation may enter a maximum of four athletes per gender; as host nation, Canada automatically qualified a full team of eights athletes.
All other athletes qualified through the team world rankings as of February 26, 2015. Badminton Canada mistakenly entered three time defending Pan American Championships gold medalists Adrian Liu and Derrick Ng in overlapping events, a World Badminton Federation rule violation. Badminton Canada launched an appeal, however it was unsuccessful. Therefore, both athletes had to be withdrawn from the games. Badminton at the 2016 Summer Olympics
The Irish Baptist College is a college, a department of the Association of Baptist Churches in Ireland. It is part of the Baptist Theological Centre, located in the Baptist Centre and is shared with ABC. IBC is accredited and reached Premier College Status by the Accreditation Service for International Colleges. IBC began on 4 October 1892 in Dublin, now Republic of Ireland. In 1964 the college moved to a new campus in Belfast in Northern Ireland. On 10 May 2003 the college moved into the purpose built Baptist Theological Centre in the Baptist Centre located outside Lisburn in Moira in County Antrim. While existing to serve the needs of the Association of Baptist Churches in Ireland churches and missions department, IBC welcomes candidates from all kinds of Christian backgrounds, the suitability of its courses for the equipping of men and women for the whole spectrum of Christian service is recognised widely. Students from other denominations include those from Anglican churches of an evangelical persuasion, Congregational Union of Ireland, Elim Pentecostal Church, Evangelical Presbyterian Church churches, Pentecostal churches and Reformed Presbyterian churches.
IBC is committed to the absolute authority of Scripture and to the outworking of all matters of faith and practice within a purely evangelical framework. IBC is part of the Baptist Theological Centre, located in the Baptist Centre and is shared with ABC; the campus is in a rural area near to the M1 motorway and within the boundaries of the City of Lisburn. IBC is a campus university; the Principal of the college is Edwin Ewart. Pastor Edwin Ewart became College Principal of IBC in 2010. After being a staff lecturer from April 2007, it was in May 2009, that Pastor Ewart was appointed Principal Designate of the Irish Baptist College, to take up the position of Principal of the Irish Baptist College in 2010. Pastor Ewart is a Tutor in Pastoral Theology and Biblical Theology. Davy Ellison took up the post of Director of Training in 2019. Prior to lecturing at IBC he was interim co-ordinator for Baptist Youth and assistant pastor at Antrim Baptist church, he lectures in Biblical studies in both the OT and NT.
Dr. Peter Firth took up the post of Biblical Studies Tutor in 2010. Prior to lecturing at IBC Peter pastored Newcastle Baptist Church. Dr. Sarah Darymple took up the post of Biblical Studies Tutor in 2014. A former editor of the Baptist Magazine, Sarah worked as a missionary in France and furthermore as part of a church plant in Scotland. Dr. David Luke was employed by the college on a full-time basis in 2013, he is the Postgraduate Director of the Historical Theology Tutor. David specialises in Apologetics, a module available to third year students at IBC. Prior to lecturing at IBC David was pastor of Gilnahirk Baptist Church. Alan Baird became a staff lecturer in September 2007. Baird is the Ministry Studies Tutor. Victoria Hylands is the Administrative and Library Assistant at IBC. Victoria worked as a mathematics teacher before joining IBC in 2012. Victoria is involved in Child Evangelism Fellowship where her husband Colin works in the Youth Challenge department. Valerie Hamilton became registrar and a staff lecturer October 2006.
Ken Scott became a staff lecturer in 2007. Scott is the Postgraduate Tutor. Matthew Campbell is the current Youth Ministry lecturer, a role he fulfils alongside working as the Baptist Youth Director. IBC offers degrees accredited by the University of Chester, University of Wales, IBC awards. Football and table tennis are both played at IBC; the current IBC table tennis champion is Elder Cooper, following his victory in the 2019 final against Deacon Lock Key. Association of Baptist Churches in Ireland Irish Baptist College Library Baptist Centre Queen's University Belfast University of Chester University of Wales, Lampeter Irish Baptist College Association of Baptist Churches in Ireland Queen's University Belfast University of Chester University of Wales, Lampeter
David Jamison was a Scottish-American lawyer and provincial official in the Province of New York and New Jersey. Jamison was born in Linlithgow, Scotland in 1660, attended college there. Little is known about early life, he was a member of the religious organization known as the "Sweet Singers", which defied Anglican orthodoxy and the restored Stuart monarchy. Jamison was arrested for burning a bible tried and sentenced to be hanged, however, on August 7, 1685, the King's Privy Council ordered the sentence commuted to exile. Jamison was required to serve an indenture of four years in America to cover the cost of his transportation, he was bound to George Lockhart who assigned him to Rev. Clarke, the chaplain of Fort James, under the control of Thomas Dongan, 2nd Earl of Limerick, the royal governor of New York. Due to Jamison's education, the citizens arranged to purchase his time and set him up to teach a Latin school in the City. In April 15, 1691, Jamison was appointed Deputy Secretary and Clerk of the Council and began his legal studies.
