Arboretum de Podestat
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Hornbeams are hardwood trees in the flowering plant genus Carpinus in the birch family Betulaceae. The 30–40 species occur across much of the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere; the common English name hornbeam derives from the hardness of the woods and the Old English beam "tree". The American hornbeam is occasionally known as blue-beech, ironwood, or musclewood, the first from the resemblance of the bark to that of the American beech Fagus grandifolia, the other two from the hardness of the wood and the muscular appearance of the trunk, respectively; the botanic name for the genus, Carpinus, is the original Latin name for the European species. Though some botanists grouped them with the hazels and hop-hornbeams in a segregated family, modern botanists place the hornbeams in the birch subfamily Coryloideae. Hornbeams are small to medium-sized trees, Carpinus betulus reaching a height of 32 m; the leaves are deciduous and simple with a serrated margin, vary from 3–10 cm in length. The flowers are wind-pollinated pendulous catkins, produced in spring.
The male and female flowers are on the same tree. The fruit is a small nut about 3–6 mm long, held in a leafy bract; the asymmetry of the seedwing makes it spin. The shape of the wing is important in the identification of different hornbeam species. 10–30 seeds are on each seed catkin. The 30–40 species occur across much of the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere, with the greatest number of species in east Asia China. Only two species occur in Europe, only one in eastern North America, one in Mesoamerica. Carpinus betulus can be found in Europe and Ukraine. Hornbeams are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including autumnal moth, common emerald, feathered thorn, walnut sphinx, Svensson's copper underwing, winter moth as well as the Coleophora case-bearers C. currucipennella and C. ostryae. Hornbeams yield a hard timber, giving rise to the name "ironwood". Dried heartwood billets are suitable for decorative use. For general carpentry, hornbeam is used due to the difficulty of working it.
The wood is used to construct carving boards, tool handles, handplane soles, coach wheels, piano actions, shoe lasts, other products where a tough, hard wood is required. The wood can be used as gear pegs in simple machines, including traditional windmills, it is sometimes coppiced to provide hardwood poles. It is used in parquet flooring and for making chess pieces. Accepted species Carpinus betulus L. – European hornbeam - widespread across much of Europe. Carpinus caroliniana Walter – American hornbeam - Quebec, eastern half of US Carpinus chuniana Hu – Guangdong, Hubei Carpinus cordata Blume – Sawa hornbeam - Primorye, Korea, Japan Carpinus dayongiana K. W. Liu & Q. Z. Lin – Hunan Carpinus eximia Nakai – Korea Carpinus faginea Lindl. – Nepal, Himalayas of northern India Carpinus fangiana Hu – Sichuan, Guangxi Carpinus hebestroma Yamam. – Taiwan Carpinus henryana H. J. P. Winkl. – southern China Carpinus japonica Blume — Japanese hornbeam – Japan Carpinus kawakamii Hayata – Taiwan, southeastern China Carpinus kweichowensis Hu – Guizhou, Yunnan Carpinus langaoensis Z. Qiang Lu & J. Quan Liu – Shaanxi, China Carpinus laxiflora Blume – Aka-shide hornbeam - Japan, Korea Carpinus lipoensis Y.
K. Li – Guizhou Carpinus londoniana H. J. P. Winkl. – southern China, northern Indochina Carpinus luochengensis J. Y. Liang – Guangxi Carpinus mengshanensis S. B. Liang & F. Z. Zhao – Shandong Carpinus microphylla Z. C. Chen ex Y. S. Wang & J. P. Huang – Guangxi Carpinus mollicoma Hu – Tibet, Yunnan Carpinus monbeigiana Hand.-Mazz. – Tibet, Yunnan Carpinus omeiensis Hu & W. P. Fang – Sichuan, Guizhou Carpinus orientalis Mill. – Oriental hornbeam - Hungary, Italy, Turkey, Caucasus Carpinus paohsingensis W. Y. Hsia – China Carpinus polyneura Franch. – southern China Carpinus pubescens Burkill – China, Vietnam Carpinus purpurinervis Hu – Guizhou, Guangxi Carpinus putoensis W. C. Cheng – Putuo hornbeam - Zhejiang Carpinus rankanensis Hayata – Taiwan Carpinus rupestris A. Camus – Yunnan, Guizhou Carpinus shensiensis Hu – Gansu, Shaanxi Carpinus shimenensis C. J. Qi – Hunan †Carpinus tengshongensis W. C. Cheng – Zhejiang but extinct Carpinus tropicalis Lundell – Mexico, Central America Carpinus tsaiana Hu – Yunnan, Guizhou Carpinus tschonoskii Maxim.
