Coraki, New South Wales
Coraki is a small town that sits on the confluence of the Richmond and Wilson Rivers in northern New South Wales, Australia in Richmond Valley Shire. At the 2011 census, Coraki had a population of 1,478 people, the name Coraki is derived from the Bundjalung word gurigay, meaning the meeting of the waters. Coraki is positioned centrally to the hub of the Summerland Way Casino, the city of Lismore. Like many other towns in the area, it is a hub for the agricultural industries such as cattle, sugar cane. Coraki is the home of the annual Coraki Art Prize, an art competition and exhibition open to all artists and including painting, photography and printmaking, held late October. Each year, a fundraising event for the Art Prize. In 2010, the first Dylanfest celebrated the music, annually in November, the Tweed Water Skiing Club converges on the Richmond River to contest the Coraki Assault race. At the western boundary of Coraki township lies Box Ridge, an indigenous community, the Coraki Hotel has a thriving Fishing Club that enjoys sponsorship from most of the local businesses in town.
The village was founded by William Yabsley in 1849 when Lismore was only a small station and Casino had only one store. Yabsley and his family obtained the lease to Brook Station and established the first permanent settlement and he built his shipyard just above The Junction, as it was first called. Many ships and river boats were launched there and Yabsley opened a store for provisions for the cedar cutters who came to the district, transport at the time was almost entirely by water and Coraki was the busiest port on the Richmond River. Northern Rivers Geoogy Blog - Coraki
The Ngarigo people are some of the Indigenous inhabitants living in South East Australia, and whose traditional lands extended from Canberra to Cooma, on the Monaro and Limestone Plains. However, as stated by the South Australia Museum where his maps are archived, further south various dialects of Ngarigu are spoken by other tribes. However, as concluded in the 2013 ACT Government report Our Kin Our Country, the Ngarigo/Ngarmal are an Aboriginal group whose traditional lands lie in the Monaro and Australian Alpine regions of New South Wales and Victoria, and the Canberra and Queanbeayan area. With their hunting areas being taken over by European settlers running sheep, the population decreased due to the spread of diseases introduced by the Europeans, such as smallpox, influenza and tuberculosis. Thus, all that was left were mixed race people working either as labourers or domestic servants, many people were moved to New South Wales government settlements, such as at Yass. By 1880 there were no full blood Aboriginal people living in the Canberra area, according to some scholars, the language of the Wolgalu is a form of Ngarigu, others that it is the other way round.
A southern dialect, of Ngarigu was used as far south as Goongerah in Victoria, the last two both spoke dialects of Ngarigu. The present dispute originated when Tindall in his 1940 and 1974 maps incorrectly drew its boundaries with that of Ngarigo/Nguramal, the report confirmed that the language spoken in the Canberra region was a dialect of Ngarigu, related to but distinguishable from the dialects spoken at Tumut and Monaro. The evidence that the language spoken in the Canberra Based on known disputes between the two tribes, the boundary ran from north of Sutton on the Yass River to Wee Jasper on the Murrumbidee. However, the claim of the status is disputed by some Aboriginal people who say that the Ngambri are a small family clan of the Wiradjuri nation. However latest research shows, Walegulu were the south of Cooma in the Australian Alps. In 2013, an ACT Government anthropological report was released concluding that the struggle between various groups for the mantle of Canberras first people is likely to remain uncertain.
The report concluded that evidence gathered from the mid-1700s onward was too scant to support any familys claims and European Encounter in the Canberra Region Aboriginals on the Monaro
Norman Barnett Tindale AO was an Australian anthropologist, archaeologist and ethnologist. The family returned to Perth, and in 1917 moved to Adelaide where Tindale took up a position as a cadet at the Adelaide Public Library. Shortly after this, Tindale lost the sight in one eye in a gas explosion which occurred while assisting his father with photographic processing. In January 1919 he secured a position at the South Australian Museum as Entomologists Assistant to Arthur Mills Lea and he had already published thirty-one papers on entomological and anthropological subjects before receiving his Bachelor of Science degree at the University of Adelaide in March 1933. Tindale is best remembered for his work mapping the various groupings of Indigenous Australians. This interest began with a trip to Groote Eylandt where an Anindilyakwa man gave Tindale very detailed descriptions of which land was his. This led Tindale to question the orthodoxy of the time which was that Aboriginal people were purely nomadic and had no connection to any specific region.
