Ouzo is a dry anise-flavoured aperitif, consumed in Greece, Cyprus and Israel. Its taste is similar to other anise liquors like rakı, pastis and sambuca. Ouzo has its roots in tsipouro, said to have been the work of a group of 14th-century monks on Mount Athos. One version of it was flavoured with anise; this version came to be called ouzo. Modern ouzo distillation took off in the beginning of the 19th century following Greek independence; the first ouzo distillery was founded in Tyrnavos in 1856 by Nikolaos Katsaros, giving birth to the famous ouzo Tyrnavou. When absinthe fell into disfavour in the early 20th century, ouzo was one of the products whose popularity rose to fill the gap. In 1932, ouzo producers developed a method of distillation using copper stills, now the standard method of production. One of the largest producers of ouzo today is Varvayanis, located in the town of Plomari in the southeast portion of the island of Lesbos, while in the same town Pitsiladi, a variety of high-quality ouzo, is distilled.
Ouzo is mixed with water, becoming cloudy white, sometimes with a faint blue tinge, served with ice cubes in a small glass. Ouzo can be drunk straight from a shot glass. Ouzo is served with a small plate of a variety of appetizers called mezes small fresh fish, fries and feta cheese. Ouzo can be described to have a similar taste to absinthe, liquorice-like, but smoother. On October 25, 2006, Greece won the right to label ouzo as an Greek product; the European Union now recognizes ouzo, as well as the Greek drinks tsipouro and tsikoudia, as products with a Protected Designation of Origin, which prohibits European makers other than Greece and Cyprus from using the name. There is an ouzo museum in Lesvos; the origin of the name "ouzo" is disputed. A popular derivation is from the Italian "uso Massalia"—for use in Marseille—stamped on selected silkworm cocoons exported from Tyrnavos in the 19th century. According to anecdote, this designation came to stand for "superior quality", which the spirit distilled as ouzo was thought to possess.
During a visit to Thessaly in 1896, the late professor Alexander Philadelpheus delivered to us valuable information on the origins of the word "ouzo", which has come to replace the word "tsipouro". According to the professor, tsipouro became ouzo after the following event: Thessaly exported fine cocoons to Marseilles during the 19th century, in order to distinguish the product, outgoing crates would be stamped with the words "uso Massalia"—Italian for "to be used in Marseille". One day, the Ottoman Greek consulate physician, named Anastas Bey, happened to be visiting the town of Tyrnavos and was asked to sample the local tsipouro. Upon tasting the drink, the physician exclaimed: "This is uso Massalia, my friends"—referring to its high quality; the term subsequently spread by word of mouth, until tsipouro became known as ouzo. —The Times of Thessaly, 1959 However, the major Greek dictionaries derive it from the Turkish word üzüm'grape'. Ouzo production begins with distillation in copper stills of 96% alcohol by volume rectified spirit.
Anise is added, sometimes with other flavorings such as star anise, mastic, coriander and cinnamon. The flavoring ingredients are closely guarded company "recipes", distinguish one ouzo from another; the result is a flavored alcoholic solution known as flavored ethyl alcohol, or more as ouzo yeast—μαγιά ούζου in Greek—the term for "yeast" being used by Greeks metaphorically to denote that it serves as the starting point for ouzo production. The ouzo yeast is distilled. After several hours of distillation, a flavored distillate of 80% ABV is produced; the spirit at the beginning of the distillation and end is removed to avoid light and heavy alcohols and aromatics. The heads and tails are mixed and distilled again; the product of this second distillation can be used to produce a different quality ouzo. This technique of double-distillation is used by some distillers to differentiate their products. Makers of high-quality "100% from distillation" ouzo proceed at this stage with water dilution, bringing the ouzo to its final ABV.
