Kirwan is a suburb in the City of Townsville, Australia. In the 2016 census, Kirwan had a population of 21,418 people. Kirwan is a residential suburb but includes some commercial property concentrated along Thuringowa Drive; the suburb of Kirwan was established in 1968 as the northernmost of a series of new suburbs along the western side of the Upper Ross River. It was named on 1 March 1969 and took its name from an early farming family in the region. Prior to suburban development, Kirwan had been farmed and had been the site of air force activity during World War II. Kirwan State School opened in 1977 and Kirwan State High School opened in 1979. Ryan Catholic College, which serves both primary and secondary students, was founded in 1979; the Willows State School was established in the suburb in 1997. Several leisure facilities are situated within Kirwan itself, including the Willows Golf Club, the Townsville and District Junior Rugby League Grounds and the Townsville Brothers Leagues Club. Kirwan is well known as the home of the National Rugby League team, the North Queensland Cowboys, is the site of 1300SMILES Stadium.
The Willows branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association meets at the Girl Guide Hut on the corner of McBride Street and Bamford Lane. At its southern end are the retail and entertainment precincts of Thuringowa Central, which include the Willows Shopping Centre and the Riverway complex, the latter of which lines the northern bank of the Ross River and includes parkland, swimming pools, barbecue facilities and an arts centre, it plays home to night markets. Situated near the southern border of Kirwan is the Cannon Park complex in Condon, which offers a range of restaurants, a cinema and other leisure providers, a military memorial in the form of a WWII era cannon, dedicated to the 18 servicemen lost when two Blackhawk helicopters collided on a night exercise in 1996, on the nearby Hervey Range. Kirwan State School is a government primary school for girls at 21 Burnda Street. In 2017, the school had an enrolment of 900 students with 60 teachers and 29 non-teaching staff, it includes a special education program.
The Willows State School is a government primary school for girls at Bilberry Street. In 2017, the school had an enrolment of 1,007 students with 75 teachers and 32 non-teaching staff, it includes a special education program. Kirwan State High School is a government secondary school for girls at Hudson Street. In 2017, the school had an enrolment of 1,997 students with 157 teachers and 75 non-teaching staff, it includes a special education program. Ryan Catholic College is a Catholic primary and secondary school for boys and girls at 59 Canterbury Road. In 2017, the school had an enrolment of 1,886 students with 84 non-teaching staff. "Kirwan". Queensland Places. Centre for the Government of Queensland, University of Queensland
Magnetic Island is an island 8 kilometres offshore from the city of Townsville, Australia. This 52 km2 mountainous island in Cleveland Bay has become a suburb of Townsville, with 2,107 permanent residents; the island is accessible from Townsville Breakwater to Nelly Bay Harbour by ferry. There is a large 27 km2 National Park and bird sanctuary and walking tracks can be taken between the populated bays and to a number of tourist destinations such as the World War II forts; the island has long become established as a holiday destination with many hotels and several resorts in operation to cater for all levels of service. The public facilities and infrastructure on the island are managed by the Townsville City Council; the island is part of the electoral district of Townsville in the Legislative Assembly of Queensland. The island is part of the Federal seat of Herbert, represented by Cathy O'Toole. In 2009 as part of the Q150 celebrations, the Magnetic Island was announced as one of the Q150 Icons of Queensland for its role as a "Natural attraction".
The wreckage of SS City of Adelaide is located not far off the shore of the island and is a popular tourist attraction. The name of the island came about because of the apparent "magnetic" effect it had on the ship's compass of Captain Cook as he passed the island when sailing up the east coast of Australia in 1770. People have since explored the general area of Magnetic Island with various instruments to discover what might have caused the effect that Cook reported, but nothing has been discovered; the island's mysterious magnetic effect is the basis for the 2015 speculative fiction novel'A Tango with the Dragon.' The local name for the island is "Maggie Isle", "Maggie Island", or "The Island". The island is a haven for wildlife. 54% of the island is Magnetic Island National Park, located on the steep hilly interior and rugged north-western side. The highest point on the island is Mount Cook reaching 497 m above sea level. Magnetic Island is famous for its angling opportunities. Fish around the island include: blue marlin, black marlin, mackerel, giant trevally, coral trout, mahi-mahi, red emperor and sea perch.
As of 2013, there are over 800 koalas estimated to be present on the island. The areas of the island that are not covered by the conservation area are open for development subject to local authority approval; as of 2018 the island is undergoing an economic boom. Yunbenun, as Magnetic Island was known by the island's traditional inhabitants, had a transient population of Australian Aborigines well before European exploration of the area, they were known to have seasonal camps at a number of bays, travelled between the island and mainland using canoes. A number of Aboriginal burial sites are said to exist on the island, but have so far not been identified. Aboriginal middens and cave drawings can still be found in a number of bays around Magnetic Island. Folklore of the local Wulguru tribe recounts a long association with the island and annual migrations to the mainland to avoid expeditions of head-hunters from Papua New Guinea and the Torres Strait, which used the northern trade winds to travel south along the Queensland coast.