While Tindales methodology and his notion of the tribe have been superseded. Quite a number of now-important record films were made by Tindale, in 1942 Tindale joined the Royal Australian Air Force and was assigned the rank of Wing Commander. He had previously tried to enlist in the Australian army at the outbreak of WWII but was rejected due to his damaged eyesight, in 1967, at the age of sixty-six, he received an honorary doctorate from the University of Colorado. He was eventually honoured with a doctorate by the Australian National University in 1980, during 1993 Tindale received unofficial confirmation of his appointment as an Officer of the Order of Australia, this was presented posthumously, to his widow Muriel. Also in 1993, the South Australian Museum Boards named a public gallery in his honour, Tindale published extensively, both as sole author and collaborator. Note that the archives contain 2,804 items related to Dr Tindale
The Kamilaroi is one of the four largest indigenous nations in Australia. The Kamilaroi language is classified in the Pama–Nyungan family of Australian languages, the Kamilaroi Highway, Sydney Ferries Limiteds vehicular ferry Kamilaroi, and a cultivar of Durum wheat have all been named after the Kamilaroi people. The language is no longer spoken, though parts have bneen reconstructed by late field work. Robert M. W. Dixon and his student Peter Austin recorded some around Moree, while Corinne Williams wrote a thesis on the Yuwaaliyaay dialect spoken at Walgett, the Gamilaroi were hunters and gatherers with a band-level social organization. Important vegetable foods were yams and other roots, as well as a sterculia grain, insect larvae and eggs of several different animals were gathered. Various birds, emus, possums, dingo pups were regarded as a delicacy. Fish were consumed, as were crayfish, men typically hunted and prepared the game for cooking. Women did the cooking, in addition to fishing and gathering.
Individual Kamilaroi did not eat animals that were their totems, the Gamilaroi or Gomilaroi from the word Kamil or Gamil meaning no, are a large nation of Aborigines consisting of many tribes. The Gamilaroi are the second largest Aboriginal nation on the side of Australia. The nation was made up of smaller family groups who had their own parcels of land to sustain them. One of the great Kings of this tribe was Red Chief, the last link with tribal law and custom in Mungindi would be the forebear of the present Cubby family, who was the last known Respected Elder in the tribe. The Kamilaroi were regarded as fierce warriors and there is evidence of intertribal warfare. The Northern Gamilaroi people have a cultural connection with the Bigambul people. Kamilaroi tradition includes Baiame, the ancestor or patron god, the Baiame story tells how Baiame came down from the sky to the land, and created rivers and forests. He gave the people their laws of life, songs and he created the first initiation site.
This is known as a bora, a place where boys were initiated into manhood, when he had finished, he returned to the sky, and people called him the Sky Hero or All Father or Sky Father. He is said to be married to Birrahgnooloo, who is identified as an emu
Himberrong is a clan of the Anēwan Aboriginal tribe of what is now known as the New England Tablelands region in northeast New South Wales. The territory of the Himberrong clan stretches from the Moonbi Range in the west, past Yarrowitch and Kunderang in the east, border disputes over the Moonbi Range were common between the Himberrong and a clan of the Gamilaraay. The main camp of the Himberrong was on the bank of the Muluerindie/Macdonald River about two miles upriver from where the 140-acre Inglebah Aboriginal Reserve now stands. Inglebah is the Anaiwan word for whirlpools of crayfish, the swamps, traditionally Aboriginal people camped around Inglebah for fishing and ceremonial activities. Inglebah was favored because it was a sheltered, secure camping spot nestled between hills and the banks of the MacDonald River. It has a permanent water supply from the springs in the area, an elicitation of Anaiwan words was recorded on tape by Harry Wright in 1963 as they were spoken by tribesmen coming into Armidale from Inglebah.
