Pailin is a province in western Cambodia at the northern edge of the Cardamom Mountains near the border of Thailand. This province is surrounded by Battambang Province, was carved out of Battambang to become a separate administrative division after the surrender of the Ieng Sary faction of the Khmer Rouge in 1996. Pailin is known to much of the world for having long been a stronghold of the Khmer Rouge, remaining under their control long after they were defeated in 1979 and serving from 1994 to 1998 as the capital of the "Provisional Government of National Union and National Salvation of Cambodia." Within Cambodia Pailin is known for its natural resources, precious gems and timber. Once a part of the powerful Khmer Empire, Pailin was conquered in 1558 by the Burmese under Bayinnaung and ruled by the Siamese until 1907 and from 1941 to 1946 when it was returned to Cambodia, it was known to the Thai as "Phailin". There is still a vibrant border crossing point in Pailin. On 22 December 2008, King Norodom Sihamoni signed a Royal Decree that changed the municipalities of Kep and Sihanoukville into provinces, as well as adjusting several provincial borders.
In the early 1970s, Pailin was a prosperous town stemming from the extensive gem deposits in the surrounding countryside. Because of its resources, it was one of the first cities invaded by the Khmer Rouge when they began their major offensive against the national government; the city offered no resistance and the Khmer Rouge soldiers were greeted as liberators as they marched into town. At this point, the deposed king had allied himself with the Khmer Rouge and most residents believed that they were fighting to restore him to power, it was not long, before most residents were rounded up for a forced march to the countryside to work in rice paddies. Those believed to have connections to the government were killed; the Khmer Rouge used proceeds from mining in the Pailin area to fund their offensive and their government once they gained national power. When the invading Vietnamese Army ousted them from power, they retreated to Pailin, where many former Khmer Rouge leaders remain today; some leaders went into hiding in fear of punishment for their crimes, although other leaders lived in the province.
As of September 2007, Pailin's remaining Khmer Rouge leaders were being rounded up to face justice by an international tribunal, including Khieu Samphan and Nuon Chea. Since the war, Pailin suffered failures of local businesses. However, the now politically stable area is seeing a new wave of tourism focused on its ancient temples, natural forests and wildlife, the precious gem market; the province is divided into 1 district and 1 municipality: Until 2001 Pailin was part of Battambang Province elevated to city status, again to provincial status and thus became an autonomous zone of its own. Wat Phnom Yat Built by Shan migrants from Myanmar in 1922, the Wat Phnom Yat is a holy place for worship in the heart of Pailin, it includes an old pagoda, similar to the Kola pagoda. Wat Rattanak Sophoan At the foot of Phnom Yat is another pagoda, the Wat Rattanak Sophoan, "a Burmese style pagoda more than 570 years of age". On the walls of the enclosure surrounding the pagoda is a bas-relief depicting the Hindu saga of the churning of the Ocean of Milk.
Pailin's culture is distinctly different from most of Khmer culture. Before the Khmer Rouge period, Pailin's culture was predominantly Shan Burmese, has much in common with that of the country of Thailand and Burma; this affinity is shown in the region's cuisine, temple architecture and arts. The people of Pailin were predominantly Kola; the Kola people migrated from Burma beginning in 1876. Another wave of migrants, the Shan arrived from Burma in the 1920s; the "Kola" or Burmese immigrants of Pailin are known for their work in the precious gem business, what attracted them to Pailin. Pailin was synonymous with the Mogok region of Burma. According to people who are in the gem business, gem stones of Pailin are comparable to the gem stones from the Mogok region in Burma. There are several dialects spoken locally including Khmer and Kola; the local Khmer dialect shows influence in tone and pronunciation from the Burmese languages as well as Kham Muang and Mon language. In Pailin, there are a few different kinds of foods.