He served as Clerk of the Court and was part of the group, along with Nicholas Bayard, that tried Jacob Leisler. In April 1698, when the Earl of Bellomont arrived in New York as Governor, Jamison was dismissed as Clerk. By October 6, 1698, Jamison was admitted to the New York bar and was an active member of the New York Bar Association. A favorite of Gov. Robert Hunter, Jamison was appointed Chief Justice of New Jersey in 1711; as Chief Justice, he gave "an opinion on the application of the Acts of Trade to the Commerce between New York and New Jersey." While serving as Chief Justice, he replaced May Bickley to become acting Attorney General of New York on June 10, 1712. Bickley, removed from office following the prosecutions in the New York Slave Revolt of 1712, held the office of Attorney General pending the return of John Rayner, as did Jamison. Rayner died before returning to the Province, thereafter Jamison formally received his commission on January 22, 1720. During this time, Jamison was a member of the Governor's Council and served as Recorder of New York City.
Jamison was removed from his post as Chief Justice upon the request of the New Jersey General Assembly by Gov. William Burnet of a resident Chief Justice. In 1721, he returned to private practice after James Alexander was appointed Attorney General of the Province. Jamison served as counsel in many of the most important cases before the courts, "was noted for his bravery and character in defending those prosecuted on religious grounds." On June 25, 1696, along with William Nicholls, John Harrison and others, he obtained a patent for an extensive tract of land, including present day Harrison in Westchester County, New York. On May 27, 1697, as one of nine partners in a land grant in Dutchess County in New York by Governor Benjamin Fletcher known as the Great Nine Partners Patent; the parcel included about four miles along the Hudson River and was eight to ten miles wide, extending from the Hudson River to the Connecticut border. On October 14, 1697, he was one of seven patentees of 1,200 acres of land in Deerpark in Orange County, New York.
On May 7, 1692, he was married to Maria Hardenbrook. Maria was a relative of Margaret Hardenbroeck, the wife of Frederick Philipse, 1st Lord of Philipsburg Manor. Together, they were the parents of: David Jamison. Elizabeth Jamison, who in 1717 married John Johnston Jr. a son of Dr. John Johnstone and brother of Andrew Johnston, his maternal grandfather was George Scot of Pitlochie. After her death, he married Johanna Meech on January 16, 1703. After renouncing the Sweet Singers, he joined the Church of England and, once in America, he served as vestryman and warden of Trinity Church in lower Manhattan. Jamison died in New York on July 25, 1739, his step daughter-in-law was Mary Campbell, whom he left £400 and all his furniture and household stuff. Through his daughter Elizabeth, he was a grandfather of prominent merchant David Johnston, who served in the New York General Assembly. David was married to Magdalen Walton, a granddaughter of Dr. Gerardus Beekman, acting Governor of the Province of New York.
Jamison, David A journal of what passed in the expedition of His Excellency Col. Benjamin Fletcher, captain general and governour in chief of the province of New-York, &c. to Albany, to renew the covenant chain with the five canton nations of Indians, the Mohaques, Onondages, C...es and Sinnekes. New York: Printed by William Bradford. David Jamison at the Historical Society of the New York Courts
Cape Jourimain is an area comprising two islands and a section of mainland along the southwestern shore of the Northumberland Strait, three kilometres west of New Brunswick's easternmost point at Cape Tormentine. The two islands and Trenholm, have been connected to the mainland since 1966 by an artificial causeway. Cape Jourimain is the historic crossing point from New Brunswick to Prince Edward Island and is host to the western end of the Confederation Bridge, Canada's longest fixed-link crossing. In 1980, the two islands, including a section of mainland, were designated as a National Wildlife Area and in 2001 the Cape Jourimain Nature Centre, operated by a charitable nonprofit organization, was opened to the public; the Cape Jourimain area has been visited in some capacity, for at least 4,000 years. Evidence suggests that the Mi'kmaq hunted walrus, a variety of other species along the coast and that they used sea canoes to cross the Northumberland Strait from Cape Jourimain to PEI. Archaeological evidence suggests that the area was not settled by native peoples, but was instead used as a shared space due to its importance as a place of crossing.