At the time of first contact, the Himberrong clan numbered around 600, two Himberrong men by the names of Bungaree and Yarry were the first of their clan to encounter colonists in the early 1800s. On returning from their trips, the clan would have a great corroboree. In the late 1800s, colonists used explosives to massacre the Himberrong clan at their main camp
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south and it has a coast line with the Tasman Sea on its east side. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state, New South Wales state capital is Sydney, which is Australias most populous city. In March 2014, the population of New South Wales was 7.5 million. Just under two-thirds of the population,4.67 million. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen, the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It originally comprised a more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825, in addition, the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemens Land, Lord Howe Island, and Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the area was detached to form separate British colonies that eventually became New Zealand. However, the Swan River Colony has never administered as part of New South Wales.
Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal Territory, as have the now known as the Australian Capital Territory. The prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago, before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region. The Wodi Wodi people are the custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. The Bundjalung people are the custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland. In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land New Wales, however, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he revised the wording to New South Wales. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, macquaries legacy is still evident today.
During the 19th century, large areas were separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia, Victoria. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855, following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840
Contact with the first white settlements bridgehead into Australia quickly devastated much of the population through epidemics of smallpox and other diseases. Their descendants live on, though the language, social system, way of life and traditions are mostly lost. The language spoken by the Eora has, since the time of R. H. Mathews, been called Dharuk, the Australian bush term bogey comes from a Port Jackson Dharuk root buugi-. In terms of boundaries, the Kuringgai lay to the north, on the Western edges were the Darug, and to the south, around Kundul were the Gwiyagal. Eora is used specifically of the people around the first area of settlement in Sydney. The generic term Eora generally is used with a wider denotation to embrace some 29 bands, which in turn constituted clans that spoke several distinct languages. Thus, Eora is used collectively to refer to all tribes in the area of the settlement area, the Guringai to the north, the Tharawal people to the south. These have been classified into the language groups.
The sizes of bands, as opposed to clans, averaged around 50 members, -gal denominates the clan affixed to the place name. Muringong Camden Cattai Windsor Kurrajong Kurrajong Boo-bain-ora Wentworthville Mulgoa Penrith 4, dharawal South Gweagal Norongerragal Illawarra Threawal Tagary Wandeandegal The Cadigal people are the traditional owners of the inner Sydney city region. Their traditional land and waters are south of Port Jackson, stretching from South Head to Petersham, the people described by British settlers as the Eora people were probably Cadigal people, the Aboriginal tribe of the inner Sydney region in 1788 at the time of first European settlement. The Cadigal clan western boundary is approximately the Balmain peninsula, the traditional territory of the Wanegal people begins around Goat Island and runs west past Concord to what is now called Parramatta, and includes parts of Lane Cove River. The Cammeraygal peoples traditional territory is on the present-day lower North Shore of Port Jackson, the traditional Eora people were largely coastal dwellers and lived mainly from the produce of the sea.