But most producers combine the "ouzo yeast" with less expensive ethyl alcohol flavored with 0.05 percent natural anethole, before water dilution. Greek law dictates that in this case the ouzo yeast cannot be less than 20 percent of the final product. Sugar may be added before water dilution, done with ouzo from Southern Greece; the final ABV is between 37.5 and 50 percent. Ouzo production itself does not include fermentation. In modern Greece, ouzeries can be found in nearly all cities and villages; these café-like establishments serve ouzo with mezedes—appetizers such as octopus, sardines, fried zucchini, clams, among others. It is traditionally sipped together with mezedes shared with others over a period of several hours in the early evening. In other countries it is tradition to have ouzo in authentic Greek restaurants as an aperitif, served in a shot glass and chilled before the meal is started. No water or ice is added but the drink is served cold, enough to make some crystals form in the drink as it is served.
Ouzo can colloquially be referred to as a strong drink, the cause of this being its sugar content. Sugar delays ethanol absorption in the stomac
Pomace, or marc, is the solid remains of grapes, olives, or other fruit after pressing for juice or oil. It contains the skins, pulp and stems of the fruit. Grape pomace has traditionally been used to produce pomace brandy. Today, it is used as fodder, as fertilizer, or to extract bioactive compounds like polyphenols from it. "Pomace" is derived from the Latin "pomum". The English were the first to use the term "pomace" to refer to the byproduct of cider production. In the Middle Ages, pomace wine with a low alcohol content of three or four percent was available; this wine was made by adding water to pomace and fermenting it. Medieval wines were not fermented to dryness; the ancient Greeks and Romans used pomace to create a wine that became known as piquette in France and Graspia or Vin Piccolo in Veneto. This was an inferior wine given to slaves and common workers. After the wine grapes had been pressed twice, the pomace was soaked in water for a day and pressed for a third time; the resulting liquid was mixed with more water to produce a thin and thirst-quenching wine.
Apple pomace is used to produce pectin and can be used to make ciderkin, a weak cider, as well as white cider, a strong and colourless alcoholic drink. Grape pomace is used to produce pomace piquette. Most wine-producing cultures began making some type of pomace brandy after the principles of distillation were understood. Pomace in winemaking differs, depending upon whether red wine is being produced. In red wine production, pomace is produced after the free run juice is poured off, leaving behind dark blackish-red debris consisting of grape skins and stems; the color of red wine is derived from skin contact during the maceration period, which sometimes includes partial fermentation. The resulting pomace is more tannic than pomace produced from white wine production. Pomace from the Italian wine Amarone is macerated in Valpolicella wine to produce Ripasso. In white wine production, grapes are pressed after crushing to avoid skin contact with pomace as a byproduct of the pressing; the resulting debris is a pale, greenish-brown color and contains more residual sugars than it contains tannins and alcohol.
This is the pomace used in brandy production. Pomace is produced in large quantities in wine production, with disposal an important environmental consideration; some wineries use the material as fertilizer, while others are selling it to biogas companies for renewable energy. As envisioned, pomace would be introduced into anaerobic digesters that contain microorganisms that aid in its decomposition and produce methane gas that could be combusted to generate power. Specific polyphenols in red wine pomace may be beneficial for dental hygiene. A study conducted at the Eastman Dental Center found that these polyphenols interfere with Streptococcus mutans, the bacterium in the mouth that causes tooth decay. Professor Hyun Koo, the lead researcher of the study, hoped as of 2008 to isolate these polyphenols to produce new mouthwashes that will help protect against cavities. Grape pomace is used in the oil and gas industry as a lost circulation material in oil-based drilling muds due to the pomace being fibrous and tannin-rich.
A 2004 study conducted by Erciyes University in Turkey found that pomace can act as a natural food preservative that interferes with E. coli and Staphylococcus bacteria. Researchers pulverised the dried pomace from the white Turkish wine grape Emir Karasi and red Kalecik Karasi grapes. All 14 bacteria were inhibited to some degree by the pomace — depending on the grape variety and the concentration of the extract; the red wine Kalecik Karasi grape was the most effective. Oenocyanin, a natural red dye and food-coloring agent, is produced from grape pomace. Tartrates and grape polyphenols can be manufactured from grape pomace. Apple pomace has been a traditional feed for all kinds of livestock for a long time; the use of grape pomace as livestock feed is encouraged in order to reduce the release of grape processing residues in the environment, which can lead to serious pollution. Apple pomace was used, in conjunction with whey, to flavor the first iteration of Fanta soft drink in Germany during World War Two.