This head-hunting nearly ceased following the arrival of missionaries, led by Samuel MacFarlane to the Torres Straits in 1871. The first European accounts of the island come from Captain James Cook who, in 1770, while navigating the Australian coast, called the island Magnetical Island, as a magnetic pull interfering with his vessel's compass appeared to emanate from the island. J. M. Black, funded by Robert Towns, founded the township of Townsville on the mainland nearby; as Townsville developed though the mid-19th century, Magnetic Island became a valuable location for the gathering of hoop pine and granite, the latter of, used in the reclamation of land for the Port of Townsville, for construction of Townsville's Customs House. Picnic Bay was named after its popularity as a picnic spot for European tourists from the mainland during the 19th century, before Magnetic Island was first inhabited by Europeans. In the mid-19th century the island became a popular location for the collection of stone and coral needed for development on the mainland.
In 1875, the island was set aside as a quarantine station although it took another ten years for the proper facilities to be set up at West Point. In November 1884 the Queensland Government accepted a tender from Leisner and Sparre to construct the quarantine station for £3645, it was only after the tender was accepted that the site on West Point on the north-west was chosen. By 1890 a resort had been started in Picnic Bay. In 1898 Robert Hayles Sn. was so impressed by the potential of Magnetic Island he sold his other interests to build a resort on the island. Hayles was responsible for much of the development of Magnetic Island through tourism. In 1901 he started a regular ferry service to the island with his ship the Bee. Twelve months this ship was wrecked on the rocks at Nobby Head, Picnic Bay, the Phoenix was built by Hayles' sons to replace the vessel; the Hayles company remained operating services to Magnetic Island with a large number of different vessels until the 1970s. Magnetic Island became an important defensive position during World War II because of its proximity to Townsville, an important military base, its views over Cleveland Bay, a significant anchorage and assembly point for large fleets and convoys operating in the south Pacific.
As such, the Magnetic Battery, an artillery battery and observation post, was built in the hinterland of Florence and Arthur Bays. Picnic Bay became a popular defence force rest
Douglas is a suburb of Townsville, Australia south of the Ross River and west of the city centre. Though residential, it does contain James Cook University and the Townsville Hospital; the suburb is known due to the Douglas Arterial Road, a thoroughfare single-carriageway motorway through the suburb the first stage of the Townsville Ring Road. The suburb is in the middle of a residential boom, with student accommodation expansion projects at James Cook University and the establishment of two Housing estates in close proximity. According to the 2016 census of Population, there were 7,744 people in Douglas. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 2.7% of the population. 71.4% of people were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were India 4.3%, England 2.3% and New Zealand 1.7%. 76.9% of people spoke only English at home. Other languages spoken at home included Malayalam at 3.2%. The most common responses for religion were No Religion 38.3%, Catholic 19.2% and Anglican 10.4%.
University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Douglas
The Coral Sea is a marginal sea of the South Pacific off the northeast coast of Australia, classified as an interim Australian bioregion. The Coral Sea extends 2,000 kilometres down the Australian northeast coast, it is bounded in the west by the east coast of Queensland, thereby including the Great Barrier Reef, in the east by Vanuatu and by New Caledonia, in the northeast by the southern extremity of the Solomon Islands. In the northwest, it reaches to the south coast of eastern New Guinea, thereby including the Gulf of Papua, it merges with the Tasman Sea in the south, with the Solomon Sea in the north and with the Pacific Ocean in the east. On the west, it is bounded by the mainland coast of Queensland, in the northwest, it connects with the Arafura Sea through the Torres Strait; the sea is characterised with frequent rains and tropical cyclones. It contains numerous islands and reefs, as well as the world's largest reef system, the Great Barrier Reef, declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1981.
All previous oil exploration projects were terminated at the GBR in 1975, fishing is restricted in many areas. The reefs and islands of the Coral Sea are rich in birds and aquatic life and are a popular tourist destination, both nationally and internationally. While the Great Barrier Reef with its islands and cays belong to Queensland, most reefs and islets east of it are part of the Coral Sea Islands Territory. In addition, some islands west of and belonging to New Caledonia are part of the Coral Sea Islands in a geographical sense, such as the Chesterfield Islands and Bellona Reefs; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Coral Sea as follows: On the North. The South coast of New Guinea from the entrance to the Bensbach River to Gadogadoa Island near its Southeastern extreme, down this meridian to the 100 fathom line and thence along the Southern edges of Uluma Reef and those extending to the Eastward as far as the Southeast point of Lawik Reef off Tagula Island, thence a line to the Southern extreme of Rennell Island and from its Eastern point to Cape Surville, the Eastern extreme of San Cristobal Island, Solomons.