Kola's food is distinct from Burma's Cuisine as well. The most popular Burmese style one is Mee Kola, a vegetarian noodle dish made from thin rice stick noodles and cooked with soy sauce and garlic chive, sometimes mixed with some meats and small lobster. Other dishes include Tom yum from Mon banana pudding of Burma; these have all spread to other parts of Thailand and Cambodia, but in versions which are flavored more sweetly than the Pailin version in Phnom Penh. The Traditional clothes of Pailin is Longyi known as Sarong; the cloth is sewn into a cylindrical shape. It is worn around the waist, it is held in place by folding fabric without a knot. It is sometimes folded up to the knee for comfort; these traditional "longyi" have about 2 meters of in length of swan. The cloth is sometimes from silk. Kola men wear ankle-length patterns of plaids or stripes "Longyi" in any kinds of color; the Men always wear their white eingyi shirt wh
State Railway of Thailand
The State Railway of Thailand is the state-owned rail operator under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Transport in Thailand. As of 2018, the network serves around 35 million passengers annually; the passenger count is expected to double by 2027 when expansion plans are realised and the network grows to serve 61 provinces. The SRT was founded as the Royal State Railways of Siam in 1890. King Chulalongkorn ordered the Department of Railways to be set up under the Department of Public Works and Town and Country Planning. Construction of the Bangkok-Ayutthaya railway, the first part of the Northern Line, was started in 1890 and inaugurated on 26 March 1896; the Thonburi-Phetchaburi line the Southern Line, was opened on 19 June 1903. The first railway commander of the RSR was Prince Purachatra Jayakara The Northern Line was built as 1,435 mm standard gauge, but in September 1919 it was decided to standardize on 1,000 mm meter gauge and the Northern Line was regauged during the next ten years. On 1 July 1951, RSR changed its name to the present State Railway of Thailand.
As of 2014 SRT had 4,043 km of track, all of it meter gauge except the Airport Link. Nearly all is single-track, although some important sections around Bangkok are double or triple-tracked and there are plans to extend this. By comparison, Thailand has 390,000 km of highways. In 2017, the SRT lost 17 billion baht; the SRT has suffered a loss every year since it was turned into a state-owned enterprise under the Transport Ministry in 1951. The SRT has debts amounting to nearly 100 billion baht, its annual operating losses are estimated at a minimum of 10 billion baht. In 2017 the military government budgeted more than 76 billion baht for SRT infrastructure investments; the funding is to be used for double-track rail expansions, an extension of Bangkok's elevated railway, construction of bridges and track improvements. In the fiscal year ending 30 September 2016, the SRT had managed to disburse only 53 percent of its allotted investment budget of 60 billion baht; this compares with an average disbursement rate of 80 percent by Thailand's other 55 state-owned enterprises.
Disbursement rate is seen as an indicator of efficient management. "If you look at the SRT they are a bit like a patient in and everyone is saying to him'you are the future' and trying to kick him out of bed when he is still moaning and groaning," said Ruth Banomyong, a logistics and transport expert at Thammasat University. The worst financially performing state enterprise, the SRT operates at a loss despite being endowed with large amounts of property—the SRT is one of Thailand's largest land holders, owning an estimated 39,840 hectares— and receiving large government subsidies, it reported a preliminary loss of 7.58 billion baht in 2010. Recurring government attempts at restructuring and/or privatization throughout the 2000s have always been opposed by the union and have not made any progress. SRT's failings are reflected in passenger numbers, according to the Economist Intelligence Unit have dropped from 88 million in 1994 to 44 million in 2014; the SRT has long been popularly perceived by the public as resistant to change.
Trains are late, most of its equipment is old and poorly maintained. Under the auspices of the Transport Ministry, the SRT has submitted a rehabilitation plan that will be presented to the State Enterprise Policy Commission on 30 July 2018; the commission, chaired by Prime Minister Prayut Chan-o-cha is expected to approve the plan. The plan calls for SRT to become the largest railway state enterprise in ASEAN. By 2027, anticipating income growth from asset management and cost management, SRT foresees profits of over 20 billion baht. Rail freight, cheaper—only half the cost of road transport—safer, more environmentally-friendly than road transport, accounted for only 1.4 percent of freight tonnage carried in 2015. SRT aims to boost its share of cargo transport to six percent with its double track expansion by 2022. Expansion of SRT's freight service, which could earn more money than the subsidized passenger service, has been neglected for decades in favour of Thailand's roads; the SRT's poor financial performance and resistance to reform, coupled with the Asian financial crisis of 1997, resulted in stringent restraints being placed on SRT staffing.