This was done because wartime embargoes limited Coca-Cola of Germany's ability to import and manufacture the American beverage. Grape pomace made artificial leather started being produced. According to the Canadian Food and Drug Regulations, pomace can be a potable alcoholic distillate or a mixture of potable alcoholic distillates obtained by distilled skin and pulp of sound ripe fruit after removes the fruit juice, wine or fruit wine. Pomace may contain caramel, botanical substances and flavoring preparations. Pomace may be described on its label as " Pomace" or " Marc" if all of the skin and pulp of the fruit used to make the pomace originate from the particular fruit. Acqua pazza Olive mill pomace Olive pomace oil Piquette Crowe, Alison. "The Pomace Predicament". WineMaker. Archived from the original on 2010-01-25. Hang, Y. D.. E.. "Grape pomace: A novel substrate for microbial production of citric acid". Biotechnology Letters. 7: 253–254. Doi:10.1007/BF0
Mentha is a genus of plants in the family Lamiaceae. It is estimated that 13 to 18 species exist, the exact distinction between species is still unclear. Hybridization between some of the species occurs naturally. Many other hybrids, as well as numerous cultivars, are known; the genus has a subcosmopolitan distribution across Europe, Asia and North America. Mints are aromatic exclusively perennial herbs, they have wide-spreading underground and overground stolons and erect, branched stems. The leaves are arranged in opposite pairs, from oblong to lanceolate downy, with a serrated margin. Leaf colors range from dark green and gray-green to purple and sometimes pale yellow; the flowers are white to purple and produced in false whorls called verticillasters. The corolla is two-lipped with four subequal lobes, the upper lobe the largest; the fruit is a nutlet. While the species that makes up the genus Mentha is distributed and can be found in many environments, most grow best in wet environments and moist soils.
Mints can spread over an indeterminate area. Due to their tendency to spread unchecked, some mints are considered invasive; the list below includes all of the taxa recognized as species in recent works on Mentha. No author has recognized all of them; as with all biological classifications of plants, this list can go out of date at a moment's notice. Common names are given for species that have them. Synonyms, along with varieties, are given in articles on the species. Mentha is a member of the tribe Mentheae in the subfamily Nepetoideae; the tribe contains about 65 genera, relationships within it remain obscure. Authors have disagreed on the circumscription of Mentha; some authors have excluded M. cervina from the genus. M. cunninghamii has been excluded by some authors in some recent treatments of the genus. In 2004, a molecular phylogenetic study indicated both of these species should be included in Mentha; the mint genus has a large grouping of recognized hybrids. Synonyms, along with cultivars and varieties where available, are included within the specific species.
All mints thrive near pools of water, lakes and cool moist spots in partial shade. In general, mints tolerate a wide range of conditions, can be grown in full sun. Mint grows all year round, they are fast-growing. Due to their speedy growth, one plant of each desired mint, along with a little care, will provide more than enough mint for home use; some mint species are more invasive than others. With the less invasive mints, care should be taken when mixing any mint with any other plants, lest the mint take over. To control mints in an open environment, they should be planted in deep, bottomless containers sunk in the ground, or planted above ground in tubs and barrels; some mints can be propagated by seed, but growth from seed can be an unreliable method for raising mint for two reasons: mint seeds are variable — one might not end up with what one supposed was planted — and some mint varieties are sterile. It is more effective to plant cuttings from the runners of healthy mints; the most common and popular mints for commercial cultivation are peppermint, native spearmint, Scotch spearmint, cornmint.