On the Northeast. From the Northernmost island of the Duff Islands, through these islands to their Southeastern extreme, thence a line to Méré Lava, Vanuatu Islands and down the Eastern coasts of the islands of this Group to Anatom Island in such a way that all the islands of these Groups, the straits separating them, are included in the Coral Sea. On the Southeast. A line from the Southeastern extreme of Anatom Island to Nokanhoui off the Southeast extreme of New Caledonia, thence through the East point of Middleton Reef to the Eastern extreme of Elizabeth Reef and down this meridian to Latitude 30° South. On the South; the parallel of 30° South to the Australian coast. On the West; the Eastern limit of the Arafura Sea and the East Coast of Australia as far south as Latitude 30° South. The Coral Sea basin was formed between 58 million and 48 million years ago when the Queensland continental shelf was uplifted, forming the Great Dividing Range, continental blocks subsided at the same time; the sea has been an important source of coral for the Great Barrier Reef, both during its formation and after sea level lowering.
The geological formation processes are still proceeding, as evidenced by the seismic activity. Several hundred earthquakes with the magnitude between 2 and 6 were recorded in the period 1866–2000 along the Queensland coast and in the Coral Sea. On 2 April 2007, the Solomon Islands were struck by a major earthquake followed by a several metres tall tsunami; the epicentre of this magnitude 8.1 earthquake was 349 km northwest of Honiara, at a depth of 10 kilometres. It was followed by more than 44 aftershocks of a magnitude greater; the resulting tsunami destroyed more than 900 homes. The sea received its name because of its numerous coral formations, they include the GBR, which extends about 2,000 km along the northeast coast of Australia and includes 2,900 individual reefs and 1000 islands. The Chesterfield Islands and Lihou Reef are the largest atolls of the Coral Sea. Major Coral Sea currents form a counter-clockwise gyro, it brings warm nutrient-poor waters from the Coral Sea down the east coast of Australia to the cool waters of the Tasman Sea.
This current is the strongest along the Australian coasts and transforms 30 million m3/s of water within a flow band of about 100 kilometres wide and 500 metres deep. The current is weakest around August; the major river flowing into the sea is the Burdekin River, which has its delta southeast of Townsville. Owing to the seasonal and annual variations in occurrence of cyclones and in precipitation, its annual discharge can vary more than 10 times between the two succeeding years. In particular, in the period 1920–1999, the average flow rate near the delta was below 1000 m3/s in 1923, 1931, 1939, 1969, 1982, 1985, 1987, 1993 and 1995; this irregul
Postcodes in Australia
Postcodes are used in Australia to more efficiently sort and route mail within the Australian postal system. Postcodes in Australia are placed at the end of the Australian address. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department and are now managed by Australia Post, are published in booklets available from post offices or online from the Australia Post website. Australian envelopes and postcards have four square boxes printed in orange at the bottom right for the postcode; these are used. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department to replace earlier postal sorting systems, such as Melbourne's letter and number codes and a similar system used in rural and regional New South Wales; the introduction of the postcodes coincided with the introduction of a large-scale mechanical mail sorting system in Australia, starting with the Sydney GPO. By 1968, 75% of mail was using postcodes, in the same year post office preferred-size envelopes were introduced, which came to be referred to as “standard envelopes”.
Postcode squares were introduced in June 1990 to enable Australia Post to use optical character recognition software in its mail sorting machines to automatically and more sort mail by postcodes. Australian postcodes consist of four digits, are written after the name of the city, suburb, or town, the state or territory: Mr John Smith 100 Flushcombe Road BLACKTOWN NSW 2148When writing an address by hand, a row of four boxes is pre-printed on the lower right hand corner of an envelope, the postcode may be written in the boxes. If addressing a letter from outside Australia, the postcode is recorded before'Australia'. Australian postcodes are sorting information, they are linked with one area. Due to post code rationalisation, they can be quite complex in country areas; the south-western Victoria 3221 postcode of the Geelong Mail Centre includes twenty places around Geelong with few people. This means that mail for these places is not sorted until it gets to Geelong; some postcodes cover large populations, while other postcodes have much smaller populations in urban areas.
