Pastis is an anise-flavoured spirit and apéritif from France containing less than 100 g/l sugar and 40–45% ABV. Pastis was first commercialized by Paul Ricard in 1932 and enjoys substantial popularity in France in the southeastern regions of the country Marseille, the Var department. Pastis emerged some 17 years after the ban on absinthe, during a time when the French nation was still apprehensive of high-proof anise drinks in the wake of the absinthe debacle; the popularity of pastis may be attributable to a penchant for anise drinks, cultivated by absinthe decades earlier, but is part of an old tradition of Mediterranean anise liquors that includes sambuca, arak, rakı, mastika. The name "pastis" comes from Occitan pastís which means "mash-up". By legal definition, pastis is described as an anise-flavored spirit that contains additional flavor of licorice root, contains less than 100 grams/l sugar, is bottled at a minimum of 40% ABV or 45% ABV. While pastis was artisanally produced from whole herbs like most spirits at the time of its creation, modern versions are prepared by mixing base alcohol with commercially prepared flavorings and caramel coloring.
Pastis is associated with its historical predecessor, yet the two are in fact different. Pastis does not contain the herb from which absinthe derives its name. Pastis obtains its anise flavor from a distillation of star anise, a herb of Asian origin, whereas absinthe traditionally obtains its base flavor from green anise, a European herb. Furthermore, pastis traditionally exhibits the distinct flavor of licorice root, not a part of a traditional absinthe. Where bottled strength is concerned, traditional absinthes were bottled at 45–74% ABV, while pastis is bottled at 40–50% ABV. Unlike a traditional absinthe, pastis is a "liqueur", which means it is always bottled with sugar. Pastis is diluted with water before drinking five volumes of water for one volume of pastis, but neat pastis is served together with a jug of water for the drinker to blend together according to preference; the resulting decrease in alcohol percentage causes some of the constituents to become insoluble, which changes the liqueur's appearance from dark transparent yellow to milky soft yellow, a phenomenon present with absinthe and known as the ouzo effect.
The drink is considered a refreshment for hot days. Ice cubes can be added. However, many pastis drinkers decline to add ice, preferring to drink the beverage with cool spring water. Although consumed throughout France, pastis is associated with southeastern regions of the country the city of Marseille, where it is nicknamed Pastaga, with such clichés of the Provençal lifestyle as pétanque. 130 million litres are sold each year. Pastis beverages become cloudy; such beverages contain oils called terpenes, which are soluble in an aqueous solution that contains 30% ethanol or more by volume. When the solution is diluted to below 30% ethanol, the terpenes become insoluble; the same chemistry causes absinthe to go cloudy. Among the better known cocktails using pastis and syrups are: Rourou: made with strawberry syrup Tomate: made with grenadine syrup Perroquet: made with green mint syrup Mauresque: made with orgeat syrup Feuille morte: made with grenadine and green mint syrup Violet Pastis with lavender syrup Rômarino Pastis with Rosemary syrup Sazerac: made with cognac or rye whiskey.
A barrel, cask, or tun is a hollow cylindrical container with a bulging center, traditionally made of wooden staves bound by wooden or metal hoops. Traditionally, the barrel was a standard size of measure referring to a set capacity or weight of a given commodity. For example, in the UK a barrel of beer refers to a quantity of 36 imperial gallons. Wine was shipped in barrels of 119 litres. Barrel has come into use as a generic term for a wooden cask of any size. Modern wooden barrels for wine-making are either made of French common oak and white oak or from American white oak and have standard sizes: "Bordeaux type" 225 litres, "Burgundy type" 228 litres and "Cognac type" 300 litres. Modern barrels and casks can be made of aluminum, stainless steel, different types of plastic, such as HDPE. Someone who makes barrels is called cooper. Barrels are only one type of cooperage. Other types include, but are not limited to, the making of buckets, tubs, butter churns, firkins, kilderkins, rundlets, pipes, butts and breakers.
