An arboretum in a narrow sense is a collection of trees only. Related collections include a fruticetum, and a viticetum, a collection of vines, more commonly, today, an arboretum is a botanical garden containing living collections of woody plants intended at least partly for scientific study. An arboretum specializing in growing conifers is known as a pinetum, other specialist arboreta include saliceta and querceta. The term arboretum was first used in an English publication by John Claudius Loudon in 1833 in The Gardeners Magazine, egyptian Pharaohs planted exotic trees and cared for them, they brought ebony wood from the Sudan, and pine and cedar from Syria. It is reported that Hatshepsut had these trees planted in the courts of her Deir el Bahri mortuary temple complex, Arboreta are special places for the cultivation and display of a wide variety of different kinds of trees and shrubs. Many tree collections have been claimed as the first arboretum, in most cases, Arboreta differ from pieces of woodland or plantations because they are botanically significant collections with a variety of examples rather than just a few kinds.
Of course there are many tree collections that are older than the eighteenth century in different parts of the world. Loudons Arboretum et Fruticetum Britannicum,8 vols, Loudon urged that a national arboretum be created and called for arboreta and other systematic collections to be established in public parks, private gardens, country estates and other places. He regarded the Derby Arboretum as the most important landscape-gardening commission of the part of his career because it demonstrated the benefits of a public arboretum. The more lofty trees suffered from the high winds. We walked round the two spirals of this coil of trees and shrubs, viz. from Acer to Quercus. There is no garden scene about London so interesting, a plan of Loddiges arboretum was included in The Encyclopaedia of Gardening,1834 edition. One example of an early European tree collection is the Trsteno Arboretum, the date of its founding is unknown, but it was already in existence by 1492, when a 15 m span aqueduct to irrigate the arboretum was constructed, this aqueduct is still in use.
The garden was created by the prominent local Gučetić/Gozze family and it suffered two major disasters in the 1990s but its two unique and ancient Oriental Planes remained standing. Udhagamandalam Arboretum, The Nilgiris, India The arboretum at Ooty was established in 1992 with an aim of conserving native and indigenous trees and it was established during the year 1992 and maintained by Department of Horticulture with Hill Area Development Programme funds. The area is the natural habitats of indigenous and migratory birds. During the year 2005-2006, it was rehabilated with funds provided by the Hill Area Development Programme by providing permanent fencing, a foot path, and other infrastructure facilities. The arboretum is the realization of the dream of William Douglas Cook, the arboretum is now the National Arboretum of New Zealand, and holds some 4,000 different trees and climbers
Philippe de Vilmorin
Joseph-Marie-Philippe Lévêque de Vilmorin, generally known as Philippe de Vilmorin, was a noted French botanist and plant collector, and a member of the celebrated Vilmorin family of horticulturists. In 1903 Vilmorin began the Arboretum de Pézanin, a located in Dompierre-les-Ormes, Saône-et-Loire, Bourgogne. He collected plants in Egypt and Sudan that now form part of the herbarium of the National Botanic Garden of Belgium. He took a keen interest in gardening, and was responsible for three important publications of the firm, Les Fleurs de Pleine Terre, Le Manuel de Floriculture. One of Philippe de Vilmorins great services to genetics was the organization of the Fourth International Conference on Genetics, held in Paris, September 18–23,1911. During World War I, as a officer in the French Army, Vilmorin was for a time attached to the Anglo-Indian Army in France as an interpreter. Philippe de Vilmorin died on 29 June 1917 aged 45 and he had been ill in southern France for some months, exhausted by his missions between Paris and London.
Philippe André de Vilmorin Louis de Vilmorin Louise de Vilmorin Aluka entry Wikispecies entry Dompierre-les-Ormes bulletin,2006 National Botanic Garden of Belgium, Herbarium
Dompierre-les-Ormes is a commune in the department of Saône-et-Loire in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, France. Dompierre is first mentioned in a Cluny charter from 951, where the name appears as Domnus Petrus, in 1820, the Comte de Marcellus brings the very famous Venus de Milo in France. During his journey, the statue made a halt at the castle Audour before being offered to King Louis XVIII. The poet Alphonse de Lamartine stayed on occasion in the Château dAudour in Dompierre, writing of it in 1862, since 1993 Dompierre has been a member of the Association des Dompierre de France, an association of 23 French communes sharing the name. Dompierre is located in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, about 200 mi southeast of Paris and 17 mi west of Mâcon, nestled in a picturesque wooded area, Dompierre is known locally as la petite Suisse du Mâconnais. Arboretum de Pézanin, La Galerie européenne de la forêt et du bois, with exhibits, transformed in 2014 in The Lab 71. The village has a stadium which serves for matches and training of FCDM.