– Chonowski's hornbeam - China, Japan Carpinus turczaninowii Hance – Korean hornbeam, - China, Japan Carpinus viminea Wall. Ex Lindl. – China, Himalayas, northern Indochina Eichhorn, Markus. "Hornbeam". Test Tube. Brady Haran for the University of Nottingham
Miscanthus, silvergrass, is a genus of African and Pacific Island plants in the grass family. SpeciesMiscanthus changii Y. N. Lee – Korea Miscanthus depauperatus Merr. – Philippines Miscanthus ecklonii Mabb. – southern Africa Miscanthus floridulus – China, Southeast Asia, Pacific Islands Miscanthus fuscus Benth. – Indian Subcontinent, Pen Malaysia Miscanthus junceus – southern Africa Miscanthus lutarioriparius L. Liu ex S. L. Chen & Renvoize – Hubei, Hunan Miscanthus nepalensis Hack. – Indian Subcontinent, Yunnan, Vietnam, Pen Malaysia Miscanthus nudipes Hack. – Assam, Nepal, Tibet, Yunnan Miscanthus × ogiformis Honda – Korea, Japan Miscanthus oligostachyus Stapf. – Korea, Japan Miscanthus paniculatus S. L. Chen & Renvoize – Guizhou, Yunnan Miscanthus sacchariflorus – Korea, northeastern China, Russian Far East Miscanthus sinensis – Korea, China, Southeast Asia, Russian Far East. – Japan Miscanthus villosus Y. C. Liu & H. Peng – Yunnan Miscanthus violaceus Pilg. – tropical Africaformerly includedsee Chloris, Pseudopogonatherum and Spodiopogon Miscanthus affinis – Pseudopogonatherum quadrinerve Miscanthus cotulifer – Spodiopogon cotulifer Miscanthus polydactylos – Chloris elata Miscanthus rufipilus – Saccharum rufipilum Miscanthus tanakae – Pseudopogonatherum speciosum M. sinensis is cultivated as an ornamental plant, is the source of several cultivars.
In Japan, where it is known as susuki, it is considered an iconic plant of late summer and early autumn. It is mentioned in Man'yōshū as one of the seven autumn flowers, it is used for the eighth month in hanafuda playing cards. It is decorated with bush clover for the Mid-Autumn Festival. Miscanthus has excellent fiber properties for papermaking. Miscanthus x giganteus is a productive, rhizomatous C4 perennial grass, originating from Asia, it is a sterile hybrid of M. sinensis and M. sacchariflorus, grows to heights of more than 4 meters in one growing season. In temperate climates like Europe the dry mass yield is 10-40 tonnes per hectare per year, depending on location. Just like Pennisetum purpureum and Saccharum ravennae, it is called «elephant grass». Miscanthus' ability to grow on marginal land and in cold weather conditions, its rapid CO2 absorption, its significant carbon sequestration and its high yield make it a favorite choice as a biofuel. Miscanthus is used for heat and power, but can be used as input for ethanol production.
If harvested dry, Miscanthus can be processed further. It can be used as a "green" building material, for both wall construction and as general insulation. An experimental house based on Miscanthus straw bales was built in 2017. UK's National Centre for Biorenewable Energy and Materials Miscanthus x giganteus - as an energy crop - Miscanthus Research at the University of Illinois - New Energy Farms - Miscanthus developers and suppliers - Terravesta - The complete supply chain solution for Miscanthus Europe
Bergerac is a commune and a sub-prefecture of the Dordogne department in southwestern France. The region is known for wine and tobacco, it has 12 recognized wine AOCs: Bergerac Bergerac Rosé Bergerac Sec Côtes-de-Bergerac Côtes de Bergerac Blanc Côtes de Montravel Montravel Haut-Montravel Saussignac Monbazillac Pécharmant Rosette The town has an important tourist industry. There are three museums, including a statue museum and a tobacco museum; the church of Notre Dame is located in the town centre. There is a wine house by the river which features a small exhibition on the history of wine growing. Bergerac offers some of the finest wines in the Bordeaux region due to the soil's excellent drainage; the Arboretum de Podestat is located near to Bergerac. The town contains two statues of Cyrano de Bergerac, subject of a famous play of the same name by Edmond Rostand, though the actual Cyrano never lived in Bergerac. An old stone statue stands on Place de la Myrpe. A newer statue, painted in colour and standing on a stainless steel pedestal, has been erected on Place Pelissiere.
