Andira is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family, Fabaceae. It is distributed in the tropical Americas, except for A. inermis, which occurs in Africa. It was assigned to the tribe Dalbergieae, but recent molecular phylogenetic evidence has placed it in a unique clade named the Andira clade. Compared to other Faboideae the genus has unusual systems of root nodules and fruits, which are drupes. In most species the fruits are dispersed by bats, in some they are dispersed by rodents, they may be dispersed on water. Plants of the genus are used in traditional medicine in Brazil to treat fever and as purgatives and vermifuges; the treatments are toxic in high doses, however. Chemical compounds isolated from the genus include isoflavones, glycosides, pterocarpans and ursolic acid. Andira comprises the following species: The following species are of uncertain validity
The Fabaceae or Leguminosae known as the legume, pea, or bean family, are a large and economically important family of flowering plants. It includes trees and perennial or annual herbaceous plants, which are recognized by their fruit and their compound, stipulate leaves. Many legumes have characteristic fruits; the family is distributed, is the third-largest land plant family in terms of number of species, behind only the Orchidaceae and Asteraceae, with about 751 genera and about 19,000 known species. The five largest of the genera are Astragalus, Indigofera and Mimosa, which constitute about a quarter of all legume species; the ca. 19,000 known legume species amount to about 7% of flowering plant species. Fabaceae is the most common family found in tropical rainforests and in dry forests in the Americas and Africa. Recent molecular and morphological evidence supports the fact that the Fabaceae is a single monophyletic family; this conclusion has been supported not only by the degree of interrelation shown by different groups within the family compared with that found among the Leguminosae and their closest relations, but by all the recent phylogenetic studies based on DNA sequences.
These studies confirm that the Fabaceae are a monophyletic group, related to the Polygalaceae and Quillajaceae families and that they belong to the order Fabales. Along with the cereals, some fruits and tropical roots, a number of Leguminosae have been a staple human food for millennia and their use is related to human evolution; the Fabaceae family includes a number of important agricultural and food plants, including Glycine max, Pisum sativum, Cicer arietinum, Medicago sativa, Arachis hypogaea, Ceratonia siliqua, Glycyrrhiza glabra. A number of species are weedy pests in different parts of the world, including: Cytisus scoparius, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulex europaeus, Pueraria lobata, a number of Lupinus species; the name'Fabaceae' comes from the defunct genus Faba, now included in Vicia. The term "faba" comes from Latin, appears to mean "bean". Leguminosae is an older name still considered valid, refers to the fruit of these plants, which are called legumes. Fabaceae range in habit from giant trees to small annual herbs, with the majority being herbaceous perennials.
Plants have indeterminate inflorescences. The flowers have a short hypanthium and a single carpel with a short gynophore, after fertilization produce fruits that are legumes; the Leguminosae have a wide variety of growth forms, including trees, herbaceous plants, vines or lianas. The herbaceous plants can be annuals, biennials, or perennials, without basal or terminal leaf aggregations. Many Legumes have tendrils, they are epiphytes, or vines. The latter support themselves by means of shoots that twist around a support or through cauline or foliar tendrils. Plants can be mesophytes, or xerophytes; the leaves are alternate and compound. Most they are even- or odd-pinnately compound trifoliate and palmately compound, in the Mimosoideae and the Caesalpinioideae bipinnate, they always have stipules, which can be rather inconspicuous. Leaf margins are entire or serrate. Both the leaves and the leaflets have wrinkled pulvini to permit nastic movements. In some species, leaflets have evolved into tendrils.
Many species have leaves with structures that attract ants that protect the plant from herbivore insects. Extrafloral nectaries are common among the Mimosoideae and the Caesalpinioideae, are found in some Faboideae. In some Acacia, the modified hollow stipules are known as domatia. Many Fabaceae host bacteria in their roots within structures called root nodules; these bacteria, known as rhizobia, have the ability to take nitrogen gas out of the air and convert it to a form of nitrogen, usable to the host plant. This process is called nitrogen fixation; the legume, acting as a host, rhizobia, acting as a provider of usable nitrate, form a symbiotic relationship. The flowers have five fused sepals and five free petals, they are hermaphrodite, have a short hypanthium cup shaped. There are ten stamens and one elongated superior ovary, with a curved style, they are arranged in indeterminate inflorescences. Fabaceae are entomophilous plants, the flowers are showy to attract pollinators. In the Caesalpinioideae, the flowers are zygomorphic, as in Cercis, or nearly symmetrical with five equal petals in Bauhinia.
