Watcher is a term used in connection with biblical angels. Watcher occurs in both plural and singular forms in the Book of Daniel, where reference is made to their holiness; the apocryphal Books of Enoch refer to both good and bad Watchers, with a primary focus on the rebellious ones. In the Book of Daniel 4:13, 17, 23 there are three references to the class of "watcher, holy one"; the term is introduced by Nebuchadnezzar who says he saw "a watcher, a holy one come down from heaven." He describes how in his dream the watcher says that Nebuchadnezzar will eat grass and be mad and that this punishment is "by the decree of the watchers, the demand by the word of the holy ones"... "the living may know that the Most High rules in the kingdom of men." After hearing the king's dream Daniel considers for an hour and responds: And because the king saw a watcher, a holy one, coming down from heaven and saying,'Chop down the tree and destroy it, but leave the stump of its roots in the earth, bound with a band of iron and bronze, in the tender grass of the field, let him be wet with the dew of heaven, let his portion be with the beasts of the field, till seven periods of time pass over him,' this is the interpretation, O king: It is a decree of the Most High, which has come upon my lord the king, that you shall be driven from among men, your dwelling shall be with the beasts of the field.
You shall be made to eat grass like an ox, you shall be wet with the dew of heaven, seven periods of time shall pass over you, till you know that the Most High rules the kingdom of men and gives it to whom he will. Lutheran Protestant reformer Johann Wigand viewed the watcher in Nebuchadnezzar's dream as either God himself, or the Son of God, he promoted Trinitarian thinking by linking verse 17 with verse 24. Secular scholars view these "watchers, holy ones" as showing an influence of Babylonian religion, an attempt by the author of this section of Daniel to present Nebuchadnezzar's Babylonian gods recognizing the power of the god of Israel as "Most High"; the Greek Septuagint version differs from the Aramaic Massoretic Text: for example, the Aramaic text is ambiguous about, telling the story of verse 14, whether it is Nebuchadnezzar, or the watcher in his dream. In the Books of Enoch, the first Book of Enoch devotes much of its attention to the fall of the watchers; the Second Book of Enoch addresses the watchers.
The Third Book of Enoch gives attention to the unfallen watchers. The use of the term "watchers" is common in the Book of Enoch; the Book of the Watchers occurs in the Aramaic fragments with the phrase irin we-qadishin, "Watchers and Holy Ones", a reference to Aramaic Daniel. The Aramaic irin "watchers" is rendered as "angel" in the Greek and Ethiopian translations, although the usual Aramaic term for angel malakha does not occur in Aramaic Enoch; some have attempted to date this section of 1 Enoch to around the 2nd–1st century BC and they believe this book is based on one interpretation of the Sons of God passage in Genesis 6, according to which angels mated with human females, giving rise to a race of hybrids known as the Nephilim. The term irin is applied to disobedient watchers who numbered a total of 200, of whom their leaders are named, but Aramaic iri is applied to the obedient archangels who chain them, such as Raphael. In the Book of Enoch, the watchers are angels dispatched to Earth to watch over the humans.
They soon begin to lust for human women and, at the prodding of their leader Samyaza, defect en masse to illicitly instruct humanity and procreate among them. The offspring of these unions are the Nephilim, savage giants who pillage the earth and endanger humanity. Samyaza and his associates further taught their human charges arts and technologies such as weaponry, mirrors and other techniques that would otherwise be discovered over time by humans, not foisted upon them all at once. God allows a Great Flood to rid the earth of the Nephilim, but first sends Uriel to warn Noah so as not to eradicate the human race; the watchers are bound "in the valleys of the Earth" until Judgment Day. The chiefs of tens, listed in the Book of Enoch, are as follows: 7, and these are the names of their leaders: Sêmîazâz, their leader, Arâkîba, Râmêêl, Kôkabîêl, Tâmîêl, Râmîêl, Dânêl, Êzêqêêl, Barâqîjâl, Asâêl, Armârôs, Batârêl, Anânêl, Zaqîêl, Samsâpêêl, Satarêl, Tûrêl, Jômjâêl, Sariêl. 8. These are their chiefs of tens.
