Aragonese language

Aragonese is a Romance language spoken in several dialects by 10,000 to 50,000 people in the Pyrenees valleys of Aragon, Spain in the comarcas of Somontano de Barbastro, Alto Gállego and Ribagorza/Ribagorça. It is the only modern language which survived from medieval Navarro-Aragonese in a form distinctly different from Spanish. Informally known as fabla, Aragonese is commonly referred to by the names of its local dialects such as cheso or patués. Aragonese, which developed in portions of the Ebro basin, can be traced back to the High Middle Ages, it spread throughout the Pyrenees to areas where languages similar to Basque were spoken. The Kingdom of Aragon expanded southward from the mountains, pushing the Moors farther south in the Reconquista and spreading the Aragonese language; the union of the Catalan counties and the Kingdom of Aragon which formed the 12th-century Crown of Aragon did not merge the languages of the two territories. The Aragonese Reconquista in the south ended with the cession of Murcia by James I of Aragon to the Kingdom of Castile as dowry for an Aragonese princess.

The best-known proponent of the Aragonese language was Johan Ferrandez d'Heredia, the Grand Master of the Knights Hospitaller in Rhodes at the end of the 14th century. He wrote an extensive catalog of works in Aragonese and translated several works from Greek into Aragonese; the spread of Castilian, the Castilian origin of the Trastámara dynasty, the similarity between Castilian and Aragonese facilitated the recession of the latter. A turning point was the 15th-century coronation of the Castilian Ferdinand I of Aragon known as Ferdinand of Antequera. In the early 18th century, after the defeat of the allies of Aragon in the Spanish Succession War, Philip V ordered the prohibition of the Aragonese language in the schools and the establishment of Castilian as the only official language in Aragon; this was ordered in the Aragonese Nueva Planta decrees of 1707. In recent times, Aragonese was regarded as a group of rural dialects of Spanish. Compulsory education undermined its weak position. However, the 1978 Spanish transition to democracy heralded literary works and studies of the language.

Aragonese is the native language of the Aragonese mountain ranges of the Pyrenees, in the comarcas of Somontano, Jacetania and Ribagorza. Cities and towns in which Aragonese is spoken are Huesca, Monzón, Bielsa, Chistén, Echo, Benasque, Sabiñánigo, Plan, Ansó, Broto, El Grado, it is spoken as a second language by inhabitants of Zaragoza, Ejea de los Caballeros, or Teruel. According to recent polls, there are about 25,500 speakers including speakers living outside the native area. In 2017, the Dirección General de Política Lingüística de Aragón estimated there were 10,000 to 12,000 active speakers of Aragonese. In 2009, the Languages Act of Aragon recognized the "native language and historic" of Aragon; the language received several linguistic rights, including its use in public administration. This legislation was repealed by a new law in 2013. Western dialect: Ansó, Valle de Hecho, Berdún, Chaca Central dialect: Panticosa, Torla, Bielsa, Yebra, Aínsa-Sobrarbe Eastern dialect: Benás, Bisagorri, Perarrúa, Estadilla Southern dialect: Agüero, Rasal, Lierta, Almudévar, Labata, Angüés, Balbastro, Nabal Aragonese has many historical traits in common with Catalan.

Some are conservative features that are shared with the Astur-Leonese languages and Galician-Portuguese, where Spanish innovated in ways that did not spread to nearby languages. Romance initial F- is preserved, e.g. FILIUM > fillo. Romance palatal approximant became medieval, as in medieval Catalan and Portuguese; this becomes modern ch, as a result of the devoicing of sibilants. In Spanish, the medieval result was nothing, depending on the context. E.g. IUVENEM > choven, GELARE > chelar. Romance groups -LT-, -CT- result in, e.g. FACTUM > feito, MULTUM > muito. Romance groups -X-, -PS-, SCj- result in voiceless palatal fricative ix, e.g. COXU > coixo. Romance groups -Lj-, -C'L-, -T'L- result in palatal lateral ll, e.g. MULIERE > muller, ACUT'LA > agulla. Open O, E from Romance result systematically in e.g. VET ` LA > viella. This includes before e.g. octō > ueito. Spanish diphthongizes except before yod. Loss of final unstressed -E but not -O, e.g. GRANDE > gran, FACTUM > feito. Catalan loses both -O and -E.

Voiced stops /b, d, ɡ/ may be lenited as approximants. Former voiced. Voiced palatal sonorant /j/ can most be heard as a voiced fricative. Lati


Kawa Garbo or Khawa Karpo, as it is known by local residents and pilgrims, or Kawagebo Peak, is the highest mountain in the Chinese province of Yunnan. It is located on the border between Dêqên County and the counties of Zogang and Zayü of the Tibet Autonomous Region, it rises about 20 kilometres west of Shengping, the seat of Dêqên County, which lies on China National Highway 214. What is now Dêqên County has been part of Yunnan since the 1720s, when the current border with Tibet was established by the early Qing Dynasty. Kawagarbo is one of the most sacred peaks in the Tibetan world and is referred to as Nyainqênkawagarbo to show its sacredness. Kawagarbo is the high point in a range of high peaks that are referred to by Tibetans as Kawagarpo. A mapping error by the Chinese army during the 1950s transcribed the name for a lower range of mountains to the north on a much larger area that included Kawagarbo; the name of this lower range in Tibetan is Menri, but is most known by its Chinese transliteration, Meili Xue Shan.

