Baccarat Crystal is a French manufacturer of fine crystal glassware located in Baccarat, France. The company owns two museums, the Musée Baccarat in Baccarat, Meurthe-et-Moselle and the Musée Baccarat in Paris on the Place des États-Unis, groupe du Louvre is the majority shareholder of the company and is a subsidiary of the United States company Starwood Capital Group. In 1764 King Louis XV of France gave permission to found a glassworks in the town of Baccarat in the Lorraine region in eastern France to Prince Bishop Cardinal Louis-Joseph de Laval-Montmorency. Production consisted of window panes and stemware until 1816 when the first crystal oven went into operation, by that time over 3000 workers were employed at the site. Baccarat received its first royal commission in 1823 and this began a lengthy line of commissions for royalty and heads of state throughout the world. In 1855 Baccarat won its first gold medal at the Worlds Fair in Paris, Baccarat first began marking its work with a registered mark in 1860.
The mark was a label affixed to the bottom of the work, in the period 1846-1849 Baccarat signed some of their high quality glass millefiori paperweights with the letter B and the year date in a composite cane. A special paperweight dated 1853 was found under the cornerstone of a damaged church in Baccarat when construction recommenced after World War 2. The crystal production expanded its scope throughout this period, and Baccarat built a reputation for making quality stemware, barware. The Imperial Era ended in 1867 with the defeat of Napoléon III, influences outside France began to have a stronger influence on Baccarats work during this era, particularly imports from Japan. The worlds largest chandelier and a staircase lined with a Baccarat crystal balustrade adorn the Dolmabahçe Palace in Istanbul, strong growth continued in Asia for Baccarat. Baccarat has become famous at the royal houses, the queen of Portugal, for example, commissioned for her private collection decorative pieces. One of the strongest production areas for Baccarat was perfume bottles, in 1936 Baccarat began marking all of its works via acid or sandblasting.
Baccarat created an American subsidiary in 1948 in New York City and they started to produce pieces based on Cylon designs, as the famous Cylon Carrier - Napoleon Hat piece. The chairman of Baccarat from 1960 to 1992 was René de Chambrun, as of 2010 there are stores in Costa Mesa, Houston, Greenwich, New York City, Palm Desert and Las Vegas. A retrospective was held in 1964 at the Louvre Museum to celebrate the 200th anniversary of the crystal works, in 1993, Baccarat began making jewelry and in 1997 the company expanded into perfume. In 2003, Baccarat relocated to 11, place des Etats-Unis in Paris, in 2005 it was acquired by Starwood Capital Group in the United States. In 2012 Starwood announced it would use the name for a hotel chain Baccarat Hotels
Tableware is the dishes or dishware used for setting a table, serving food and dining. It includes cutlery, serving dishes and other items for practical as well as decorative purposes. The quality, nature and number of objects according to culture, number of diners, cuisine. For example, Middle Eastern, Indian or Polynesian food culture and cuisine sometimes limits tableware to serving dishes, special occasions are usually reflected in higher quality tableware. Sets of dishes are referred to as a service, dinner service or service set. Table settings or place settings are the dishes and glassware used for formal and informal dining, in Ireland such items are normally referred to as delph, the word being an English language phonetic spelling of the word delft, the town from which so much delftware came. Silver service or butler service are methods for a butler or waiter to serve a meal, Setting the table refers to arranging the tableware, including individual place settings for each diner at the table as well as decorating the table itself in a manner suitable for the occasion.
Tableware and table decoration is more elaborate for special occasions. Unusual dining locations demand tableware be adapted, dishes are usually made of ceramic materials such as earthenware, faience, bone china or porcelain. However, they can be made of materials such as wood, silver, glass. Before it was possible to purchase mass-produced tableware, it was fashioned from available materials, industrialisation and developments in ceramic manufacture made inexpensive washable tableware available. It is sold either by the piece or as a set for a number of diners, normally four, eight. Large quantities are purchased for use in restaurants, individual pieces, such as those needed as replacement pieces for broken dishes, can be procured from open stock inventory at shops, or from antique dealers if the pattern is no longer in production. Possession of tableware has to a large extent been determined by individual wealth, the greater the means, the higher was the quality of tableware that was owned and the more numerous its pieces.