In July 1998, the Thai cabinet issued an order that the SRT could only hire five new employees for every 100 retirees. As of 2018, the order remains in effect. SRT officials estimated in 2017 that the enterprise needed to boost staff by 20 percent to 12,000. In 2018 SRT claims that it needs 18,015 employees to operate efficiently, but only has 10,035 on staff. To make up the shortfall, the SRT hires around 4,000 "daily workers" on daily wages of 300 baht, it has caused the SRT to pay massive amounts of overtime pay to current employees. For example, one station master in Pattani was paid 61,210 in monthly salary, but an additional 102,271 baht in overtime pay. To address a long list of complaints accusing SRT of a lack of transparency in bids for projects and procurement deals, Prime Minister Prayut Chan-o-cha fired the governor and board of the State Railway of Thailand in February 2017, using his special powers under Section 44 of the interim constitution. On the Southern Line, between Hat Yai Junction and Su-ngai Kolok railway station, in the south of Songkhla Province, Pattani Province, Yala Province and Narathiwat Province there have been regul
Cambodia the Kingdom of Cambodia, is a country located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is 181,035 square kilometres in area, bordered by Thailand to the northwest, Laos to the northeast, Vietnam to the east and the Gulf of Thailand to the southwest; the sovereign state of Cambodia has a population of over 16 million. The official religion is Theravada Buddhism, practised by 95 percent of the population; the country's minority groups include Vietnamese, Chams and 30 hill tribes. The capital and largest city is Phnom Penh, the political and cultural centre of Cambodia; the kingdom is an elective constitutional monarchy with a monarch Norodom Sihamoni, chosen by the Royal Throne Council as head of state. The head of government is the Prime Minister Hun Sen, the longest serving non-royal leader in Southeast Asia, ruling Cambodia since 1985. In 802 AD, Jayavarman II declared himself king, uniting the warring Khmer princes of Chenla under the name "Kambuja"; this marked the beginning of the Khmer Empire, which flourished for over 600 years, allowing successive kings to control and exert influence over much of Southeast Asia and accumulate immense power and wealth.
The Indianised kingdom facilitated the spread of first Hinduism and Buddhism to much of Southeast Asia and undertook many religious infrastructural projects throughout the region, including the construction of more than 1,000 temples and monuments in Angkor alone. Angkor Wat is designated as a World Heritage Site. After the fall of Angkor to Ayutthaya in the 15th century, a reduced and weakened Cambodia was ruled as a vassal state by its neighbours. In 1863, Cambodia became a protectorate of France, which doubled the size of the country by reclaiming the north and west from Thailand. Cambodia gained independence in 1953; the Vietnam War extended into the country with the US bombing of Cambodia from 1969 until 1973. Following the Cambodian coup of 1970 which installed the right-wing pro-US Khmer Republic, the deposed king gave his support to his former enemies, the Khmer Rouge; the Khmer Rouge emerged as a major power, taking Phnom Penh in 1975 and carrying out the Cambodian genocide from 1975 until 1979, when they were ousted by Vietnam and the Vietnamese-backed People's Republic of Kampuchea, supported by the Soviet Union in the Cambodian–Vietnamese War.
Following the 1991 Paris Peace Accords, Cambodia was governed by a United Nations mission. The UN withdrew after holding elections in which around 90 percent of the registered voters cast ballots; the 1997 factional fighting resulted in the ousting of the government by Prime Minister Hun Sen and the Cambodian People's Party, who remain in power as of 2018. Cambodia is a member of the United Nations since 1955, ASEAN, the East Asia Summit, the WTO, the Non-Aligned Movement and La Francophonie. According to several foreign organisations, the country has widespread poverty, pervasive corruption, lack of political freedoms, low human development and a high rate of hunger. Cambodia has been described by Human Rights Watch's Southeast Asian Director, David Roberts, as a "vaguely communist free-market state with a authoritarian coalition ruling over a superficial democracy". While per capita income remains low compared to most neighboring countries, Cambodia has one of the fastest growing economies in Asia, with growth averaging 7.6 percent over the last decade.