This is the name most applied to the range by Chinese and Western sources. The Meili range is a small massif of the much more extensive Hengduan Shan, the major north-south trending complex of mountains lying along the eastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau in eastern Tibet, northwestern Yunnan, western Sichuan, far northern Myanmar; the Meili Xue Shan forms part of the divide between the Mekong rivers. The Meili Xue Shan has over 20 peaks including six peaks over 6,000 m. Topographic extremes are immense, with vertical relief ranging from less than 2,000 m along the Mekong River on the east to 6,740 m on the summit of Kawagarpo within 10 km horizontal distance. Greater topographic relief is found on the west or Salween River side of the range. Coincident with this extreme topographic gradient is a steep environmental gradient. Compressed within this short distance are subtropical scrub ecosystems along the arid canyon bottoms, rising through dry oak forests, humid mixed deciduous-coniferous forests, cold temperate coniferous forests, alpine meadows and scree above treeline, to permanent snow on the high peaks.

The Mingyong Glacier, descending from the summit of Kawagarbo, terminates at a low elevation just before the subtropical life zone. The range is affected by the monsoon, leading to unstable snow conditions, which have affected climbing attempts. Kawagarbo is one of the most sacred mountains for Tibetan Buddhism as the spiritual home of a warrior god of the same name, it is visited by 20,000 pilgrims each year from throughout the Tibetan world. The ancestral religion of the Kawagarpo area, as in much of Tibet, was Bön, a shamanistic tradition based on the concept of a world pervaded by good and evil spirits. Bön encompassed numerous deities and spirits which are still recognized today, are connected with specific geographical localities and natural features. Kawagarbo is one of these. Since its introduction, Tibetan Buddhism has been the dominant religion of the Kawagarbo area, with followers of Gelugpa doctrine being the most common. Tibetans believe the warrior god will leave them if human sets foot on the peak of Kawakarpo, making the ground unholy.

Disasters will follow. Tibetans have established a centuries-old sacred geography around the peak, maintained by religious leaders from local monasteries in negotiation with local villages; this sacred natural site preserves the natural resources and ecological health of the range. The first attempt on Kawakarpo was made in 1987 by a party from the Joetsu Alpine Club of Japan. In the winter of 1990–91 a group from the Academic Alpine Club of Kyoto University attempted the peak in conjunction with a Chinese group, their activity caused heavy protests from the local Tibetan community due to the mountain's cultural and religious significance. On 3 January 1991, a nighttime avalanche killed all seventeen members of the expedition, in one of the most deadly mountaineering accidents in history; the Kyoto club returned in 1996 to make another unsuccessful attempt. American expeditions, led by Nicholas Clinch, visited the range in 1988, 1989, 1992, 1993, attempting other major peaks, but were unsuccessful.

In 2001, local government passed laws banning all future climbing attempts on cultural and religious grounds. As of 2010, none of the significant peaks of the range have been climbed. Mingyong Glacier descends steeply from the east face of Kawagarbo into the Mekong River valley on the Yunnan side of the massif; because it descends from near the summit of Kawagarbo, it is considered sacred by Tibetan Buddhists and two temples are located along its lower edge. From those temples, the rapid retreat of Mingyong Glacier is obvious to local people who observe it year in and year out. A monk from Taizi Temple reflected on this rapid retreat of Mingyong Glacier, concerned that it might be punishment from Kawagarpo for the lack of devotion by him and his fellow Buddhists; the retreat of Mingyong Glacier, linked to a warming climate in the Deqin area, has received considerable attent


Henryd is a village and community on the western slopes of the Conwy valley in Conwy county borough, north Wales. It lies about 2 miles south off the B5106 road. At the 2001 census, it had a population of 594; the meaning of Henryd in English is "Old ford", with hen meaning "old" and rhyd meaning "ford". The river Henryd, a tributary of the river Conwy, flows through the village; the village has a Nonconformist chapel and a small primary school (Ysgol Llangelynnin. The oldest building in the village is Ffarm Henryd; the field behind Maes refail estate is known as Cae Ffarm. The village well still exists in the field on the other side of the river. Plas Iolyn is a grade II listed country house set in its own grounds some 1.5 km north of the village. The village is a popular starting point for walks in the northern Snowdonia mountains the Carneddau. Nearby is Parc Mawr, an area of woodland now owned by the Woodland Trust, who are replacing the 1960s-planted conifers with native species. Nearby is the Roman road route through Bwlch-y-Ddeufaen, the ancient 12th century parish church of Llangelynnin.

Media related to Henryd at Wikimedia Commons A Vision of Britain Through Time British Listed Buildings Genuki Geograph Office for National Statistics