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Arcadia

Arcadia is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the administrative region of Peloponnese, it is situated in the eastern part of the Peloponnese peninsula. It takes its name from the mythological figure Arcas. In Greek mythology, it was the home of the god Pan. In European Renaissance arts, Arcadia was celebrated as an harmonious wilderness. Arcadia is a rural and mountainous "regional unit". Today's capital is Tripoli, it covers about 18% of the Peloponnese peninsula, making it the largest regional unit on the peninsula. Arcadia is grassland with a bit farmland and three wooded mountain ranges, but large areas are covered only by degenerated shrubland. Forests in altitudes higher than 1000 m, remained in the central north, in winter a ski resort, in the central south and in the Arcadian part of the mountain range Parnon. In the southwest, "Mount Lykaion" is well known for myths; the climate consists of hot summers and mild winters in the eastern part, the southern part, the low-lying areas and the central area at altitudes lower than 1,000 m.

The area receives rain during fall and winter months in the rest of Arcadia. Winter snow occurs in the mountainous areas for much of the west and the northern part, the Taygetus area, the Mainalon. Arcadia is totally mountainous and part of the “carbonate platform” of the Peloponnese; the whole peninsula was formed by intense tectonics. In Arcadia’s central part around the Tripoli region developed a special form of topography, a geologically fascinating phenomenon: There are several plains and “intra mountainous basins” “closed basins”: The 30 km long “Tripoli-Plateau”, “Argon Pedion”, Basin of Levidi, Basin of Vlacherna Arcadia/Hotoussa/Kandila); the peculiarity of the plains and basins is a result of intensive karstification: Water seeps into the underground, rather than eroding and draining the topography by surface waterways. All drainage runs through subterranean waterways; the additional problem for rural activities in the basins: When winter rains are heavy, the ground is flooded or temporary lakes arise today, as drainage through katavothres is too slow to start cultivation in due time.

All cultivation is delayed! After the collapse of the Roman power in the west, Arcadia remained as part of the Greek-speaking Byzantine Empire. Arcadia remained a beautiful, secluded area, its inhabitants became proverbial as herdsmen leading simple pastoral unsophisticated yet happy lives, to the point that Arcadia may refer to some imaginary idyllic paradise, immortalized by Virgil's Eclogues, by Jacopo Sannazaro in his pastoral masterpiece, Arcadia. After the Fourth Crusade, the area became a part of the Principality of Achaea, but was progressively recovered by the Byzantine Greeks of the Despotate of the Morea from the 1260s on, a process, completed in 1320; the region fell into the hands of the Ottoman Turks in 1460. With the exception of a period of Venetian rule in 1687–1715, the region remained under Turkish control until 1821; the Latin phrase Et in Arcadia ego, interpreted to mean "Even in Arcadia there am I", is an example of memento mori, a cautionary reminder of the transitory nature of life and the inevitability of death.

The phrase is most associated with a 1647 painting by Nicolas Poussin known as "The Arcadian Shepherds". In the painting the phrase appears as an inscription on a tomb discovered by youthful figures in classical garb. Arcadia was one of the centres of the Greek War of Independence which saw victories in their battles including one in Tripoli. After a victorious revolutionary war, Arcadia was incorporated into the newly created Greek state. Arcadia saw small emigration. In the 20th century, Arcadia experienced extensive population loss through emigration to the Americas. Many Arcadian villages lost half their inhabitants, fears arose that they would turn into ghost towns. Arcadia now has a smaller population than Corinthia. Demographers expected that its population would halve between the early 21st century; the population has fallen to 87,000 in 2011. An earthquake measuring 5.9 on the Richter magnitude scale shook Megalopoli and the surrounding area in 1965. Large numbers of buildings were destroyed.

Within a couple of years, the buildings were rebuilt anti-seismically. This earthquake revealed an underground source of lignite in the area, in 1967 construction began on the Megalopoli Power Plant, which began operating in 1970; the mining area south of the plant is the largest mining area in the peninsula and continues to the present day with one settlement moved. In July and August 2007 forest fires caused damage in Arcadia, notably in the mountains. In 2008, a theory proposed by classicist Christos Mergoupis suggested that the mummified remains of Alexander the Great, may in fact be located in Gortynia-Arkadia, in the Peloponnese of Greece. Since 2008, this research is ongoing and being conducted in Greece; the research was first mentioned on CNN International in May 2008. When, during the Greek Dark Ages, Doric Greek was introduced to the Peloponnese, the older Arcadocypriot Greek language survived in Arcadia. Arcadocypriot never became a literary dialect. Tsan is a letter of the Greek alphabet occurring only in Arcadia, shaped like Cyrillic И.

Muslim Barhai

The Muslim Barhai, or sometimes pronounced Badhai are Muslim community, found in North India. A small number are found in the Terai region of Nepal; the community is sometimes referred to as Multani. The community derive their name from the word barhai. According to their own traditions, they are descended from early Muslim settlers to India, it is however that they are converts from the Barhai caste. In Uttar Pradesh, the Barhai have two sub-divisions, the Dese or native and the Multani or immigrants from Multan; each of these two groups in endogamous. They are found in the Doab and Rohilkhand regions, speak the Khari boli dialect; the community has been granted Other Backward Class status. The Behna are no longer employed as carpenters, many work in farming, they are small and medium sized farmers, although a sizeable number are agricultural labourers, live in multi caste and multi religious settlements, but occupy their own distinct quarters. Each settlement has a caste council, known as a panchayat, which acts as an instrument of social control.