Agriculture remains the dominant economic sector, with strong growth in textiles, construction and tourism leading to increased foreign investment and international trade. The US World Justice Project's 2015 Rule of Law Index ranked Cambodia 76 out of 102 countries, similar to other countries in the region; the "Kingdom of Cambodia" is the official English name of the country. The English "Cambodia" is an anglicisation of the French "Cambodge", which in turn is the French transliteration of the Khmer កម្ពុជា kampuciə. Kampuchea is the shortened alternative to the country's official name in Khmer ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə; the Khmer endonym Kampuchea derives from the Sanskrit name कम्बोजदेश kambojadeśa, composed of देश deśa and कम्बोज kamboja, which alludes to the foundation myths of the first ancient Khmer kingdom. The term Cambodia was in use in Europe as early as 1524, since Antonio Pigafetta cites it in his work Relazione del primo viaggio intorno al mondo as Camogia.
Colloquially, Cambodians refer to their country as either ស្រុកខ្មែរ srok khmae, meaning "Khmer's Land", or the more formal ប្រទេសកម្ពុជា prɑteih kampuciə "Country of Kampuchea". The name "Cambodia" is used most in the Western world while "Kampuchea" is more used in the East. There exists sparse evidence for a Pleistocene human occupation of present-day Cambodia, which includes quartz and quartzite pebble tools found in terraces along the Mekong River, in Stung Treng and Kratié provinces, in Kampot Province, although their dating is unreliable; some slight archaeological evidence shows communities of hunter-gatherers inhabited the region during Holocene: the most ancient archaeological discovery site in Cambodia is considered to be the cave of L'aang Spean, in Battambang Province, which belongs to the Hoabinhian period. Excavations in its lower
Sa Kaeo Province
Sa Kaeo is a province of Thailand. It is in the east of Thailand about 200 km from Bangkok. Neighboring provinces are Chanthaburi, Prachinburi, Nakhon Ratchasima, Buriram. To the east it borders Banteay Battambang of Cambodia. Sa Kaeo became a province in 1993, when the six districts Sa Kaeo, Khlong Hat, Wang Nam Yen, Aranyaprathet, Ta Phraya, Watthana Nakhon of Prachinburi were elevated to provincial status, it is thus one of the four newest provinces of Thailand, together with Amnat Charoen, Nong Bua Lam Phu, most Bueng Kan. The province is overwhelmingly Theravada Buddhist. In 1979 Sa Kaeo Refugee Camp was established northwest of Sa Kaeo town, it closed in 1989, but the legacy of the border clashes of the 1970s, 1980s, 1990s is present. The largest land mine field in the world was planted along the Thai-Cambodia border according to some experts. 4,000 people have been injured or killed by landmines in Thailand since the border battles—19 persons in 2017 alone. According to a survey conducted in 2001, 27 of Thailand's 76 provinces were plagued with land mines, impacting more than 530 communities and some 500,000 people.
Thailand still has 409 km2 of mined area to clear scattered around the country. With an annual clearance rate of about one km2 between 2011 and 2015 the problem will not soon disappear; the north of the province is covered with the forested mountains of the Sankamphaeng Range and the Dangrek Mountains. To the south are the foothills of the Cardamom Mountains, which are deforested. Two national parks are found in the province: Pang Sida National Park was established in 1982, Ta Phraya National Park in 1996; the provincial seal shows the sun rising over archaeological ruins, Prasart Kao Noi Si Chom Poo, an important Khmer temple. The rising sun symbolizes the location of the province in the east. In the front is a Buddha image in a pond with lotus flowers. Provincial tree is Phyllanthus emblica; the provincial flower is the Orange Jessamine. The provincial slogan is The frontier of the east, beautiful forests and splendid waterfalls, plenty of ancient civilisations, the commercial venue between Thailand and Cambodia.