Barrels have a variety of uses, including storage of liquids such as water and oil, fermenting wine and sake, maturing beverages such as wine, armagnac, port and beer. Other commodities once stored in wooden casks include gunpowder, fish, paint and tallow. Early casks were bound with wooden hoops and in the 19th century these were replaced by metal hoops that were stronger, more durable and took up less space; the term barrel can refer to cylindrical containers made of modern materials like plastic. An "aging barrel" is used to age wine; when a wine or spirit ages in a barrel, small amounts of oxygen are introduced as the barrel lets some air in. Oxygen enters a barrel when water or alcohol is lost due to evaporation, a portion known as the "angels' share". In an environment with 100% relative humidity little water evaporates and so most of the loss is alcohol, a useful trick if one has a wine with high proof. Most beverages are topped up from other barrels to prevent significant oxidation, although others such as vin jaune and sherry are not.
Beverages aged in wooden barrels take on some of the compounds in the barrel, such as vanillin and wood tannins. The presence of these compounds depends on many factors, including the place of origin, how the staves were cut and dried, the degree of "toast" applied during manufacture. Barrels used for aging are made of French or American oak, but chestnut and redwood are used; some Asian beverages use Japanese cedar, which imparts an minty-piney flavor. In Peru and Chile, a grape distillate named pisco is either aged in earthenware; some wines are fermented "on barrel", as opposed to in a neutral container like steel or wine-grade HDPE tanks. Wine can be fermented in large wooden tanks, which—when open to the atmosphere—are called "open-tops". Other wooden cooperage for storing wine or spirits range from smaller barriques to huge casks, with either elliptical or round heads; the tastes yielded by French and American species of oak are different, with French oak being subtler, while American oak gives stronger aromas.
To retain the desired measure of oak influence, a winery will replace a certain percentage of its barrels every year, although this can vary from 5 to 100%. Some winemakers use "200% new oak", where the wine is put into new oak barrels twice during the aging process. Bulk wines are sometimes more cheaply flavored by soaking in oak chips or added commercial oak flavoring instead of being aged in a barrel because of the much lower cost. Sherry is stored in 600-litre casks made of North American oak, more porous than French or Spanish oak; the casks, or butts, are filled five-sixths full, leaving "the space of two fists" empty at the top to allow flor to develop on top of the wine. Sherry is commonly swapped between barrels of different ages, a process, known as Solera. Laws in several jurisdictions require; the law in the United States requires that "straight whiskey" must be stored for at least two years in new, charred oak containers. Other forms of whiskey aged in used barrels cannot be called "straight".
International laws require any whisky bearing the label "Scotch" to be distilled and matured in Scotland for a minimum of three years and one day in oak casks. By Canadian law, Canadian whiskies must "be aged in small wood for not less than three years", "small wood" is defined as a wood barrel not exceeding 700 litres capacity. Since the U. S. law requires the use of new barrels for several popular types of whiskey, not considered necessary elsewhere, whiskey made elsewhere is aged in used barrels that contained American whiskey. The typical bourbon barrel is 53 US gallons in size, thus the de facto standard whiskey barrel size worldwide; some distillers transfer their whiskey into different barrels to "finish" or add qualities to the final product. These finishing barrels aged a different spi
A still is an apparatus used to distill liquid mixtures by heating to selectively boil and cooling to condense the vapor. A still on a much larger scale. Stills have been used to produce perfume and medicine, water for injection for pharmaceutical use to separate and purify different chemicals, to produce distilled beverages containing ethanol. Since ethanol boils at a much lower temperature than water, simple distillation can separate ethanol from water by applying heat to the mixture. A copper vessel was used for this purpose, since copper removes undesirable sulfur-based compounds from the alcohol. However, many modern stills are made of stainless steel pipes with copper linings to prevent erosion of the entire vessel and lower copper levels in the waste product. Copper is the preferred material for stills; the taste is improved by the chemical reaction between the copper in the still and the sulfur compounds created by the yeast during fermentation. These unwanted and flavor changing sulfur compounds are chemically removed from the final product resulting in a smoother, better tasting drink.
All copper stills will require repairs about every eight years due to the precipitation of copper-sulfur compounds. The beverage industry was the first to implement a modern distillation apparatus and led the way in developing equipment standards which are now accepted in the chemical industry. There is an increasing usage of distillation of gin under glass and PTFE, at reduced pressures, to facilitate a fresher product; this is irrelevant to alcohol quality, because the process starts with triple distilled grain alcohol, the distillation is used to harvest botanical flavors such as limonene and other terpene like compounds. The ethyl alcohol is unchanged; the simplest standard distillation apparatus is known as a pot still, consisting of a single heated chamber and a vessel to collect purified alcohol. A pot still incorporates only one condensation, whereas other types of distillation equipment have multiple stages which result in higher purification of the more volatile component. Pot still distillation gives an incomplete separation, but this can be desirable for the flavor of some distilled beverages.