Walking trails are referenced by guides and maps for tourists, for water activities, there are two pools. Communes of the Saône-et-Loire department Arboretum de Pézanin INSEE Dompierre-les-Ormes article on the French Wikipedia
Arboretum national des Barres
The Arboretum national des Barres is a national arboretum located in Nogent-sur-Vernisson, Centre, France. It is open daily in the months, an admission fee is charged. The Domaine des Barres was purchased in 1821 by Philippe André de Vilmorin for his studies in forestry. At that time it was almost entirely barren of trees, but Vilmorin planted todays extensive forest, primarily of Pinus sylvestris, P. laricio, and P. pinaster, as well as American oaks. In 1866 his heirs sold 67 hectares to the nation, on which was established a school, and in 1873 Constant Gouet. The Vilmorin family continued to be involved, particularly Maurice de Vilmorin. Director Léon Pardé greatly expanded the arboretum between 1919-1934, primarily by addition of specimens from the Far East, systematic collections and an ornamental collection were begun in 1894 and 1941 respectively. The arboretum opened to the public in 1984 and in 2003 was designated a Jardin Remarquable by the French ministry of culture, today the arboretum contains about 9,250 specimens representing 2,700 species and varieties.
It describes itself as one of the most complete European collections and its extensive collections include oaks, maples, spruces and firs. Major sections of the arboretum are as follows, Geographic collections - trees grouped by place of origin, euro-American collection has the oldest and largest specimens, including Sequoias and Thuja, Asian collection is noteworthy for its maples. Systematic collections - trees and shrubs grouped by botanical classification, includes azalea, magnolia, etc. Ornamental collection - ornamental plants, including twisted beeches, weeping cedars and sequoias, ÄH Vilmorin, ML de, and D. Bois, Fruticetum Vilmorianum, Catalogus primarius, Paris,1904. Liberty Hyde Bailey, The Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture, The Macmillan Company,1914, page 347
Lyon or Lyons is a city in east-central France, in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region, about 470 km from Paris and 320 km from Marseille. Inhabitants of the city are called Lyonnais, Lyon had a population of 506,615 in 2014 and is Frances third-largest city after Paris and Marseille. Lyon is the capital of the Metropolis of Lyon and the region of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, the metropolitan area of Lyon had a population of 2,237,676 in 2013, the second-largest in France after Paris. The city is known for its cuisine and gastronomy and historical and architectural landmarks and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, Lyon was historically an important area for the production and weaving of silk. It played a significant role in the history of cinema, the city is known for its famous light festival, Fête des Lumières, which occurs every 8 December and lasts for four days, earning Lyon the title of Capital of Lights. Economically, Lyon is a centre for banking, as well as for the chemical, pharmaceutical. The city contains a significant software industry with a focus on video games.
Lyon hosts the headquarters of Interpol and International Agency for Research on Cancer. Lyon was ranked 19th globally and second in France for innovation in 2014 and it ranked second in France and 39th globally in Mercers 2015 liveability rankings. These refugees had been expelled from Vienne by the Allobroges and were now encamped at the confluence of the Saône and Rhône rivers, dio Cassius says this task was to keep the two men from joining Mark Antony and bringing their armies into the developing conflict. The Roman foundation was at Fourvière hill and was officially called Colonia Copia Felix Munatia, a name invoking prosperity, the city became increasingly referred to as Lugdunum. The earliest translation of this Gaulish place-name as Desired Mountain is offered by the 9th-century Endlicher Glossary, in contrast, some modern scholars have proposed a Gaulish hill-fort named Lugdunon, after the Celtic god Lugus, and dúnon. It became the capital of Gaul, partly due to its convenient location at the convergence of two rivers, and quickly became the main city of Gaul.