Sa Kaeo is divided into nine districts. The districts are further subdivided into 619 villages. Sa Kaeo travel guide from WikivoyageWebsite of the province Sa Kaeo provincial map, coat of arms and postal stamp
Sunshine duration or sunshine hours is a climatological indicator, measuring duration of sunshine in given period for a given location on Earth expressed as an averaged value over several years. It is a general indicator of cloudiness of a location, thus differs from insolation, which measures the total energy delivered by sunlight over a given period. Sunshine duration is expressed in hours per year, or in hours per day; the first measure indicates the general sunniness of a location compared with other places, while the latter allows for comparison of sunshine in various seasons in the same location. Another often-used measure is percentage ratio of recorded bright sunshine duration and daylight duration in the observed period. An important use of sunshine duration data is to characterize the climate of sites of health resorts; this takes into account the psychological effect of strong solar light on human well-being. It is used to promote tourist destinations. If the Sun were to be above the horizon 50% of the time for a standard year consisting of 8,760 hours, apparent maximal daytime duration would be 4,380 hours for any point on Earth.
However, there are physical and astronomical effects. Namely, atmospheric refraction allows the Sun to be still visible when it physically sets below the horizon. For that reason, average daytime is longest in polar areas, where the apparent Sun spends the most time around the horizon. Places on the Arctic Circle have the longest total annual daytime, 4,647 hours, while the North Pole receives 4,575; because of elliptic nature of the Earth's orbit, the Southern Hemisphere is not symmetrical: the Antarctic Circle, with 4,530 hours of daylight, receives five days less of sunshine than its antipodes. The Equator has a total daytime of 4,422 hours per year. Given the theoretical maximum of daytime duration for a given location, there is a practical consideration at which point the amount of daylight is sufficient to be treated as a "sunshine hour". "Bright" sunshine hours represent the total hours when the sunlight is stronger than a specified threshold, as opposed to just "visible" hours. "Visible" sunshine, for example, occurs around sunrise and sunset, but is not strong enough to excite the sensor.
Measurement is performed by instruments called sunshine recorders. For the specific purpose of sunshine duration recording, Campbell–Stokes recorders are used, which use a spherical glass lens to focus the sun rays on a specially designed tape; when the intensity exceeds a pre-determined threshold, the tape burns. The total length of the burn trace is proportional to the number of bright hours. Another type of recorder is the Jordan sunshine recorder. Newer, electronic recorders have more stable sensitivity than that of the paper tape. In order to harmonize the data measured worldwide, in 1962 the World Meteorological Organization defined a standardized design of the Campbell–Stokes recorder, called an Interim Reference Sunshine Recorder. In 2003, the sunshine duration was defined as the period during which direct solar irradiance exceeds a threshold value of 120 W/m². Sunshine duration follows a general geographic pattern: subtropical latitudes have the highest sunshine values, because these are the locations of the eastern sides of the subtropical high pressure systems, associated with the large-scale descent of air from the upper-level tropopause.
Many of the world's driest climates are found adjacent to the eastern sides of the subtropical highs, which create stable atmospheric conditions, little convective overturning, little moisture and cloud cover. Desert regions, with nearly constant high pressure aloft and rare condensation—like North Africa, the Southwestern United States, Western Australia, the Middle East—are examples of hot, dry climates where sunshine duration values are high; the two major areas with the highest sunshine duration, measured as annual average, are the central and the eastern Sahara Desert—covering vast desert countries such as Egypt, Libya and Niger—and the Southwestern United States. The city claiming the official title of the sunniest in the world is Yuma, with over 4,000 hours of bright sunshine annually, but many climatological books suggest there may be sunnier areas in North Africa. In the belt encompassing northern Chad and the Tibesti Mountains, northern Sudan, southern Libya, Upper Egypt, annual sunshine duration is estimated at over 4,000 hours.