The upper petal is the innermost one, unlike in the Faboideae. Some species, like some in the genus Senna, have asymmetric flowers, with one of the lower petals larger than the opposing one, the style bent to one side; the calyx, corolla, or stamens can be showy in this group. In the Mimosoideae, the flowers are actinomorphic and arranged in globose inflorescences; the petals are small and the stamens, which can be more than just 10, have long, coloured filaments, which are the showiest part of the flower. All of the flowers in an inflorescence open at once. In the Faboideae, the flowers are zygom
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
Antiparasitics are a class of medications which are indicated for the treatment of parasitic diseases, such as those caused by helminths, ectoparasites, parasitic fungi, protozoa, among others. Antiparasitics target the parasitic agents of the infections by destroying them or inhibiting their growth. Antiparasitics are one of the antimicrobial drugs which include antibiotics that target bacteria, antifungals that target fungi, they may be administered intravenously or topically. Broad-Spectrum antiparasitics, analogous to broad-spectrum antibiotics for bacteria, are antiparasitic drugs with efficacy in treating a wide range of parasitic infections caused by parasites from different classes. Nitazoxanide Melarsoprol Eflornithine Metronidazole Tinidazole Miltefosine Mebendazole Pyrantel pamoate Thiabendazole Diethylcarbamazine Ivermectin Niclosamide Praziquantel Albendazole Praziquantel Rifampin Amphotericin B Fumagillin In the last decades, triazolopyrimidines and their metal complexes have been employed as an alternative drug to the exisisting commercial antimonials, searching for a decrease in side effects and the development of parasite drug resistance.
The use of metal compounds as antiparasitic agents has been reviewed. Antiparasitics treat parasitic diseases. Antiparastics may be given via a variety of routes depending on the specific medication, including oral and intravenous. Resistance to antiparasitics has been growing concern in veterinary medicine; the Egg hatch assay can be used to determine whether a parasite causing an infection has become resistant to standard drug treatments. Early antiparasitics were ineffective toxic to patients, difficult to administer due to the difficulty in distinguishing between the host and the parasite. Between 1975 and 1999 only 13 of 1,300 new drugs were antiparasitics, which raised concerns that insufficient incentives existed to drive development of new treatments for diseases that disproportionately target low-income countries; this led to new public sector and public-private partnerships, including investment by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Between 2000 and 2005, twenty new antiparasitic agents were developed or in development.
In 2005, a new antimalarial cost $300 million to develop with a 50% failure rate. Balsam of Peru, which has antiparasitic attributes Naegleria fowleri Balamuthia mandrillaris
Botany called plant science, plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist; the term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek word βοτάνη meaning "pasture", "grass", or "fodder". Traditionally, botany has included the study of fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists with the study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere of interest of the International Botanical Congress. Nowadays, botanists study 410,000 species of land plants of which some 391,000 species are vascular plants, 20,000 are bryophytes. Botany originated in prehistory as herbalism with the efforts of early humans to identify – and cultivate – edible and poisonous plants, making it one of the oldest branches of science. Medieval physic gardens attached to monasteries, contained plants of medical importance, they were forerunners of the first botanical gardens attached to universities, founded from the 1540s onwards.
One of the earliest was the Padua botanical garden. These gardens facilitated the academic study of plants. Efforts to catalogue and describe their collections were the beginnings of plant taxonomy, led in 1753 to the binomial system of Carl Linnaeus that remains in use to this day. In the 19th and 20th centuries, new techniques were developed for the study of plants, including methods of optical microscopy and live cell imaging, electron microscopy, analysis of chromosome number, plant chemistry and the structure and function of enzymes and other proteins. In the last two decades of the 20th century, botanists exploited the techniques of molecular genetic analysis, including genomics and proteomics and DNA sequences to classify plants more accurately. Modern botany is a broad, multidisciplinary subject with inputs from most other areas of science and technology. Research topics include the study of plant structure and differentiation, reproduction and primary metabolism, chemical products, diseases, evolutionary relationships and plant taxonomy.
Dominant themes in 21st century plant science are molecular genetics and epigenetics, which are the mechanisms and control of gene expression during differentiation of plant cells and tissues. Botanical research has diverse applications in providing staple foods, materials such as timber, rubber and drugs, in modern horticulture and forestry, plant propagation and genetic modification, in the synthesis of chemicals and raw materials for construction and energy production, in environmental management, the maintenance of biodiversity. Botany originated as the study and use of plants for their medicinal properties. Many records of the Holocene period date early botanical knowledge as far back as 10,000 years ago; this early unrecorded knowledge of plants was discovered in ancient sites of human occupation within Tennessee, which make up much of the Cherokee land today. The early recorded history of botany includes many ancient writings and plant classifications. Examples of early botanical works have been found in ancient texts from India dating back to before 1100 BC, in archaic Avestan writings, in works from China before it was unified in 221 BC.
Modern botany traces its roots back to Ancient Greece to Theophrastus, a student of Aristotle who invented and described many of its principles and is regarded in the scientific community as the "Father of Botany". His major works, Enquiry into Plants and On the Causes of Plants, constitute the most important contributions to botanical science until the Middle Ages seventeen centuries later. Another work from Ancient Greece that made an early impact on botany is De Materia Medica, a five-volume encyclopedia about herbal medicine written in the middle of the first century by Greek physician and pharmacologist Pedanius Dioscorides. De Materia Medica was read for more than 1,500 years. Important contributions from the medieval Muslim world include Ibn Wahshiyya's Nabatean Agriculture, Abū Ḥanīfa Dīnawarī's the Book of Plants, Ibn Bassal's The Classification of Soils. In the early 13th century, Abu al-Abbas al-Nabati, Ibn al-Baitar wrote on botany in a systematic and scientific manner. In the mid-16th century, "botanical gardens" were founded in a number of Italian universities – the Padua botanical garden in 1545 is considered to be the first, still in its original location.