Two emperors were born in city, whose speech is preserved in the Lyon Tablet in which he justifies the nomination of Gallic senators. Today, the archbishop of Lyon is still referred to as Primat des Gaules, the Christians in Lyon were martyred for their beliefs under the reigns of various Roman emperors, most notably Marcus Aurelius and Septimus Severus. Local saints from this period include Blandina and Epipodius, in the second century AD, the great Christian bishop of Lyon was the Easterner, Irenaeus. Burgundian refugees fleeing the destruction of Worms by the Huns in 437 were re-settled by the commander of the west, Aëtius. This became the capital of the new Burgundian kingdom in 461, in 843, by the Treaty of Verdun, with the country beyond the Saône, went to Lothair I
A typical cache is a small waterproof container containing a logbook and sometimes a pen or pencil. The geocacher enters the date they found it and signs it with their code name. After signing the log, the cache must be placed exactly where the person found it. Larger containers such as storage containers or ammunition boxes can contain items for trading, such as toys or trinkets. Geocaching shares many aspects with benchmarking, orienteering, treasure-hunting, Geocaching was originally similar to the 160-year-old game letterboxing, which uses clues and references to landmarks embedded in stories. The first documented placement of a GPS-located cache took place on May 3,2000, by Dave Ulmer of Beavercreek, the location was posted on the Usenet newsgroup sci. geo. satellite-nav as 45°17. 460′N 122°24. 800′W. By May 6,2000, it had been found twice, according to Dave Ulmers message, this cache was a black plastic bucket that was partially buried and contained software, books, money, and a slingshot.
A geocache and plaque called the Original Stash Tribute Plaque now sit at the site, the activity was originally referred to as GPS stash hunt or gpsstashing. This was changed shortly after the original hide when it was suggested in the gpsstash eGroup that stash could have negative connotations, for the traditional geocache, a geocacher will place a waterproof container containing a log book and trade items or trackables, record the caches coordinates. These coordinates, along with details of the location, are posted on a listing site. Other geocachers obtain the coordinates from that site and seek out the cache using their GPS handheld receivers. The finding geocachers record their exploits in the logbook and online, geocachers are free to take objects from the cache in exchange for leaving something of similar or higher value. Typical cache treasures, known in the world as swag, are not high in monetary value. Aside from the logbook, common cache contents are unusual coins or currency, small toys, ornamental buttons, CDs, or books.
Although not required, many geocachers decide to leave behind items, such as personal Geocoins, pins, or craft items. Disposable cameras are popular as they allow for anyone who found the cache to take a picture which can be developed and uploaded to a Geocaching web site listed below. Also common are objects that are moved from cache to cache called hitchhikers, such as Travel Bugs or Geocoins, cachers who initially place a Travel Bug or Geocoins often assign specific goals for their trackable items. Examples of goals are to be placed in a cache a long distance from home, or to travel to a certain country
In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification and a taxonomic rank. A species is defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction. While this definition is often adequate, looked at more closely it is problematic, for example, with hybridisation, in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies, or in a ring species, the boundaries between closely related species become unclear. Other ways of defining species include similarity of DNA, all species are given a two-part name, a binomial. The first part of a binomial is the genus to which the species belongs, the second part is called the specific name or the specific epithet. For example, Boa constrictor is one of four species of the Boa genus, Species were seen from the time of Aristotle until the 18th century as fixed kinds that could be arranged in a hierarchy, the great chain of being. In the 19th century, biologists grasped that species could evolve given sufficient time, Charles Darwins 1859 book The Origin of Species explained how species could arise by natural selection.
Genes can sometimes be exchanged between species by horizontal transfer, and species may become extinct for a variety of reasons. In his biology, Aristotle used the term γένος to mean a kind, such as a bird or fish, a kind was distinguished by its attributes, for instance, a bird has feathers, a beak, wings, a hard-shelled egg, and warm blood. A form was distinguished by being shared by all its members, Aristotle believed all kinds and forms to be distinct and unchanging. His approach remained influential until the Renaissance, when observers in the Early Modern period began to develop systems of organization for living things, they placed each kind of animal or plant into a context. Many of these early delineation schemes would now be considered whimsical, animals likewise that differ specifically preserve their distinct species permanently, one species never springs from the seed of another nor vice versa. In the 18th century, the Swedish scientist Carl Linnaeus classified organisms according to shared physical characteristics and he established the idea of a taxonomic hierarchy of classification based upon observable characteristics and intended to reflect natural relationships.