In the London of the 13th century, the more affluent citizens owned fine furniture and silver, while those of straiter means possessed only the simplest pottery and kitchen utensils. By the 16th century, even the poorer citizens dined off pewter rather than wood and had plate, the nobility often used their arms on heraldic china. Table decoration may be ephemeral and consist of items made from confectionery or wax - substances commonly employed in Roman banqueting tables of the 17th century, in modern times, ephemeral table decorations continue to be made from sugar or carved from ice. In wealthy countries such as 17th century France, table decorations for the aristocracy were made of silver
McDonalds is an American hamburger and fast food restaurant chain. It was founded in 1940 as a restaurant operated by Richard. In 1948, they reorganized their business as a hamburger stand, the first McDonalds franchise using the arches logo opened in Phoenix, Arizona in 1953. Businessman Ray Kroc joined the company as an agent in 1955. Based in Oak Brook, Illinois, McDonalds confirmed plans to move its headquarters to Chicago by early 2018. Today, McDonalds is one of the worlds largest restaurant chains, McDonalds primarily sells hamburgers, chicken products, french fries, breakfast items, soft drinks, milkshakes and desserts. In response to changing tastes, the company has expanded its menu to include salads, wraps, smoothies. A McDonalds restaurant is operated by either a franchisee, an affiliate, the McDonalds Corporation revenues come from the rent and fees paid by the franchisees, as well as sales in company-operated restaurants. According to a BBC report published in 2012, McDonalds is the second largest private employer,1.5 million of whom work for franchises.
The business began in 1940, with a restaurant opened by brothers Richard and Maurice McDonald at 1398 North E Street at West 14th Street in San Bernardino, the first McDonalds with the arches opened in Phoenix, Arizona in March 1953. The original mascot of McDonalds was a man with a hat on top of a hamburger-shaped head whose name was Speedee. In 1962, the Golden Arches replaced Speedee as the company symbol, a new mascot, Ronald McDonald was introduced in 1965. The clown-like man having puffed out costume legs served advertising aimed at children. On May 4,1961, McDonalds first filed for a U. S. trademark on the name McDonalds with the description Drive-In Restaurant Services, on September 13,1961, the company filed for a trademark on a new logo—an overlapping, double-arched M symbol. By September 6,1962, this M-symbol was temporarily disfavored, although the Golden Arches logo appeared in various forms, the present version as a letter M did not appear until November 18,1968, when the company applied for a U. S. trademark.
Kroc purchased the McDonald brothers equity in the company and led its expansion. Kroc was noted for aggressive business practices, compelling the McDonald brothers to leave the fast-food industry and the McDonald brothers feuded over control of the business, as documented in Krocs autobiography. The San Bernardino restaurant was demolished in 1976 and the site was sold to the Juan Pollo restaurant chain and this area now serves as headquarters for the Juan Pollo chain, as well as a McDonalds and Route 66 museum
Franz Mayer & Co.
Franz Mayer & Co. is a famous German stained glass design and manufacturing company, based in Munich, that has been active throughout most of the world for over 150 years. Franz Mayer and Co. were stained glass artists to the Holy See and, the Mayer Co. is responsible for stained glass in at least ten of Irelands Cathedral churches. The work of Franz Mayer & Co. in Ireland is currently the subject of research at Trinity College Dublin. Patrick’s College, Cathedral of St Patrick and St Colman, Dominican Church, Loreto Convent, Church of the Sacred Heart, Co. Fethlimidh, County Cavan, St. Canice Cathedral, Kilkenny, St. Matthews Church, skibbereen, Templeague, St. Peter’s Phibsborough, Park Rd. Dún Laoghaire, Abingdon, St. John’s, Sligo. Marks Church of Ireland, Ligoniel Road, Belfast, St. Nicholas Church of Ireland, Adare, Co. John the Baptist, Charleston, SC Chapel of the Rock, Saint Malo Church, St Johns Church, Acaster Selby, near York, North Yorkshire, England Pershore Abbey, Worcestershire, England - east single lancet in SE transept and east window in NE chapel.