Jacques Cartier landed on PEI in 1534. Cape Tormentin, the original name for the greater Jourimain area, was first used by Nicolas Denys, a French merchant, in 1672, who learned about the area from Mi'kmaq fishermen. In the 1830s, the name Cape Tormentine was shifted to another community further down the coast and the area became known as the Jourimain Islands, theorized to be a misspelling of germain, a French word for "sibling". After the British defeated the French in the mid-1700s, settlers from New England began re-establishing the areas of Sackville and Amherst moving out towards Bayfield and the Jourimain Islands around the beginning of the 19th century. During this time, the natural ecosystems of the Jourimain Islands were subject to rapid change due to the introduction of intensive farming and agriculture. In 1827, the first winter crossing from Cape Traverse to Cape Jourimain took place; this route proved easier than the previous Wood Islands to Pictou route, a deal was struck with Cape Traverse to have the permanent mail and passenger service run between the capes.
Special boats with runners were designed for crossing sections of board ice and the journey become famous for its harrowing conditions. In the 1880s, the iceboat service was relocated to Cape Tormentine and in 1917, the service was discontinued due to advances in the ice-breaking capabilities of ferries. In 1811, Eliphalet and Hannah Allen, two of the first settlers after British occupation, built their home on Jourimain Island. In 1827, they opened the Allen Hotel to serve the crew and passengers of the iceboats, in years, provided room-and-board to workers of the lobster cannery, which opened on Jourimain Island in the late 1800s; the cannery, located between what is now Gunning Point and the Confederation Bridge, was operated by the Portland Packing Company and was staffed by young Acadian women. Throughout the 1870s and early 1880s, as a result of the iceboat service, the Allen Hotel, a thriving lobster industry, Cape Jourimain reached its economic peak. However, by the 1890s, with the completion of a rail line to Cape Tormentine, as well as a new pier, constructed in 1886, economic activity began to decline.
In 1905, due to a decrease in lobster catches and competition from other canneries, the Cape Jourimain lobster cannery closed. In 1870, after nearly 30 years of petitions, a 15.5-m lighthouse was constructed at Cape Jourimain to help sailors navigate the narrow Strait. Lewis Wells looked after the lighthouse over the first winter, which remained non-operational until a temporary lighting apparatus was installed in April 1871. On May 15, John Bent was appointed as the first permanent lighthouse keeper, beginning a dynasty of lighthouse keepers spanning four generations. In 1958, the light was automated, ending the service of the final lighthouse keeper, Merrill Trenholm; the lighthouse continued to operate for another 39 years before closing in 1997 when the Cape Tormentine ferry service was decommissioned as a result of the opening of the Confederation Bridge. In 2001, the Cape Jourimain Nature Centre entered into negotiations with the Government of Canada to acquire the structure, in 2015, ownership was transferred.
In 2016, the lighthouse was moved for the third time throughout its history in an effort to protect it from coastal erosion, in 2017, extensive renovations were completed in a bid to save the structure years of deterioration. In the 1960s, a causeway was developed between the Jourimain Islands in an aborted attempt to build a fixed-link to PEI, cutting the saltwater marshes in half; this resulted in the establishment of a brackish marsh, which created valuable habitat for migrating ducks and other coastal wildlife. In 1977, a proposal was brought to the Federal Government to have Cape Jourimain declared a National Wildlife Area, in 1979, it was established; the 621-ha National Wildlife Area, managed by the Canadian Wildlife Service, encompasses Jourimain Island, Trenholm Island, Oak Island, part of the mainland. The primary purpose for designating the area was to protect migrating birds, species at risk, other wildlife and the ecosystems that they rely upon. Periodic discussions regarding the installation of a fixed-link to connect PEI to the mainland had been ongoing since the late 1800s.
Early proposals looked at developing a railway tunnel under the Strait, but this idea was abandoned due to concerns over engineering and cos