They were expert in navigation, fishing and eating in the bays. The Eora people did not grow or plant crops, although the women picked herbs which were used in herbal remedies, the Eora placed a time limit on formal battles engaged in order to settle inter-tribal grievances. Such fights were regulated to begin late in the afternoon, the first contact occurred when James Cooks Endeavour anchored in Botany Bay. A drawing, thought recently to be the handiwork of the Polynesian navigator Turpaia who was on board Cooks ship, survives depicting Aboriginals in Botany Bay, around Kurnel. When the First Fleet of 1300 convicts and administrators arrived in January 1788, by early 1789 frequent remarks were made of great numbers of decomposed bodies of Eora natives which settlers and sailors came across on beaches, in coves and in the bays
The Paakantyi are an Australian Aboriginal tribal group of the Darling River basin in Far West New South Wales, Australia. They lived in the country from the river, around the Paroo River. In the nineteenth century they were reduced by disease and they ended up working for the immigrants who had invaded their lands. Pictures were taken by Frederic Bonney at Momba Station in the 1870s which have provided a sympathetic, unusually Bonney records their names and his reverence for their integrity. The name of the language refers to the Paaka, with the suffix -ntyi, the name Paakantyi therefore simply means the River People. Etymologically the suffix -kali has been attributed as meaning people, and is incorporated in numerous group names in the nearby area, the major work on the Paakantyi language has been that of linguist Luise Hercus
The Richmond River is a river with a mature wave dominated, barrier estuary, situated in the Northern Rivers region of New South Wales, Australia. On its journey it passes through the towns of Kyogle, Coraki, summerland Way is situated adjacent to much of the middle reaches of the course of Richmond River. At Ballina, the Pacific Highway crosses the river, the catchment area of the river is estimated at 6,862 square kilometres, which makes it the sixth largest catchment in New South Wales, and its floodplain has an area of over 1,000 square kilometres. One of the rituals of the Githabul people was the movement from the mountain ranges to the coast during the winter months. Rous entered the river and sailed about 20 miles up river and he subsequently named the river Richmond after the fifth Duke of Richmond. Later that year the explorer Allan Cunningham reached the river by land, the river was a major port from the 1840s until well into the 20th century. Soon after the first white settlers arrived they discovered the abundant supply of Australian Red Cedar in the Richmond Valley, the river was vital in the transportation of this resource.
At the time of its discovery in 1828 and until the late 1890s the river had a mouth of shifting sand bars. Understandably, a decision was made to construct two breakwaters to channel the flow and these were completed in the early 1900s. The construction of the breakwaters led to the formation of Shaws Bay, in 1846, a conflict between white settlers and local Aborigines in the river valley caused the deaths of around 100 of the latter. With the decline of shipping as a mode, owing to better roads and rail, and the closing of the North Coast Steam Navigation Company in 1954. For boats, the river is navigable for a way up its length. Wilsons River, which flows through the city of Lismore and is a tributary of the Richmond, is navigable at least as far as Boatharbour. The Richmond River is heavily used for irrigation along its length, several weirs have been constructed in order to mitigate the effects of flooding, most notably at Casino. The freshwater reaches of the Richmond River once supported the endemic Richmond River Cod, similar to Murray Cod, the endangered Oxleyan Pygmy Perch has been recorded from the river.
Rivers of New South Wales List of rivers of Australia Border Ranges National Park Richmond Range National Park Richmond River catchment, Richmond River County Council Northern Rivers Catchment Management Authority
Casino, New South Wales
Casino is a town in the Northern Rivers area of New South Wales, with a population of 9,629 people at the 2011 census. It lies on the banks of the Richmond River and is situated at the junction of the Bruxner Highway and it is located 726 km north of Sydney and 228 km south of Brisbane. Casino is the seat of the Richmond Valley Council, a local government area, the town is named after the Casino Station, owned by Clarke Irving, which was named after Cassino in Italy, with which it has a sister city agreement. Casino is among Australias largest beef centres and it is the regional hub of a very large cattle industry and positions itself as the Beef Capital of Australia, although the city of Rockhampton claims this title. In addition it is the centre for a rich agricultural area. Each year the town celebrates Beef Week and it was not held in 2007 but since that year, has continued to be held and celebrated. Casino station is situated on the main North Coast railway line between Sydney and Brisbane, north of Grafton, a branch line ran via Lismore to Murwillumbah, that line has since been closed, although lobbying is taking place to re-open it.
Casino railway station is the terminus of the daily Casino XPT from Sydney and there is a service to. In the 1920s, a never completed railway branch line to Bonalbo was started, a line was proposed from Casino via Tabulam and even a line all the way to Tenterfield, Casino is serviced by Lismore Airport with several daily flights to Sydney. Northern Rivers Buslines operates rural services to Lismore and Kyogle each weekday, Casino Bus Service operates local town loops, including a loop service to Gays Hill. The song Ive Been Everywhere references Casino in its second verse, list of never used railways General travel information on Casino from The Sydney Morning Herald Casino – Visit NSW