Bergerac is served by the Bergerac-Roumanière airport, which has internal flights, routes to UK airports including Southampton, Manchester, East Midlands, Edinburgh, Liverpool, Leeds-Bradford and London Stansted Airport. Transavia flies to Bergerac from Amsterdam. Bergerac has an SNCF station with regular services to Sarlat-la-Canéda. A weekday bus service operates between Bergerac and Périgueux serving school commuters. Bergerac is located within the Bordeaux Académie; the main High School is Lycée Maine de Biran. Other high schools in the town include the private school Institution Sainte Marthe - Saint Front, Lycée Jean Capelle and Lycée Profesionelle de l'Alba Bergerac, Dordogne is twinned with: Repentigny, Canada since 1997 Faenza, Emilia-Romagna, Italy since 1998 Ostrów Wielkopolski, Poland since 2017 Communes of the Dordogne department Elias Burneti of Bergerac INSEE Official website Bergerac airport
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus of the beech family, Fagaceae. There are 600 extant species of oaks; the common name "oak" appears in the names of species in related genera, notably Lithocarpus, as well as in those of unrelated species such as Grevillea robusta and the Casuarinaceae. The genus Quercus is native to the Northern Hemisphere, includes deciduous and evergreen species extending from cool temperate to tropical latitudes in the Americas, Asia and North Africa. North America contains the largest number of oak species, with 90 occurring in the United States, while Mexico has 160 species of which 109 are endemic; the second greatest center of oak diversity is China, which contains 100 species. Oaks have spirally arranged leaves, with lobate margins in many species. Many deciduous species are marcescent. In spring, a single oak tree produces small female flowers; the fruit is a nut called an oak nut borne in a cup-like structure known as a cupule. The acorns and leaves contain tannic acid, which helps to guard from insects.
The live oaks are distinguished for being evergreen, but are not a distinct group and instead are dispersed across the genus. The oak tree is a flowering plant. Oaks may be divided into two genera and a number of sections: The genus Quercus is divided into the following sections: Sect. Quercus, the white oaks of Europe and North America. Styles are short; the leaves lack a bristle on their lobe tips, which are rounded. The type species is Quercus robur. Sect. Mesobalanus, Hungarian oak and its relatives of Europe and Asia. Styles long; the section Mesobalanus is related to section Quercus and sometimes included in it. Sect. Cerris, the Turkey oak and its relatives of Europe and Asia. Styles long; the inside of the acorn's shell is hairless. Its leaves have sharp lobe tips, with bristles at the lobe tip. Sect. Protobalanus, the canyon live oak and its relatives, in southwest United States and northwest Mexico. Styles short, acorns mature in 18 months and taste bitter; the inside of the acorn shell appears woolly.
Leaves have sharp lobe tips, with bristles at the lobe tip. Sect. Lobatae, the red oaks of North America, Central America and northern South America. Styles long; the inside of the acorn shell appears woolly. The actual nut is encased in a thin, papery skin. Leaves have sharp lobe tips, with spiny bristles at the lobe; the ring-cupped oaks of eastern and southeastern Asia. Evergreen trees growing 10–40 m tall, they are distinct from subgenus Quercus in that they have acorns with distinctive cups bearing concrescent rings of scales. IUCN, ITIS, Encyclopedia of Life and Flora of China treats Cyclobalanopsis as a distinct genus, but some taxonomists consider it a subgenus of Quercus, it contains about 150 species. Species of Cyclobalanopsis are common in the evergreen subtropical laurel forests which extend from southern Japan, southern Korea, Taiwan across southern China and northern Indochina to the eastern Himalayas, in association with trees of genus Castanopsis and the laurel family. Interspecific hybridization is quite common among oaks but between species within the same section only and most common in the white oak group.
Inter-section hybrids, except between species of sections Mesobalanus, are unknown. Recent systematic studies appear to confirm a high tendency of Quercus species to hybridize because of a combination of factors. White oaks are unable to discriminate against pollination by other species in the same section; because they are wind pollinated and they have weak internal barriers to hybridization, hybridization produces functional seeds and fertile hybrid offspring. Ecological stresses near habitat margins, can cause a breakdown of mate recognition as well as a reduction of male function in one parent species. Frequent hybridization among oaks has consequences for oak populations around the world. Frequent hybridization and high levels of introgression have caused different species in the same populations to share up to 50% of their genetic information. Having high rates of hybridization and introgression produces genetic data that does not differentiate between two morphologically distinct species, but instead differentiates populations.