If a purer distillate is desired, a reflux still is the most common solution. Reflux stills incorporate a fractionating column created by filling copper vessels with glass beads to maximize available surface area; as alcohol boils and reboils through the column, the effective number of distillations increases. Vodka and gin and other neutral grain spirits are distilled by this method diluted to concentrations appropriate for human consumption. Alcoholic products from home distilleries are common throughout the world, but are sometimes in violation of local statutes; the product of illegal stills in the United States is referred to as moonshine and in Ireland, poitín. However poitín, although made illegal in 1661 has been legal for export in Ireland since 1997. Note that the term moonshine itself is misused as many believe it to be a specific kind of high-proof alcohol, distilled from corn, but the term can refer to any illicitly distilled alcohol. Distillation Distilled water Retort Alembic Column still Pot still Reflux still Solar still Moonshine Still Moonshine Still Ghost from the past - Video
Kibbeh, is a Levantine dish made of bulgur, minced onions, finely ground lean beef, goat, or camel meat with Middle Eastern spices. Other types of kibbeh may be shaped into balls or patties, baked, cooked in broth, or served raw. Kibbeh is considered to be the national dish of many Middle Eastern countries. Kibbeh is a popular dish in Middle Eastern cuisine, it is found in Lebanon, Palestine, Egypt, Iraq, as well as Armenia, Israel, Cyprus and in Turkey it is called içli köfte. It is found throughout Latin American countries which received substantial numbers of Levantine immigrants during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In the region, the dish is popular in the Yucatan peninsula and the Caribbean coastline of Colombia and in Brazil; the word is derived from the Classical Arabic kubbah, which means "ball". Various transliterations of the name are used in different countries: in English and kibbeh and in Latin America, quibbe, kibe, or quipe. In Levantine cuisine, a variety of dishes made with bulghur and minced lamb are called kibbeh.
The northern Syrian city of Aleppo is famous for having more than 17 different types. These include kibbeh prepared with sumac, quince, lemon juice, pomegranate sauce, cherry sauce, other varieties, such as the "disk" kibbeh, the "plate" kibbeh and the raw kibbeh. Kibbeh nayyeh is a raw dish made from a mixture of bulghur finely minced lamb or beef similar to steak tartare, Middle Eastern spices, served on a platter as part of a meze in Lebanon and Syria, garnished with mint leaves and olive oil, served with green onions or scallions, green hot peppers, pita/pocket bread or markouk bread. Kubba Halab is an Iraqi version of kibbeh created with a rice crust and named after the largest city in Syria, Aleppo. Kubba Mosul Iraqi, is flat and round like a disc. Kubbat Shorba is an Iraqi-Kurdish version prepared as a stew made with tomato sauce and spices, it is served with arak and various salads. The Iraqi versions are part of the same versions eaten in Iran. A Syrian soup known as kubbi kishk consists of kubbi "torpedoes" or "footballs" in a yogurt and butter broth with stewed cabbage leaves.