These gardens continued the practical value of earlier "physic gardens" associated with monasteries, in which plants were cultivated for medical use. They supported the growth of botany as an academic subject. Lectures were given about the plants grown in the gardens and their medical uses demonstrated. Botanical gardens came much to northern Europe. Throughout this period, botany remained subordinate to medicine. German physician Leonhart Fuchs was one of "the three German fathers of botany", along with theologian Otto Brunfels and physician Hieronymus Bock. Fuchs and Brunfels broke away from the tradition of copying earlier works to make original observations of their own. Bock created his own system of plant classification. Physician Valerius Cordus authored a botanically and pharmacologically important herbal Historia Plantarum in 1544 and a pharmacopoeia of lasting importance, the Dispensatorium
A glucoside is a glycoside, derived from glucose. Glucosides are rare in animals. Glucose is produced when a glucoside is hydrolysed by purely chemical means, or decomposed by fermentation or enzymes; the name was given to plant products of this nature, in which the other part of the molecule was, in the greater number of cases, an aromatic aldehydic or phenolic compound. It has now been extended to include synthetic ethers, such as those obtained by acting on alcoholic glucose solutions with hydrochloric acid, the polysaccharoses, e.g. cane sugar, which appear to be ethers also. Although glucose is the most common sugar present in glucosides, many are known which yield rhamnose or iso-dulcite. Much attention has been given to the non-sugar parts of the molecules; the simplest glucosides are the alkyl ethers which have been obtained by reacting hydrochloric acid on alcoholic glucose solutions. A better method of preparation is to dissolve solid anhydrous glucose in methanol containing hydrochloric acid.
A mixture of alpha- and beta-methylglucoside results. Classification of the glucosides is a matter of some intricacy. One method based on the chemical constitution of the non-glucose part of the molecules has been proposed that posits four groups: alkyl derivatives, benzene derivatives, styrolene derivatives, anthracene derivatives. A group may be constructed to include the cyanogenic glucosides, i.e. those containing prussic acid. Alternate classifications follow a botanical classification. In this article the chemical classification will be followed, only the more important compounds will be discussed herein; these are mustard oils, which are characterized by a burning taste. Sinigrin, or the potassium salt of inyronic acid not only occurs in mustard seed, but in black pepper and in horseradish root. Hydrolysis with baryta, or decomposition by the ferment myrosin, gives glucose, allyl mustard oil and potassium hydrogen sulfate. Sinalbin occurs in white pepper. Jalapin or scammonin occurs in scammony.
These are oxy and oxyaldehydic compounds. Benzoic acid derivativesThe. Populin, which occurs in the leaves and bark of Populus tremula, is benzoyl salicin. Benzoyl-beta-D-glucoside is a compound found in Pteris ensiformis. Phenol derivativesThere are a number of glucosides found in natural phenols and polyphenols, as, for example, in the flavonoids chemical family. Arbutin, which occurs in bearberry along with methyl arbutin, hydrolyses to hydroquinone and glucose. Pharmacologically it acts as a urinary diuretic; the enzymes ptyalin and emulsin convert it into ortho-oxybenzylalcohol. Oxidation gives the aldehyde helicin; this group contains a benzene and an ethylene group, being derived from styrolene. Coniferin, C16H22O8, occurs in the cambium of conifer wood. Emulsin converts it into glucose and coniferyl alcohol, while oxidation gives glycovanillin, which yields with emulsin and vanillin. Syringin, which occurs in the bark of Syringa vulgaris, is a methoxyconiferin. Phloridzus occurs in the root-bark of various fruit trees.
It is related to the pentosides naringin, C27H32O14, which hydrolyses to rhamnose and naringenin, the phioroglucin ester of para-oxycinnamic acid, hesperidin, which hydrolyses to rhamnose and hesperetin, the phloroglucin ester of meta-oxy-para-methoxycinnamic acid or isoferulic acid, C10H10O4. Aesculin, occurring in horse-chestnut and California buckeye, daphnin, occurring in Daphne alpina, are isomeric. Fraxin, occurring in Fraxinus excelsior, with aesculin, hydrolyses to glucose and fraxetin, 7,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxycoumarin. Flavone or benzo-7-pyrone derivatives are numerous. Quercitrin is a yellow dyestuff found in Quercus velutina. Rhamnetin, a splitting product of the glucosides of Rhamnus, is monomethyl quercetin. Saponarin, a glucoside found in Saponaria officinalis, is a related compound. Strophanthin is the name given to two different compounds, g-strophanthin obtained from Strophanthus gratus and k-strophanthin from Stroph. Kombé; these are substituted anthraquinones. Chrysophanic acid, a dioxymethylanthraquinone, occurs in rhubarb, which contains emodin, a trioxymethylanthraquinone.
The most important cyanogenic glucoside is amygdalin. The enzyme maltase decomposes it into glucose and mandelic nitrile glucoside.