Holy Trinity Church, France, four fine examples
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
Lead glass, commonly called crystal, is a variety of glass in which lead replaces the calcium content of a typical potash glass. Lead glass contains typically 18–40 weight% lead oxide, while modern lead crystal, historically known as flint glass due to the original silica source. Lead glass is desirable owing to its decorative properties, originally discovered by Englishman George Ravenscroft in 1674, the technique of adding lead oxide improved the appearance of the glass and made it easier to melt using sea-coal as a furnace fuel. This technique increased the period making the glass easier to manipulate. The term lead crystal is, by technicality, not a term to describe lead glass, as glass. The use of the lead crystal remains popular for historical and commercial reasons. It is retained from the Venetian word cristallo to describe the rock crystal imitated by Murano glassmakers and this naming convention has been maintained to the present day to describe decorative hollow-ware. Lead crystal glassware was formerly used to store and serve drinks, but due to the health risks of lead.
One alternative material is glass, in which barium oxide, zinc oxide. Lead-free crystal has a refractive index to lead crystal, but it is lighter. In the European Union, labeling of products is regulated by Council Directive 69/493/EEC. Only glass products containing at least 24% of lead oxide may be referred to as lead crystal, products with less lead oxide, or glass products with other metal oxides used in place of lead oxide, must be labeled crystallin or crystal glass. The addition of oxide to glass raises its refractive index and lowers its working temperature. The attractive optical properties of lead glass result from the content of the heavy metal lead. The high atomic number of lead raises the density of the material, since lead has a high atomic weight of 207.2. The density of glass is 2.4 g/cm3 or below, while typical lead crystal has a density of around 3.1 g/cm3. The brilliance of lead crystal relies on the refractive index caused by the lead content. Ordinary glass has a index of n =1.5
Milk glass is an opaque or translucent, milk white or colored glass, blown or pressed into a wide variety of shapes. First made in Venice in the 16th century, colors include blue, yellow, black, milk glass contains dispersion of particles with refractive index significantly different from the glass matrix, which scatter light by the Tyndall scattering mechanism. The size distribution and density of the control the overall effect. Some glasses are more blue from the side, and somewhat red-orange in pass-through light. The particles are produced via addition of opacifiers to the melt, some opacifiers can be insoluble and only dispersed in the melt. The opacifiers can be e. g. bone ash, or tin dioxide and arsenic and they are added to ceramic glazes, which can be chemically considered to be a specific kind of milk glass. First made in Venice in the 16th century, colors include blue, yellow, black, some 19th-century glass makers called milky white opaque glass opal glass. The name milk glass is relatively recent, made into decorative dinnerware, lamps and costume jewelry, milk glass was highly popular during the fin de siècle.
Pieces made for the wealthy of the Gilded Age are known for their delicacy and beauty in color and design, milk glass is often used for architectural decoration when one of the underlying purposes is the display of graphic information. The original milk glass marquee of the Chicago Theatre has been donated to the Smithsonian Institution, a famous use of milk glass is for the four faces of the information booth clock at Grand Central Terminal in New York City. Milk glass has a following of collectors. Glass makers continue to both original pieces and reproductions of popular collectible pieces and patterns
Borosilicate glass is a type of glass with silica and boron trioxide as the main glass-forming constituents. Borosilicate glasses are known for having very low coefficients of expansion, making them resistant to thermal shock. Such glass is less subject to stress and is commonly used for the construction of reagent bottles. Borosilicate glass is sold under trade names as Borcam, Suprax, Heatex, Schott, Kimble. Borosilicate glass was first developed by German glassmaker Otto Schott in the late 19th century, Otto Schott is founder of todays SCHOTT AG, which has sold borosilicate glass under the brand name DURAN since 1893. Another manufacturer of DURAN is the DURAN Group, after Corning Glass Works introduced Pyrex in 1915, the name became a synonym for borosilicate glass in the English-speaking world. However, borosilicate glass is the name of a family with various members tailoring completely different purposes. Most common today is borosilicate 3.3 glass like SCHOTT Duran, the European manufacturer of Pyrex, Arc International, uses borosilicate glass in its Pyrex glass kitchen products, the U. S.