Mints are supposed to make good companion plants, repelling pesty insects and attracting beneficial ones. They are susceptible to whitefly and aphids. Harvesting of mint leaves can be done at any time. Fresh leaves should be used or stored up to a few days in plastic bags in a refrigerator. Optionally, leaves can be frozen in ice cube trays. Dried mint leaves should be stored in an airtight container placed in a cool, dry area; the leaf, fresh or dried, is the culinary source of mint. Fresh mint is preferred over dried mint when storage of the mint is not a problem; the leaves have a warm, aromatic, sweet flavor with a cool aftertaste, are used in teas, jellies, syrups and ice creams. In Middle Eastern cuisine, mint is used on lamb dishes, while in British cuisine and American cuisine, mint sauce and mint jelly are used, respectively. Mint is a necessary ingredient in a popular tea in northern African and Arab countries. Tea in Arab countries is popularly drunk this way. Alcoholic drinks sometimes feature mint for flavor or garnish, such as the mint julep and the mojito.
Crème de menthe is a mint-flavored liqueur used in drinks such as the grasshopper. Mint essential oil and menthol are extensively used as flavorings in breath fresheners, antiseptic mouth rinses, chewing gum and candies, such as mint and mint chocolate; the substances that give the mints their characteristic aromas and flavors are pulegone. The compound responsible for the aroma and flavor of spearmint is L-carvone. Mints are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including buff ermine moths. Mint was used as a medicinal herb to treat stomach ache and chest pains. There are several uses in traditional medicine and preliminary research for possible use in treating irritable bowel syndrome. Menthol from mint essential oil is an ingredient of some perfumes. Menthol and mint essential oil are used in aromatherapy which may have clinical use to alleviate post-surgery nausea. Although it is used in many con
Phoenix dactylifera known as date or date palm, is a flowering plant species in the palm family, cultivated for its edible sweet fruit. Although its exact place of origin is uncertain because of long cultivation, it originated from the Fertile Crescent region straddling between Egypt and Mesopotamia; the species is cultivated across Northern Africa, the Middle East, The Horn of Africa and South Asia, is naturalized in many tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. P. dactylifera is the type species of genus Phoenix, which contains 12–19 species of wild date palms, is the major source of commercial production. Date trees reach about 21–23 metres in height, growing singly or forming a clump with several stems from a single root system. Date fruits are oval-cylindrical, 3–7 cm long, about an inch in diameter, ranging from bright red to bright yellow in color, depending on variety, they are sweet, containing about 75 percent of sugar when dried. Dates have been the Indus Valley for thousands of years.
There is archaeological evidence of date cultivation in Arabia from the 6th millennium BCE. The total annual world production of dates amounts to 8.5 million metric tons, countries of the Middle East and North Africa being the largest producers. The species name dactylifera "date-bearing" comes from the Greek words daktylos, which means "date", fero, which means "I bear"; the fruit is known as a date. The fruit's English name, as well as the Latin both come from the Greek word for "finger", dáktulos, because of the fruit's elongated shape. Fossil records show. Dates have been the Indus Valley for thousands of years. There is archaeological evidence of date cultivation in eastern Arabia between 5530 and 5320 calBC, they are believed to have originated around what is now Iraq, have been cultivated since ancient times from Mesopotamia to prehistoric Egypt. The Ancient Egyptians used the fruits to make date wine, ate them at harvest. There is archeological evidence of date cultivation in Mehrgarh around 7000 BCE, a Neolithic civilization in what is now western Pakistan.