The book of Enoch lists leaders of the 200 fallen angels who married and commenced in unnatural union with human women, who taught forbidden knowledge. Some are listed in Book of Raziel, the Zohar, Jubilees. Araqiel taught humans the signs of the earth. However, in the Sibylline Oracles, Araqiel is referred to not as a fallen angel, or watcher, but as one of the five angels who lead the souls of humans to judgment, the other four being Ramiel, Uriel and Azazel
In Abrahamic religions, fallen angels are angels who were expelled from heaven. The term "fallen angel" appears neither in the Bible nor in other Abrahamic scriptures, but is used of angels who were cast out of heaven, or angels who sinned; such angels tempt humans to sin. The idea of fallen angels derived from the Book of Enoch, a Jewish pseudepigraph, or the assumption that the "sons of God" mentioned in Genesis 6:1–4 are angels. In the period preceding the composition of the New Testament, some sects of Judaism, as well as many Christian Church Fathers, identified the "sons of God" of Genesis 6:1–4 as fallen angels. Rabbinic Judaism and Christian authorities after the third century rejected the Enochian writings and the notion of an illicit union between angels and women producing giants. Christian doctrine states that the sins of fallen angels start before the beginning of human's history. Accordingly, fallen angels became identified with angels who were led by Satan in rebellion against God and equated with demons.
However, during the intertestamental period, demons were not thought of as the fallen angels themselves, but as the surviving souls of their monstrous offspring. According to this interpretation, fallen angels have intercourse with human women, giving existence to the Biblical giants. To purge the world from these creatures, God sends their bodies are destroyed. However, their spiritual parts survive, henceforth roaming the earth as demons. Although sometimes denied by some scholars, many classical Islam scholars accepted the existence of fallen angels. Evidence for the motif of fallen angels can be traced back to reports attributed to some of the companions of Muhammad, such as Ibn Abbas and Abdullah ibn Masud. At the same time, some Islamic scholars opposed the assumption of fallen angels by stressing out the piety of angels supported by verses of Quran, such as 16:49 and 66:6. One of the first opponents of fallen angels was the early and influential Islamic ascete Hasan of Basra. To support the doctrine of infallible angels, he pointed at verses which stressed the piety of angels, while reinterpreting verses which might imply acknowledgement of fallen angels.
For that reason, he read the term mala'ikah in reference to Harut and Marut in 2:102 as malikayn, depicting them as ordinary men and not as angels and Iblis as a jinn. Scholars who accepted fallen angels estimated the degree of fallibility of angels. According to a common assertion, only the messengers among angels are impeccable. Academic scholars have discussed whether or not the Quranic jinn are identical to the Biblical fallen angels. Although the different types of spirits in the Quran are sometimes hard to distinguish, the jinn in Islamic traditions seem to differ in their major characteristics from fallen angels; the concept of fallen angels is found in works dated to the Second Temple period between 530 BCE and 70 CE: in the Book of Enoch, the Book of Jubilees and the Qumran Book of Giants. A reference to heavenly beings called "Watchers" originates in Daniel 4, in which there are three mentions, twice in the singular, once in the plural, of "watchers, holy ones"; the Ancient Greek word for watchers is ἐγρήγοροι translated as "wakeful".
Some scholars consider it most that the Jewish tradition of fallen angels predates in written form, the composition of Gen 6:1–4. In the Book of Enoch, these Watchers "fell" after they became "enamored" with human women; the Second Book of Enoch refers to the same beings of the Book of Enoch, now called Grigori in the Greek transcription. Compared to the other Books of Enoch, fallen angels play a less significant role in 3 Enoch. 3 Enoch mentions only three fallen angels called Azazel and Uzza. Similar to The first Book of Enoch, they taught sorcery on earth. Unlike the first Book of Enoch, there is no mention of the reason for their fall and, according to 3 Enoch 4.6, they later appear in heaven objecting to the presence of Enoch. According to 1 Enoch 7.2, the Watchers become "enamoured" with human women and have intercourse with them. The offspring of these unions, the knowledge they ware giving, corrupt human beings and the earth 1 Enoch 10.11–12. Eminent among these angels are Shemyaza, their leader, Azazel.
Like many other fallen angels mentioned in 1 Enoch 8.1-9, Azazel introduces men to "forbidden arts", it is Azazel, rebuked by Enoch himself for illicit instructions, as stated in 1 Enoch 13.1. According to 1 Enoch 10.6, God sends the archangel Raphael to chain Azazel in the desert Dudael as punishment. Further, Azazel is blamed for the corruption of earth:1 Enoch 10:12: "All the earth has been corrupted by the effects of the teaching of Azazyel. To him therefore ascribe the whole crime." An etiological interpretation of 1 Enoch deals with the origin of evil. By shifting the origin of mankind's sin and their misdeeds to illicit angel instruction, evil is attributed to something supernatural from without; this motif, found in 1 Enoch, differs from that of Jewish and Christian theology. According to a paradigmatic interpretation, 1 Enoch might deal with illicit marriages between priests and women; as evident from Leviticus 21:1-15, priests were prohibited to marry impure woman. Accordingly, the fallen angels in 1 Enoch are the priests counterpart, who defile themselves by marriage.
Just like the angels are expelled from heaven, the priests are excluded from their service at the altar. Unlike most other apocalyptic writings, 1 Enoch reflects a growing dissatisfaction with the priestly establishments in Jerusal