It deals with intra community disputes, as well as punishing those. Although they live in close proximity to other Muslim groups, such as the Shaikh, Ansari, Rajput Muslim and Qassab in Doab, the Muslim Teli, Muslim Banjara and Rohilla in Rohilkhand, there is little interaction, no intermarriage; the only group with which close relations are maintained are the Saifi, this includes intermarriage. With regards to neighbouring Hindu groups such the Jat and Gujjar, a social distance is maintained; the Barhai are Sunni Muslim of the Deobandi sect. They speak Urdu, various dialects of Hindi. There customs are similar to other Uttar Pradesh Muslims. Muslims of Uttar Pradesh

Rolls-Royce Phantom II

The Rolls-Royce Phantom II was the third and last of Rolls-Royce's 40/50 hp models, replacing the New Phantom in 1929. It used an improved version of the Phantom I engine in an all-new chassis. A "Continental" version, with a short wheelbase and stiffer springs, was offered; the Phantom II used a refinement of the Phantom I's 7.7 L pushrod-OHV straight-6 engine with a new crossflow cylinder head. Unlike on previous 40/50 hp models, the engine was bolted directly to the 4-speed manual transmission. Synchromesh was added on gears 3 and 4 in 1932 and on gear 2 in 1935. Power was transmitted to the rear wheels using an open driveshaft, a hypoid bevel final drive, Hotchkiss drive, replacing the torque tube from a remotely mounted gearbox used on earlier 40/50 hp models; the chassis of the Phantom II was new. The front axle was mounted on semi-elliptical leaf springs as on earlier 40/50 hp models, but the rear axle was now mounted on semi-elliptical springs instead of cantilever springs. This, along with the drivetrain changes, allowed the frame to be lower than before, improving the handling.

The 4-wheel servo-assisted brakes from the Phantom I were continued, the Bijur centralized lubrication system from the Springfield-built Phantom I was included on all Phantom II chassis. The standard wheelbase of the Phantom II was 150 inches. A 144 inches short-wheelbase chassis was available. A total of 1,281 Phantom II chassis of all types were built. Royce had body designer Ivan Evernden build him a one-off short-wheelbase Phantom. Designated 26EX, the car had a tuned engine, five-leaf springs that were stiffer than standard and a Barker four-seat lightweight close-coupled saloon body painted with an artificial pearl lacquer made from ground herring scales; the sales department showed no interest in 26EX but, when Evernden returned to the office from the 1930 Biarritz Grand Concours d'Elegance, where 26EX had won the Grand Prix d'Honneur, he found that the sales department had announced the new "Phantom II Continental Saloon", prepared a brochure for it, costed it. According to Evernden, neither he, nor the Rolls-Royce sales department had written specifications for the "Continental" model, although he and Royce had a clear specification in mind.

Based on Evernden's writings and examination of company records, historian Ray Gentile determined that the common specifications of the Continental chassis were the short wheelbase and stiffer, five-leaf springs. By this definition, two hundred and eighty-one Continental Phantom II's were produced, including 125 left-hand drive versions. Regarded as the two most important P-II Continentals are 20MS and 2SK, the only two P-II Continental Roadsters built. 20MS has been in a private Mid-Atlantic collection since 1989, 2SK, the Thrupp and Maberly Roadster once owned by Tyrone Power, was in the Fred Buess collection since 1958 but was sold at auction in 2010. All Phantom II rolling chassis were built at Rolls-Royce's factory in Derby; the factory in Springfield, Massachusetts was closed upon ending production of the US-market Phantom I in 1931. Two US-market series, AJS and AMS, were built at Derby, it competed with the introduced Lincoln model K, Chrysler Imperial, Mercedes-Benz 770, Duesenberg Model J, Packard Eight, the Cadillac Series 355.

When Marlene Dietrich went to the USA in 1930, the Blue Angel director Josef von Sternberg welcomed her with gifts including a green Rolls-Royce Phantom II. The car appeared in their first US film Morocco; the Phantom II was featured in the films The Sorcerer's Apprentice and Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade. When its specifications are quoted during the scene in the Kingdom of Hatay, the Sultan states that the Rolls-Royce Phantom II has a "4.3 litre, 30 horsepower, six cylinder engine, with Stromberg downdraft carburetor" and "can go from zero to 100 kilometers an hour in 12.5 seconds." However, the car used in the film was a Rolls-Royce Barker Saloon, with 20/25 hp. It is the star of the 1964 movie The Yellow Rolls-Royce where its engine specifications are given as the engine having a bore of 4.5" and stroke of 5.5", which would equate to 525 cubic inches A remarkable survivor on display at the Technisches Museum, Germany, is a 1933 Phantom II, which made its way to the Kenya Tea Company of British East Africa.

As the rear wood section of the vehicle was worn, a local shipwright, under the design guidance of Hooper of London and built a boat tail rear end. The car has been on display since. Phantom II: 1402 Phantom II Continental: 278 Rolls-Royce Motors List of Rolls-Royce motor cars Rolls-Royce Phantom II. Pictures