At the time, however, it was widely believed that there was no organic connection between species, no matter how similar they appeared. However, whether or not it was supposed to be fixed, by the 19th century, naturalists understood that species could change form over time, and that the history of the planet provided enough time for major changes. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, in his 1809 Zoological Philosophy, described the transmutation of species, proposing that a species could change over time, in 1859, Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace provided a compelling account of evolution and the formation of new species. Darwin argued that it was populations that evolved, not individuals and this required a new definition of species. Darwin concluded that species are what appear to be, ideas
Geneva is the second most populous city in Switzerland and is the most populous city of Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland. Situated where the Rhône exits Lake Geneva, it is the capital of the Republic, the municipality has a population of 198,072, and the canton has 484,736 residents. In 2014, the compact agglomération du Grand Genève had 946,000 inhabitants in 212 communities in both Switzerland and France, within Swiss territory, the commuter area named Métropole lémanique contains a population of 1.25 million. This area is essentially spread east from Geneva towards the Riviera area and north-east towards Yverdon-les-Bains, Geneva is the city that hosts the highest number of international organizations in the world. It is the place where the Geneva Conventions were signed, Geneva was ranked as the worlds ninth most important financial centre for competitiveness by the Global Financial Centres Index, ahead of Frankfurt, and third in Europe behind London and Zürich. A2009 survey by Mercer found that Geneva has the third-highest quality of life of any city in the world, the city has been referred to as the worlds most compact metropolis and the Peace Capital.
In 2009 and 2011, Geneva was ranked as, the city was mentioned in Latin texts, by Caesar, with the spelling Genava, probably from a Celtic toponym *genawa- from the stem *genu-, in the sense of a bending river or estuary. The medieval county of Geneva in Middle Latin was known as pagus major Genevensis or Comitatus Genevensis, the name takes various forms in modern languages, Geneva /dʒᵻˈniːvə/ in English, Genève, Genf, Italian and Romansh, Genevra. The city in origin shares its name, *genawa estuary, with the Italian port city of Genoa, Geneva was an Allobrogian border town, fortified against the Helvetii tribe, when the Romans took it in 121 BC. It became Christian under the Late Roman Empire, and acquired its first bishop in the 5th century, having been connected to the bishopric of Vienne in the 4th. In the Middle Ages, Geneva was ruled by a count under the Holy Roman Empire until the late 14th century, around this time the House of Savoy came to dominate the city. In the 15th century, a republican government emerged with the creation of the Grand Council.
In 1541, with Protestantism in the ascendancy, John Calvin, by the 18th century, Geneva had come under the influence of Catholic France, which cultivated the city as its own. France tended to be at odds with the ordinary townsfolk, in 1798, revolutionary France under the Directory annexed Geneva. At the end of the Napoleonic Wars, on 1 June 1814, in 1907, the separation of Church and State was adopted. Geneva flourished in the 19th and 20th centuries, becoming the seat of international organizations. Geneva is located at 46°12 North, 6°09 East, at the end of Lake Geneva. It is surrounded by two chains, the Alps and the Jura
The Autoroute A40 is a motorway in France that extends from Mâcon on the west to Passy on the east, terminating not far from Chamonix and the Mont Blanc Tunnel. The road runs 208 kilometres through Bresse, the high southern Jura Mountains, northern Prealps and it was fully completed in 1990, and includes 12 viaducts and 3 tunnels. The road is maintained by Autoroutes Paris-Rhin-Rhône, comprising part of European routes E25,1973, The section between Vallard and Bonneville was opened. 1974, The section between Bonneville and Cluses was opened,1975, The section between Cluses and Sallanches was opened. 1976, The section between Sallanches-Passy was opened in a ceremony presided over by Prime Minister Jacques Chirac,1982, The 50 kilometre section between Bellegarde and Annemasse is opened. These sections were previously numbered B41,1985, Section between Bourg-Nord and -Bourg-Sud completed. 1986, Opening of section between Bourg-Sud and Sylans, the French President, François Mitterrand opened the motorway giving it the name LAutoroute des Titans.
The whole road was re-numbered the A40 including a section where the road merges with the A42. Annemasse Péage de Nangy 15 km 161 Towns served, RN503 to Thonon-les-Bains Exchange A410-A40 Junction with the A410 to Annecy
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
The A6, known as the Autoroute du Soleil, Motorway of the Sun, is an Autoroute in France, linking Paris to Lyon. The motorway starts at Pariss Porte dOrléans and Porte dItalie with two branches, numbered A6a and A6b respectively, that south of Paris. The motorway is favoured by holidaymakers as it is the link to the South of France. Exits are numbered north to south. A6 autoroute in Saratlas A6 APRR, the operator of the A6