Numerous hypotheses have been proposed to explain how oak species are able to remain morphologically and ecologically distinct with such high levels of gene flow, but the phenomenon is still a mystery to botanists. The Fagaceae, or beech family, to which the oaks belong, is a slow evolving clade compared to other angiosperms, the patterns of hybridization and introgression in Quercus pose a gre
An arboretum in a general sense is a botanical collection composed of trees. More a modern arboretum is a botanical garden containing living collections of woody plants and is intended at least in part for scientific study. An arboretum specializing in growing conifers is known as a pinetum. Other specialist arboreta include saliceta and querceta; the term arboretum was first used in an English publication by John Claudius Loudon in 1833 in The Gardener's Magazine but the concept was long-established by then. Related collections include a viticetum. Egyptian Pharaohs cared for them. Hatshepsut's expedition to Punt returned bearing thirty-one live frankincense trees, the roots of which were kept in baskets for the duration of the voyage, it is reported that Hatshepsut had these trees planted in the courts of her Deir el Bahri mortuary temple complex. Arboreta are special places for the cultivation and display of a wide variety of different kinds of trees and shrubs. Many tree collections have been claimed as the first arboretum, in most cases, the term has been applied retrospectively as it did not come into use until the eighteenth century.
Arboreta differ from pieces of woodland or plantations because they are botanically significant collections with a variety of examples rather than just a few kinds. Of course there are many tree collections that are much older than the eighteenth century in different parts of the world; the most important early proponent of the arboretum in the English-speaking transatlantic world was the prolific landscape gardener and writer, John Claudius Loudon who undertook many gardening commissions and published the Gardener's Magazine, Encyclopaedia of Gardening and other major works. Loudon's Arboretum et Fruticetum Britannicum, 8 vols. is the most significant work on the subject in British history and included an account of all trees and shrubs that were hardy in the British climate, an international history of arboriculture, an assessment of the cultural and industrial value of trees and four volumes of plates. Loudon urged that a national arboretum be created and called for arboreta and other systematic collections to be established in public parks, private gardens, country estates and other places.
He regarded the Derby Arboretum as the most important landscape-gardening commission of the latter part of his career because it demonstrated the benefits of a public arboretum. Commenting on Loddiges' famous Hackney Botanic Garden arboretum, begun in 1816, a commercial nursery that subsequently opened free to the public, for educational benefit, every Sunday, Loudon wrote: "The arboretum looks better this season than it has done since it was planted... The more lofty trees suffered from the late high winds, but not materially. We walked round the two outer spirals of this coil of shrubs. There is no garden scene about London so interesting". A plan of Loddiges' arboretum was included in The Encyclopaedia of 1834 edition. Leaves from Loddiges' arboretum and in some instances entire trees, were studiously drawn to illustrate Loudon's encyclopaedic book Arboretum et Fruticetum Britannicum which incorporated drawings from other early botanic gardens and parklands throughout the United Kingdom. One example of an early European tree collection is the Trsteno Arboretum, near Dubrovnik in Croatia.
The date of its founding is unknown, but it was in existence by 1492, when a 15 m span aqueduct to irrigate the arboretum was constructed. The garden was created by the prominent local Gučetić/Gozze family, it suffered two major disasters in the 1990s but its two unique and ancient Oriental Planes remained standing. Udhagamandalam Arboretum, The Nilgiris, IndiaThe arboretum at Ooty was established in 1992 with an aim of conserving native and indigenous trees, it was established during the year 1992 and maintained by Department of Horticulture with Hill Area Development Programme funds. The micro watershed area leading to Ooty lake where the arboretum is now located, had been neglected and the feeder line feeding water to Ooty was contaminated with urban waste and agricultural chemicals; the area is the natural habitats of both indigenous and migratory birds. During the year 2005-2006, it was rehabilated with funds provided by the Hill Area Development Programme by providing permanent fencing, a footpath, other infrastructure facilities.