Another soup, known as kibbeh hamda, consists of a chicken stock with vegetables, lemon juice and garlic, with small kibbeh made with ground rice as dumplings. In the Syrian Jewish diaspora this is popular both at Pesach and as the pre-fast meal on the day before Yom Kippur. On Colombia's Caribbean coast, the most local variations of the dish use ground beef instead of lamb, but the original recipe, or one with mixture of beef and lamb, can be found served by the large Middle Eastern population of the zone; the dish has acquired vernacular presence and is served in social occasions at both Arab and non-Arab households. When served as an adopted local dish, it is offered as a starter along with other regional delicacies, including Empanadas, Tequeños and Carimañolas. Food portal Middle Eastern and Levantine cuisine Arab cuisine Armenian cuisine Assyrian cuisine Cuisine of the Mizrahi Jews Egyptian cuisine Greek cuisine Iranian cuisine Iraqi cuisine Israeli cuisine Jordanian cuisine Kurdish cuisine Lebanese cuisine Syrian cuisine Palestinian cuisine Turkish cuisine Brazilian cuisine Colombian cuisine Cypriot cuisine Haitian cuisine
Lebanon known as the Lebanese Republic, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered by Syria to the north and east and Israel to the south, while Cyprus is west across the Mediterranean Sea. Lebanon's location at the crossroads of the Mediterranean Basin and the Arabian hinterland facilitated its rich history and shaped a cultural identity of religious and ethnic diversity. At just 10,452 km2, it is the smallest recognized sovereign state on the mainland Asian continent; the earliest evidence of civilization in Lebanon dates back more than seven thousand years, predating recorded history. Lebanon was the home of the Canaanites/Phoenicians and their kingdoms, a maritime culture that flourished for over a thousand years. In 64 BC, the region came under the rule of the Roman Empire, became one of the Empire's leading centers of Christianity. In the Mount Lebanon range a monastic tradition known as the Maronite Church was established; as the Arab Muslims conquered the region, the Maronites held onto their identity.
However, a new religious group, the Druze, established themselves in Mount Lebanon as well, generating a religious divide that has lasted for centuries. During the Crusades, the Maronites re-established contact with the Roman Catholic Church and asserted their communion with Rome; the ties they established with the Latins have influenced the region into the modern era. The region was ruled by the Ottoman Empire from 1516 to 1918. Following the collapse of the empire after World War I, the five provinces that constitute modern Lebanon came under the French Mandate of Lebanon; the French expanded the borders of the Mount Lebanon Governorate, populated by Maronites and Druze, to include more Muslims. Lebanon gained independence in 1943, establishing confessionalism, a unique, Consociationalism-type of political system with a power-sharing mechanism based on religious communities. Bechara El Khoury, President of Lebanon during the independence, Riad El-Solh, first Lebanese prime minister and Emir Majid Arslan II, first Lebanese minister of defence, are considered the founders of the modern Republic of Lebanon and are national heroes for having led the country's independence.
Foreign troops withdrew from Lebanon on 31 December 1946, although the country was subjected to military occupations by Syria that lasted nearly thirty years before being withdrawn in April 2005 as well as the Israeli military in Southern Lebanon for fifteen years. Despite its small size, the country has developed a well-known culture and has been influential in the Arab world, powered by its large diaspora. Before the Lebanese Civil War, the country experienced a period of relative calm and renowned prosperity, driven by tourism, agriculture and banking; because of its financial power and diversity in its heyday, Lebanon was referred to as the "Switzerland of the East" during the 1960s, its capital, attracted so many tourists that it was known as "the Paris of the Middle East". At the end of the war, there were extensive efforts to revive the economy and rebuild national infrastructure. In spite of these troubles, Lebanon has the 7th highest Human Development Index and GDP per capita in the Arab world after the oil-rich economies of the Persian Gulf.
Lebanon has been a member of the United Nations since its founding in 1945 as well as of the Arab League, the Non-Aligned Movement, Organisation of the Islamic Cooperation and the Organisation internationale de la francophonie. The name of Mount Lebanon originates from the Phoenician root lbn meaning "white" from its snow-capped peaks. Occurrences of the name have been found in different Middle Bronze Age texts from the library of Ebla, three of the twelve tablets of the Epic of Gilgamesh; the name is recorded in Ancient Egyptian as Rmnn, where R stood for Canaanite L. The name occurs nearly 70 times in the Hebrew Bible, as לְבָנוֹן. Lebanon as the name of an administrative unit was introduced with the Ottoman reforms of 1861, as the Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate, continued in the name of the State of Greater Lebanon in 1920, in the name of the sovereign Republic of Lebanon upon its independence in 1943; the borders of contemporary Lebanon are a product of the Treaty of Sèvres of 1920. Its territory was the core of the Bronze Age Phoenician city-states.