manufacturer of Pyrex kitchenware uses tempered soda-lime glass. The real difference is the trademark and the company owns the Pyrex name. The original Corning ware made of glass was trademarked in capital letters. When the kitchenware division was sold, the trademark was changed to lowercase, the bottom of new kitchenware and old kitchenware can be inspected for an immediate difference. The scientific division of Pyrex has always been using borosilicate glass, in addition to quartz, sodium carbonate and aluminium oxide traditionally used in glassmaking, boron is used in the manufacture of borosilicate glass. The composition of low-expansion borosilicate glass, such as those laboratory glasses mentioned above, is approximately 80% silica, 13% boric oxide, 4% sodium oxide, though more difficult to make than traditional glass due to the high melting temperature required, it is economical to produce. Its superior durability and heat resistance finds excellent use in laboratory equipment, lighting and, in certain cases.
Borosilicate glass is created by adding boric oxide to the traditional glassmakers frit of silica sand, since borosilicate glass melts at a higher temperature than ordinary silicate glass, some new techniques were required for industrial production. Borrowing from the trade, burners combining oxygen with natural gas were required. The manufacturing process depends on the geometry and can be differentiated between different methods like floating, tube drawing or moulding. The common type of glass used for laboratory glassware has a very low thermal expansion coefficient
Shrek Forever After
Shrek Forever After is a 2010 American 3D computer-animated fantasy comedy-drama film. It is the installment in the Shrek series, produced by DreamWorks Animation. Mike Myers, Eddie Murphy, Cameron Diaz, Antonio Banderas, Julie Andrews, John Cleese reprise their previous roles, taking place after Shrek the Third, Shrek is now a family man and beloved among the local villagers. Yearning for the days when he was feared, he makes a deal with Rumpelstiltskin, to restore his existence, Shrek has to regain Fionas love and kiss her before the sun rises, or he will disappear forever. The film premiered on April 21,2010 at the Tribeca Film Festival and it was released in 3D and IMAX 3D formats. The film was the #1 film in the United States and Canada for three weeks and grossed a worldwide total of $752 million. Additionally, Shrek Forever After is DreamWorks Animations second highest-grossing film at the box office. Shrek has grown tired of being a family man and celebrity among the local villagers. When he takes his family to Far Far Away to celebrate his childrens first birthday, Shrek encounters Rumpelstiltskin, who seizes his chance, having observed Shreks angry outburst.
He follows Shrek and arranges for Shrek to appear to save his life and he gives Shrek a day to live like a real ogre, in exchange for a day from his childhood that he would not remember being erased to thank him. Shrek signs the contract and appears in a reality where the events starting from Fionas rescue are irrelevant. Now feared by villagers, he takes the opportunity to cause some lighthearted mischief until he finds WANTED posters for Fiona and his home deserted and he is kidnapped by witches and taken to Rumpel, now the King of Far Far Away, which has become derelict and run down. Upon inquiry, Rumpel reveals that he took away the day Shrek was born, Shrek never saved Fiona or met Donkey, and consequently Rumpel was able to get King Harold and Queen Lillian to sign their kingdom away, making them both disappear. When the day ends, Shrek will disappear as well, Shrek escapes Rumpels castle with Donkey. Initially terrified of Shrek, Donkey decides to trust him after seeing Shrek cry over his erased history, after Shrek explains the situation, Donkey helps him find a hidden exit clause, the contract can be nullified by true loves kiss.
They soon encounter a band of ogres who are resisting Rumpel, the ogres are led by a still-cursed Fiona who, after escaping from the tower where she was held captive, keeps the retired and overweight Puss in Boots as a pet. Shrek does everything he can to gain Fionas love, but she is too busy preparing an ambush on Rumpel and she is bitterly cynical and disillusioned about the power of true love and throws herself into planning Rumpels capture. While sparring with her, Fiona begins to like Shrek, Puss encourages him to continue pursuing Fiona