Evidence of cultivation is continually found throughout civilizations in the Indus Valley, including the Harappan period 2600 to 1900 BCE. In Ancient Rome the palm fronds used in triumphal processions to symbolize victory were most those of Phoenix dactylifera; the date palm was a popular garden plant in Roman peristyle gardens, though it would not bear fruit in the more temperate climate of Italy. It is recognizable in frescoes from Pompeii and elsewhere in Italy, including a garden scene from the House of the Wedding of Alexander. In times, traders spread dates around South West Asia, northern Africa, Spain. Dates were introduced into Mexico and California by the Spaniards in 1765, around Mission San Ignacio. A date palm cultivar what used to be called Judean date palm, is renowned for its long-lived orthodox seed, which sprouted after accidental storage for 2000 years; the upper survival time limit of properly stored. A genomic study from New York University Abu Dhabi Center for Genomics and Systems Biology showed that domesticated date palm varieties from North Africa, including well-known varieties such as Medjool and Deglet Noor, are a hybrid between Middle East date palms and the Cretan wild palm P. theophrasti.
Date palms appear in the archaeological record in North Africa about 2,800 years ago, suggesting that the hybrid was spread by the Minoans or Phoenicians. Date trees reach about 21–23 metres in height, growing singly or forming a clump with several stems from a single root system; the leaves are 4–6 metres long, with spines on the petiole, pinnate, with about 150 leaflets. The leaflets are 2 cm wide; the full span of the crown ranges from 6–10 m. The date palm is dioecious, having separate female plants, they can be grown from seed, but only 50% of seedlings will be female and hence fruit bearing, dates from seedling plants are smaller and of poorer quality. Most commercial plantations thus use cuttings of cropping cultivars. Plants grown from cuttings will fruit 2–3 years earlier than seedling plants. Dates are wind pollinated, but in both traditional oasis horticulture and in the modern commercial orchards they are pollinated manually. Natural pollination occurs with about an equal number of female plants.
However, with assistance, one male can pollinate up to 100 females. Since the males are of value only as pollinators, this allows the growers to use their resources for many more fruit-producing female plants; some growers do not maintain any male plants, as male flowers become available at local markets at pollination time. Manual pollination is done by use of a wind machine. In some areas such as Iraq the pollinator climbs the tree using a special climbing tool that wraps around the tree trunk and the climber's back to keep him attached to the trunk while climbing. Date fruits are oval-cylindrical, 3–7 cm long, 2–3 cm diameter, when ripe, range from bright red to bright yellow in colour, depending on variety. Dates contain a single stone about 2 -- 6 -- 8 mm thick. Three main cultivar groups of date exist: soft, semi-dry, dry; the type of fruit depends on the gluc
Yazd also known as Yezd, is the capital of Yazd Province, Iran. The city is located 270 km southeast of Esfahan. At the 2011 census, the population was 529,673, it is 15th largest city in Iran. Since 2017, the historical city of Yazd is recognized as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO; because of generations of adaptations to its desert surroundings, Yazd has a unique Persian architecture. It is nicknamed the "City of Windcatchers" from its many examples, it is very well known for its Zoroastrian fire temples, ab anbars, yakhchals, Persian handicrafts, handwoven cloth, silk weaving, Persian Cotton Candy, its time-honored confectioneries. Yazd is known as City of Bicycles, because of its old history of bike riders, the highest amount of bicycle per capita in Iran, it is reported that bicycle culture is entered and developed from Yazd, in contacting with the European visitors and tourists in the last century. The name is derived from a Sassanid ruler of Persia; the city was a Zoroastrian center during Sassanid times.
The word yazd means God. After the Arab conquest of Iran, many Zoroastrians migrated to Yazd from neighboring provinces. By paying a levy, Yazd was allowed to remain Zoroastrian after its conquest, Islam only became the dominant religion in the city; because of its remote desert location and the difficulty of access, Yazd remained immune to large battles and the destruction and ravages of war. For instance, it was a haven for those fleeing from destruction in other parts of Persian Empire during the Mongol invasion. In 1272 it was visited by Marco Polo. In the book The Travels of Marco Polo, he described Yazd in the following way: It is a good and noble city, has a great amount of trade, they weave there quantities of a certain silk tissue known as Yasdi, which merchants carry into many quarters to dispose of. When you leave this city to travel further, you ride for seven days over great plains, finding harbour to receive you at three places only. There are many fine woods producing dates upon the way, such as one can ride through.