As part of the Levant, it was part of numerous succeeding empires throughout ancient history, including the Egyptian, Babylonian, Achaemenid Persian, Hellenistic and Sasanid Persian empires. After the 7th-century Muslim conquest of the Levant, it was part of the Rashidun, Abbasid Seljuk and Fatimid empires; the crusader state of the County of Tripoli, founded by Raymond IV of Toulouse in 1102, encompassed most of present-day Lebanon, falling to the Mamluk Sultanate in 1289 and to the Ottoman Empire in 1517. With the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, Greater Lebanon fell under French mandate in 1920, gained independence under president Bechara El Khoury in 1943. Lebanon's history since independence has been marked by alternating periods of political stability and prosperity based on Beirut's position as a regional center for finance and trade, interspersed with political turmoil and
Bulgarian cuisine is a representative of the cuisine of Eastern Europe. It shares characteristics with other Balkan cuisines. Bulgarian cooking traditions are diverse because of geographical factors such as climatic conditions suitable for a variety of vegetables and fruit. Aside from the vast variety of local Bulgarian dishes, Bulgarian cuisine shares a number of dishes with Persian and Greek cuisine. Bulgarian food incorporates salads as appetizers and is noted for the prominence of dairy products and other alcoholic drinks such as rakia; the cuisine features a variety of soups, such as the cold soup tarator, pastries, such as the filo dough based banitsa and the various types of börek. Main courses are typically water-based stews, either vegetarian or with lamb, goat meat, chicken or pork. Deep-frying is not common, but grilling - different kinds of sausages - is prominent. Pork is common mixed with veal or lamb, although fish and chicken are widely used. While most cattle are bred for milk production rather than meat, veal is popular for grilling meat appetizers and in some main courses.
As a substantial exporter of lamb, Bulgaria's own consumption is notable in the spring. To other Balkan cultures the per capita consumption of yogurt among Bulgarians is traditionally higher than the rest of Europe; the country is notable as the historical namesake for Lactobacillus bulgaricus, a microorganism chiefly responsible for the local variety of the dairy product. Bulgarian cuisine shares a number of dishes with the Middle Eastern Cuisine as well as a limited number with the Indian Gujarat cuisine; the culinary exchange with the East started as early as the 7th century, when traders started bringing herbs and spices to the First Bulgarian Empire from India and Persia via the Roman and Byzantine empires. This is evident from the wide popularity of dishes like moussaka, gyuvetch and baklava, which are common in Middle Eastern cuisine today. White brine cheese called "sirene", similar to feta, is a popular ingredient used in salads and a variety of pastries. Holidays are observed in conjunction with certain meals.
On Christmas Eve, for instance, tradition requires vegetarian stuffed peppers and cabbage leaf sarmi, New Year's Eve involves cabbage dishes, Nikulden fish, while Gergyovden is celebrated with roast lamb. As in many areas of the Balkans that were part of the Ottoman Empire, food in Bulgaria is influenced by Turkish cuisine and Ottoman cuisine—ayran, baklava and moussaka are all of Ottoman derivation. Bulgarian Breakfast Banitsa — breakfast pastry of eggs, white cheese, yogurt between phyllo layersCold cuts Banski starets — spicy sausage, native to the Bansko region. Elenski but — air-cured ham sausage, seasoned with herbs Lukanka — spicy salami of minced beef and pork Pastarma — spicy beef sausage. Ruska salata — salad with potatoes, carrots and mayonnaise Shopska salad — a common salad of chopped cucumbers, onions and tomatoes with white cheese Snezhanka — chopped cucumbers with yogurt, dill and walnuts Turshiya — pickled vegetables, such as celery, beets and cabbage, popular in wintertime.
Lyutenitsa — purée of tomatoes, red peppers, carrots served on bread and topped with white cheese Kyopulu — roasted eggplant and bell peppers, mashed with parsley and garlic and other ingredients Ljutika — spicy sauce Podluchen sauce or yogurt sauce — yogurt with garlic, paprika and sometimes dill. Katino meze—Hot starter with chopped pork meat, mushrooms with fresh butter and spices. Drob po selski — chopped liver with onion and peppers Ezik v maslo — sliced tongue in butter Sirene pane — breaded Bulgarian brine white cheese bites Kashkaval pane — breaded kashkaval bites Mussels in butter — with onion and fresh herbs, traditionally from Sozopol Kyufte Kebapche Parjola Shishcheta Karnache Nadenitsa Tatarsko kyufte Nevrozno kyufte Chicken in caul Cheverme (used in celebrations such as weddings and birthdays: a whole animal, traditionally a pig, but chicken o
Middle Eastern cuisine
Middle Eastern cuisine is the cuisine of the various countries and peoples of the Middle East. The cuisine of the region is diverse while having a degree of homogeneity, it includes Arab, Iranian/Persian, Israeli/Jewish, Kurdish and Turkish cuisines. In 2017, Middle Eastern cuisine was claimed by many sources to be one of the most popular and fastest growing ethnic cuisines in the US; some used ingredients include olives and olive oil, honey, sesame seeds, sumac, mint and parsley. Some popular dishes include kebabs, falafel, yogurt, doner kebab and Mulukhiyah; the Middle East includes the region known as the Fertile Crescent, where wheat was first cultivated, followed by barley, figs, pomegranates and other regional staples. Fermentation was discovered here to leaven bread and make beer in Mesopotamia, the earliest written recipes come from that region also; as a crossroads between Europe, the Caucasus and North Africa, this area has long been a hub of food and recipe exchange. During the first Persian Empire, the foundation was laid for modern Middle Eastern food when rice and various fruits were incorporated into the local diets.