Both indigenous and exotic tree species are included. The following tree species were planted: Celtis tetrandra, Dillenia pentagyna, Elaeocarpus ferrugineus, Elaeocarpus oblongus, Evodia lunuankenda, Glochidion neilgherrense, Ligustrum perrotetti, Litsaea ligustrina, Litsaea wightiana, Meliosma arnotiana, Meliosma wightii, Michelia champaca, Michelia nilagirica, Pygeum gardneri, Syzygium amothanum, Syzygium montanum, Alnus nepalensis, Viburnum erubescens, Podocarpus wallichianus, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa, Rapanea wightiana, Ternstroemia japonica, Microtropis microc
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres. It shares the continental landmass of Eurasia with the continent of Europe and the continental landmass of Afro-Eurasia with both Europe and Africa. Asia covers an area of 44,579,000 square kilometres, about 30% of Earth's total land area and 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area. The continent, which has long been home to the majority of the human population, was the site of many of the first civilizations. Asia is notable for not only its overall large size and population, but dense and large settlements, as well as vast populated regions, its 4.5 billion people constitute 60% of the world's population. In general terms, Asia is bounded on the east by the Pacific Ocean, on the south by the Indian Ocean, on the north by the Arctic Ocean; the border of Asia with Europe is a historical and cultural construct, as there is no clear physical and geographical separation between them. It has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity.
The division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East–West cultural and ethnic differences, some of which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The most accepted boundaries place Asia to the east of the Suez Canal separating it from Africa. China and India alternated in being the largest economies in the world from 1 to 1800 CE. China was a major economic power and attracted many to the east, for many the legendary wealth and prosperity of the ancient culture of India personified Asia, attracting European commerce and colonialism; the accidental discovery of a trans-Atlantic route from Europe to America by Columbus while in search for a route to India demonstrates this deep fascination. The Silk Road became the main east–west trading route in the Asian hinterlands while the Straits of Malacca stood as a major sea route. Asia has exhibited economic dynamism as well as robust population growth during the 20th century, but overall population growth has since fallen. Asia was the birthplace of most of the world's mainstream religions including Hinduism, Judaism, Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Sikhism, as well as many other religions.
Given its size and diversity, the concept of Asia—a name dating back to classical antiquity—may have more to do with human geography than physical geography. Asia varies across and within its regions with regard to ethnic groups, environments, historical ties and government systems, it has a mix of many different climates ranging from the equatorial south via the hot desert in the Middle East, temperate areas in the east and the continental centre to vast subarctic and polar areas in Siberia. The boundary between Asia and Africa is the Red Sea, the Gulf of Suez, the Suez Canal; this makes Egypt a transcontinental country, with the Sinai peninsula in Asia and the remainder of the country in Africa. The border between Asia and Europe was defined by European academics; the Don River became unsatisfactory to northern Europeans when Peter the Great, king of the Tsardom of Russia, defeating rival claims of Sweden and the Ottoman Empire to the eastern lands, armed resistance by the tribes of Siberia, synthesized a new Russian Empire extending to the Ural Mountains and beyond, founded in 1721.
The major geographical theorist of the empire was a former Swedish prisoner-of-war, taken at the Battle of Poltava in 1709 and assigned to Tobolsk, where he associated with Peter's Siberian official, Vasily Tatishchev, was allowed freedom to conduct geographical and anthropological studies in preparation for a future book. In Sweden, five years after Peter's death, in 1730 Philip Johan von Strahlenberg published a new atlas proposing the Urals as the border of Asia. Tatishchev announced; the latter had suggested the Emba River as the lower boundary. Over the next century various proposals were made until the Ural River prevailed in the mid-19th century; the border had been moved perforce from the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea into which the Ural River projects. The border between the Black Sea and the Caspian is placed along the crest of the Caucasus Mountains, although it is sometimes placed further north; the border between Asia and the region of Oceania is placed somewhere in the Malay Archipelago.
The Maluku Islands in Indonesia are considered to lie on the border of southeast Asia, with New Guinea, to the east of the islands, being wholly part of Oceania. The terms Southeast Asia and Oceania, devised in the 19th century, have had several vastly different geographic meanings since their inception; the chief factor in determining which islands of the Malay Archipelago are Asian has been the location of the colonial possessions of the various empires there. Lewis and Wigen assert, "The narrowing of'Southeast Asia' to its present boundaries was thus a gradual process." Geographical Asia is a cultural artifact of European conceptions of the world, beginning with the Ancient Greeks, being imposed onto other cultures, an imprecise concept causing endemic contention about what it means. Asia does not correspond to the cultural borders of its various types of constituents. From the time of Herodotus a minority of geographers have rejected the three-continent system on the grounds that there is no substantial physical separation between