There are wild asses, handsome creatures. At the end of those seven marches over the plain, you come to a fine kingdom, called Kerman. Yazd served as the capital of the Muzaffarid Dynasty in the fourteenth century, was unsuccessfully besieged in 1350–1351 by the Injuids under Shaikh Abu Ishaq; the Friday mosque, arguably the city's greatest architectural landmark, as well as other important buildings, date to this period. During the Qajar dynasty it was ruled by the Bakhtiari Khans. Under the rule of the Safavid, some people migrated from Yazd and settled in an area, today on the Iran-Afghanistan border; the settlement, named Yazdi, was located in what is now Farah City in the province of the same name in Afghanistan. Today, people from this area speak with an accent similar to that of the people of Yazd. One of the notable things about Yazd is its family-centered culture. According to official statistics from Iran's National Organization for Civil Registration, Yazd is among the three cities with the lowest divorce rates in Iran.
The majority of the people of Yazd are Persians, they speak Persian with Yazdi accent different from Persian accent of Tehran. The majority of people in Yazd are Muslims. There is a sizable population of Zoroastrians in the city. In 2013, Sepanta Niknam was elected to the city council of Yazd and became the first Zoroastrian councillor in Iran. There was once a large Jewish-Yazdi community, after the creation of Israel, many have moved there for varying reasons. Former president of Israel Moshe Katsav is an example; the Pir-e-Naraki sanctuary is one the important pilgrimage destinations for Zoroastrians where an annual congregation is held and frequent visits are made during the year. The story of the last Persian prince to come to Yazd before the arrival of Islam adds to its importance; such a transformation has occurred several times. Several other city traditions are the Muslim parades and gatherings, which are processions called azadari held to commemorate the events experienced by the main Islamic martyrs and other important figures.
These huge public gatherings created a series of spaces which, since most are near important urban monuments, are used at other times as hubs from which visitors can tour the main spots in the city. According to the Iranian Census of 2011 the population of Yazd is 486,152 people from 168,528 families, which includes 297,546 men and 285,136 women. Yazd is an important centre of Persian architecture; because of its climate, it has one of the largest networks of qanats in the world, Yazdi qanat makers are considered the most skilled in Iran. To deal with the hot summers, many old buildings in Yazd have magnificent wind towers and large underground areas; the city is home to prime examples of yakhchals, which were used to store ice retrieved from glaciers in the nearby mountains. Yazd is one of the largest cities built entirely out of adobe. Yazd's heritage as a center of Zoroastrianism is important. There is a Tower of Silence on the outskirts, the city has an ateshkadeh which holds a fire, kept alight continuously since 470 AD.
Zoroastrians make up a significant minority of the population, around 2
Raki or rakı is a sweetened anise-flavoured, alcoholic drink, popular in Turkey, Turkic countries, Greek Islands and in the Balkan countries as an apéritif. It is served with seafood or meze, it is comparable to several other alcoholic beverages available around the Mediterranean and the Middle East, e.g. pastis, sambuca and aguardiente. In Crete tsikoudia is a pomace brandy, sometimes called rakı but made from grapes, it is used to make rakomelo, flavored with honey and cinnamon.. The term raki entered English from Turkish rakı; the Arabic word arak, means distilled, other variants being araka, ariki. In the Ottoman Empire, until the 19th century, meyhanes run by Rûm and Albanians would serve wine along with meze, due to religious restrictions imposed by various sultans. Although there were many Muslims among meyhane attendants, the authorities could, at times, prosecute them. With the liberal atmosphere of the Tanzimat period, meyhane attendance among Muslims rose and raki became a favorite among meyhane-goers.