There is a smaller, isolated area of sunshine maximum in the heart of the western section of the Sahara Desert around the Eglab Massif and the Erg Chech, along the borders of Algeria and Mali where the 4,000-hour mark is exceeded, too. Some places in the interior of the Arabian Peninsula receive 3,600–3,800 hours of bright sunshine annually; the largest sun-baked region in the world is North Africa. The sunniest month in the world is December in Eastern Antarctica, with 23 hours of bright sun daily. Conversely, higher latitudes lying in stormy westerlies have much cloudier and more unstable and rainy weather, have the lowest values of sunshine duration annually. Temperate oceanic climates like those in northwestern Europe, the western coast of Canada, areas of New Zealand's South Island are examples of cool, wet, humid climates where cloudless sunshine duration values are low; the areas with the lowest sunshine duration annually lie over the polar oceans, as well as parts of northern Europe, southern Alaska, northern Russia, areas near the Sea of
An amphoe is the second level administrative subdivision of Thailand. Translated as "district". Amphoe make up the provinces, are analogous to counties; the chief district officer is Nai Amphoe. Amphoe are divided into sub-districts. Altogether Thailand has 878 districts, not including the 50 districts of Bangkok which are called khet since the Bangkok administrative reform of 1972; the number of amphoe in provinces varies, from only three in the smallest provinces, up to the 50 urban districts of Bangkok. The sizes and population of amphoe differ greatly; the smallest population is in Ko Kut with just 2,042 citizens, while Mueang Samut Prakan has 509,262 citizens. The khet of Bangkok have the smallest areas—Khet Samphanthawong is the smallest, with only 1.4 km2—while the amphoe of the sparsely populated mountain regions are bigger than some provinces. Umphang at 4,325.4 km2 is the largest and has the lowest population density. The names of amphoe are unique, but in a few cases different Thai names have the same form in English due to the flaws of the romanization system.
The notable exception, however, is the name Amphoe Chaloem Phra Kiat, given to five districts created in 1996 in celebration of the 50th anniversary of King Bhumibol Adulyadej's accession to the throne. Chaloem Phra Kiat means'in commemoration of' or'in honour of' a royal family member; each district is led by a district chief officer, appointed by the Ministry of Interior. The officer is a subordinate of the provincial governor; the district which contains the administrative office of the province is the amphoe mueang. The district should not to be confused with the capital town itself, a different administrative entity much smaller than the district; until the 1930s, most of the capital districts had names just like other districts, whereas districts dating back to old provinces had the word mueang in their name. In 1938 all the capital districts were renamed amphoe mueang, whereas in all non-capital districts mueang was removed from the name; the notable exception to this rule is Ayutthaya, where the capital district is named Amphoe Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya, the same as the province, named Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya.
The capital districts of Thonburi and Phra Nakhon Provinces had the same name as the province, which they kept when the two provinces were merged to form Bangkok metropolis. In most cases the capital district is the most populous district of the province, as the provincial administration is in the largest town of the province. Songkhla Province is the most striking exception, as the town Hat Yai grew much faster than the capital Mueang Songkhla due to its better transport connections. There are four districts in Thailand which contain the term mueang in their name as well though they are not capital districts. All of these were created recently, between 1973 and 1995. Minor districts are set up when the administration of areas remote from the district center is inconvenient for citizens. Most of the tasks of the amphoe are transferred to the king amphoe, but it is still a subordinate of the amphoe it was created from; when the king amphoe meets the necessary qualifications to become an amphoe, it is promoted.
However, not every newly created amphoe begins as a king amphoe: if the qualifications are met directly, this phase is skipped. While a minor district is upgraded after a few years, in some cases it remains a minor district for decades. For example, Ko Yao was a minor district for 85 years until it was upgraded in 1988. Sometimes a district is downgraded to a minor district. Thung Wa lost a lot of its population to neighboring La-ngu minor district, so La-ngu was upgraded and Thung Wa downgraded. Another example is Chumphon Buri, reduced after the more developed part was split off to form a new district and the remaining district was downgraded; the criteria required for an amphoe are a population of at least 30,000 people and at least five tambon, or, if the area is more than 25 km from the district office, a population of at least 15,000 and four tambon. A minor district is led by a chief officer; the Thai word king means'branch' and should not be confused with the English word "king". The recommended translation is "minor district" —however they are quite translated as sub-district, the recommended translation for tambon, wrongly suggests that they are at a lower administrative level than the amphoe.
The Thai government upgraded all remaining 81 minor districts to full districts on 15 May 2007 in order to streamline administration. With publication in the Royal Gazette on 24 August the order became official; the administration of the district is housed in an office building called thi wa kan amphoe, which marks the center of each district. Distances on road signs are always calculated to this office building; the office is in the largest settlement of the district, to make it accessible to the majority of the population —one of the tasks of the amphoe is the civil registry, which makes the district the most important of the administrative levels for the Thai public. Administrative divisions of Thailand http://www.amphoe.com "Districts of Thailand". Statoids