Figs and nuts were brought by merchants to conquered lands, spices were brought back from the Orient. The area was influenced by dumplings from Mongol invaders. Religion has influenced the cuisine. Since the Qur'an forbids alcohol consumption and other drinks are made in countries such as Lebanon, where vineyards like Chateau Ksara, Chateau Kefraya and Chateau Masaya have gained international fame for their wines. Prior to its Islamic regime, Iran was noted for its winemaking. Chateau Ksara is very popular for its arak, an alcoholic drink produced in the Levant. Al-Maza is Lebanon's primary brewery, at one time, the Middle East's only beer-producing factory. Lebanon has always been well known in the region for its wines and arak, making it an exception when it comes to lack of alcohol in the region. Under the Ottoman Empire, sweet pastries of paper thin phyllo dough and dense coffee were brought to the area. Grains constitute the basis of the Middle Eastern diet and today. Wheat and rice are the preferred sources of staple foods.
Barley is widely used in the region and maize has become common in some areas as well. Bread is a universal staple—eaten in one form or another by all classes and groups—practically at every meal. Aside from bread, wheat is used in the forms of bulghur and couscous. Burghul is cracked wheat, made by cooking the wheat grains in water, drying it in an oven or in the sun breaking it into pieces, in different grades of size, it is cooked in water, with flavorings, much like rice. Burghul is used in making meat pies and as an ingredient in salads, notably in tabbouleh, with chopped parsley, tomato and oil. Freekeh is another common grain, made from immature green wheat. There are many types of rice consumed in the region. Plain rice is served with meat/vegetable stews. In more complex rice dishes, there are layers of meat, sauces, nuts, or dried fruits. Butter and clarified butter are, the preferred medium of cooking. Olive oil is prevalent in the Mediterranean coastal areas. Christians use it during Lent, when meat and dairy products are excluded, Jews use it in place of animal fats such as butter to avoid mixing meat and dairy products.
Most regions in the Middle East use spices. A stew will include a small amount of cinnamon, cloves and coriander. Black pepper is common, chili peppers are used especially as a separate sauce or as a pickle. Parsley and mint are used both in cooking and in salads. Thyme and thyme blends are common in Syria, Lebanon and Israel, a mixture of dried thyme and sumac is a common breakfast item with oil and bread. Sumac is sprinkled over grilled meat. Garlic is common to many salads. Lamb and mutton have always been the favored meats of the Middle East. Pork is prohibited in both Islam and Judaism, as such is eaten in the region. Prominent kebabs. There are a wide variety of these grills, with styles; the most common are the cubed cuts on skewers, known as shish kebab in most places. Chicken may be grilled in the same fashion. Another common variety is kofta kebab, made from ground meat, sometimes mixed with onions and spices, shaped around the skewer like a long sausage and grilled. Kebabs are a street or restaurant food, served with bread and pickles.
It is not prepared in domestic kitchens. Meat and vegetable stews, served with rice, bulgur, or bread, are another form of meat preparation in the region. Kibbeh is a dumpling made with meat and cereal; the most common are made with ground meat and burghul, worked together like a dough stuffed with minced meat, fried with onion, and, pine nuts or almonds and raisins. This can either be in the form of individual small dumplings, or in slices like a cake, baked on an oven tray with the stuffing placed between two layers of the dough. O