By the end of the century, raki took its current standard form and its consumption surpassed that of wine. During this period, rakı was produced by distillation of grapes pomace obtained during wine fermentation; when the amount of pomace was not sufficient, alcohol imported from Europe would be added. If aniseed was not added, it would take the name düz rakı, whereas rakı prepared with the addition of gum mastic was named sakız rakısı or mastikha. With the collapse of the Ottoman Empire and the establishment of the modern-day Republic of Turkey, grape-based rakı began to be distilled by the state-owned spirits monopoly Tekel, with the first factory production taking place in 1944 in Izmir. With increasing sugar beet production, Tekel began to distill the alcohol from molasses, a new brand of raki made from sugar-beet alcohol was introduced under the name Yeni Rakı. Molasses helped increase the drink's popularity. Today, with increased competition from the private sector, the privatization of Tekel in 2004, several new brands and types of raki have emerged, each with its own distinct composition and production method, although the overall qualities of the drink have been kept consistent.
These include Efe Rakı, Çilingir Rakı, Mercan Rakı, Fasıl Rakı, Burgaz Rakı, Ata Rakı, Anadolu Rakı. Sarı Zeybek Rakısı, another recent brand, is aged in oak casks, which gives it a distinctive golden colour. Raki is traditionally produced from raisin/grape spirit called suma, distilled to a maximum of 94.55% abv, This spirit is not rectified spirit and unlike other flavored spirits Raki producers consider that the suma has an important role to play in the flavor of Raki itself. The suma, or suma mixed with rectified spirit, is diluted with water re-distilled with aniseed and the spirit is collected at around 79-80% abv; the flavored distillate is diluted and sweetened and rested for minimum of 30 days prior to sale in order to allow the flavors to harmonize. In Turkey, rakı is the national drink and is traditionally consumed with chilled water on the side or mixed with chilled water, according to personal preference. Rakı is consumed without the addition of water. Ice cubes are added. Dilution with water causes rakı to turn a milky-white colour, similar to the louche of absinthe.
This phenomenon has resulted in the drink being popularly referred to aslan sütü. Since aslan is a Turkish colloquial metaphor for a strong, courageous man, this gives the term a meaning close to "the milk for the strong." Rakı is consumed alongside meze, a selection of hot and cold appetizers, as well as at a rakı sofrası, either before a full dinner or instead of it. It is popular with seafood, together with fresh arugula, beyaz peynir and melon, it is an popular complement to various red meat dishes like kebabs, where it is sometimes served with a glass of şalgam. The founder and first President of the Republic of Turkey, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, was fond of rakı, his late-night rakı sofrası sessions were his favorite place to debate issues with his closest friends and advisors. Standard rakı is a grape product. Rakı produced from figs popular in the southern provinces of Turkey, is called incir boğması, incir rakısı, or in Arabic, tini. Tekel ceased producing fig rakı in 1947. There are two methods of Turkish rakı production.
One method uses other grapes. Yeni Rakı is produced from raisins and Tekirdağ Rakısı is produced from grapes. Fresh grape rakı has a higher alcohol content. Suma rakı, i.e. distilled rakı prior to the addition of aniseed, is produced from raisins but raki factories around established wine-producing areas like Tekirdağ, Nevşehir, İzmir may use fresh grapes for higher quality. Yaş üzüm rakısı has become more popular in Turkey; the maker of a recent brand, Efe Rakı, was the first company to produce raki of fresh grape suma, called Efe Yaş Üzüm Rakısı. Tekirdağ Altın Seri followed many others have been produced by other companies; the best-known and popular brands of rakı, remain Yeni Rakı produced by Tekel, which transferred production rights to Mey Alkol upon the 2004 privatization of Tekel, Tekirdağ Rakısı from the region of Tekirdağ, famous for its characteristic flavour, believed to
A raisin is a dried grape. Raisins are produced in many regions of the world and may be eaten raw or used in cooking and brewing. In the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia, the word "raisin" is reserved for the dark-colored dried large grape, with "sultana" being a golden-colored dried grape, "currant" being a dried small Black Corinth seedless grape; the word "raisin" is a loanword from Old French. The Old French word, in turn, developed from the Latin word racemus, "a bunch of grapes". Raisin varieties depend on the type of grape used and are made in a variety of sizes and colors including green, brown, blue and yellow. Seedless varieties include the Greek currants and Flame grapes. Raisins are traditionally sun-dried, but may be water-dipped and artificially dehydrated. "Golden raisins" are dried in dehydrators with controlled temperature and humidity, which allows them to retain a lighter color and more moisture. They are treated with sulfur dioxide after drying. Black Corinth or Zante currant are miniature, sometimes seedless raisins that are much darker and have a tart, tangy flavor.
They are called currants. Muscat raisins are large compared to other varieties, sweeter. Several varieties of raisins produced in Asia are available in the West only at ethnic grocers. Monukka grapes are used for some of these. Raisins can contain up to 72% sugars by weight, most of, fructose and glucose – forming sucrose when combined in a single molecule, they contain about 3% protein and 3.7%–6.8% dietary fiber. Raisins, like prunes and apricots, are high in certain antioxidants, but have a lower vitamin C content than fresh grapes. Raisins contain no cholesterol. Data presented at the American College of Cardiology's 61st Annual Scientific Session in 2012 suggest that, among individuals with mild increases in blood pressure, the routine consumption of raisins may lower blood pressure when compared to eating other common snacks. Raisins can cause renal failure in dogs; the cause of this is not known. Raisins are sweet due to their high concentration of sugars; the sugars can crystallise inside the fruit when stored after a long period, making the dry raisins gritty, but that does not affect their usability.
These sugar grains can be dissolved by blanching the fruit in other liquids. Global production in 2016 was 1.2 million metric tons, with the US as the top producer contributing 24% of the global harvest. Raisins are produced commercially by drying harvested grape berries. For a grape berry to dry, water inside the grape must be removed from the interior of the cells onto the surface of the grape where the water droplets can evaporate. However, this diffusion process is difficult because the grape skin contains wax in its cuticle, which prevents the water from passing through. In addition to this, the physical and chemical mechanisms located on the outer layers of the grape are adapted to prevent water loss; the three steps to commercial raisin production include pre-treatment and post-drying processes. Pre-treatment is a necessary step in raisin production to ensure the increased rate of water removal during the drying process. A faster water removal rate decreases the rate of browning and helps to produce more desirable raisins.
The historical method of completing this process was developed in the Mediterranean and Asia Minor areas by using a dry emulsion cold dip made of potassium carbonate and ethyl esters of fatty acids. This dip was shown to increase the rate of water loss by two- to three-fold. New methods have been developed such as exposing the grapes to oil emulsions or dilute alkaline solutions; these methods can encourage water transfer to the outer surface of grapes which helps to increase the efficiency of the drying process. The three types of drying methods are: sun drying, shade drying, mechanical drying. Sun drying is an inexpensive process. Additionally, sun drying is a slow process and may not produce the most desirable raisins. Mechanical drying can be done in a safer and more controlled environment where rapid drying is guaranteed. One type of mechanical drying is to use microwave heating. Water molecules in the grapes absorb microwave energy resulting in rapid evaporation. Microwave heating produces puffy raisins.
After the drying process is complete, raisins are sent to processing plants where they are cleaned with water to remove any foreign objects that may have become embedded during the drying process. Stems and off-grade raisins are removed; the washing process may cause rehydration, so another drying step is completed after washing to ensure that the added moisture has been removed. All steps in the production of raisins are important in determining the quality of raisins. Sometimes, sulfur dioxide is applied to raisins after the pre treatment step and before drying to decrease the rate of browning caused by the reaction between polyphenol oxidase and phenolic compounds. Sulfur dioxide helps to preserve flavor and prevent the loss of certain vitamins during the drying process. Raisins are rich in dietary fiber, carbohydrates with a low glycemic index, minerals like copper and iron, with a low fat content. Raisins are recommended as a snack for weight control bec