Australian postcodes range from 0200 for the Australian National University to 9944 for Cannonvale, Queensland. Some towns and suburbs have two postcodes — one for street deliveries and another for post office boxes. For example, a street address in the Sydney suburb of Parramatta would be written like this: Mr John Smith 99 George Street PARRAMATTA NSW 2150But mail sent to a PO Box in Parramatta would be addressed: Mr John Smith PO Box 99 PARRAMATTA NSW 2124Many large businesses, government departments and other institutions receiving high volumes of mail had their own postcode as a Large Volume Receiver, e.g. the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital has the postcode 4029, the Australian National University had the postcode 0200. More postcode ranges were made available for LVRs in the 1990s. Australia Post has been progressively discontinuing the LVR programme since 2006; the first one or two numbers show the state or territory that the postcode belongs to Sometimes near the state and territory borders, Australia Post finds it easier to send mail through a nearby post office, across the border: Some of the postcodes above may cover two or more states.
For example, postcode 2620 covers both a locality in NSW as well as a locality in the ACT, postcode 0872 covers a number of localities across WA, SA, NT and QLD. Three locations straddle the NSW-Queensland border. Jervis Bay Territory, once an exclave of the ACT but now a separate territory, is geographically located on the coast of NSW, it is just south of the towns of Huskisson, with which it shares a postcode. Mail to the Jervis Bay Territory is still addressed to the ACT; the numbers used to show the state on each radio callsign in Australia are the same number as the first number for postcodes in that state, e.g. 2xx in New South Wales, 3xx in Victoria, etc. Radio callsigns pre-date postcodes in Australia by more than forty years. Australia's external territories are included in Australia Post's postcode system. While these territories do not belong to any state, they are addressed as such for mail sorting: Three scientific bases in Antarctica operated by the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions share a postcode with the isolated sub-Antarctic island of Macquarie Island: Each state's capital city ends with three zeroes, while territorial capital cities end with two zeroes.
Capital city postcodes were the lowest postcodes in their state or territory range, before new ranges for LVRs and PO Boxes were made available. The last number can be changed from "0" to "1" to get the postcode for General Post Office boxes in any capital city: While the first number of a postcode shows the state or territory, the second number shows a region within the state. However, postcodes with the same second number are not always next to each other; as an example, postcodes in the range 2200–2299 are split between the southern suburbs of Sydney and the Central Coast of New South Wales. Postcodes with a second number of "0" or "1" are always located within the metropolitan area of the state's capital city. Postcodes with higher secon
Electorates of the Australian states and territories
A State Electoral District is an electorate within the Lower House or Legislative Assembly of Australian states and territories. Most state electoral districts send a single member to a state or territory's parliament using the preferential method of voting; the area of a state electoral district is dependent upon the Electoral Acts in the various states and vary in area between them. At present, there are 409 state electoral districts in Australia. State electoral districts do not apply to the Upper House, or Legislative Council, in those states that have one. In New South Wales and South Australia, MLCs represent the entire state, in Tasmania they represent single-member districts, in Victoria and Western Australia they represent a region formed by grouping electoral districts together. There are five electorates for the Legislative Assembly, each with five members each, making up 25 members in total. There are 93 electoral districts in New South Wales. There are 25 single-member electoral divisions in the Northern Territory, 17 former divisions.
There are 93 electoral districts in Queensland, for the Legislative Assembly of Queensland. Information about the QLD electoral districts for the 2006 elections can be obtained from the Electoral Commission of Queensland website. There are 47 single-member electoral districts in South Australia, for the South Australian House of Assembly. There are 15 electoral divisions in Tasmania for the upper house Legislative Council. In the lower house the five federal divisions are used, but electing 5 members each There are 88 electoral districts in Victoria, for the Victorian Legislative Assembly. There are 59 single-member electoral districts in Western Australia for the Western Australian Legislative Assembly. 42 are in the Perth metropolitan area and 17 are in the rest of the state. Divisions of the Australian House of Representatives Local government in Australia Parliaments of the Australian states and territories
Division of Herbert
The Division of Herbert is an Australian Electoral Division in Queensland. Eligible voters within the Division elect a single representative, known as the member for Herbert, to the Australian House of Representatives; the division was one of the original 65 divisions contested at the 1901 election. It is located in northern Queensland, is named after Sir Robert Herbert, the first Premier of Queensland, it has always been based around the city of Townsville. On its original boundaries, it covered most of northeastern Queensland, stretching from Mackay to the Torres Strait. Much of its northern portion, including Cairns and the Cape York Peninsula, transferred to Kennedy in 1934 (these areas are now part of Leichhardt, its northeastern portion, including Mackay, became Dawson in 1949. By 1984, successive redistributions cut back the seat to little more than Townsville and its inner suburbs; the seat had long been one of Australia's noteworthy bellwether seats. It was won by the party of government for all but two terms from the 1966 election until the 2007 election, where it was hotly contested with local identity and businessman George Colbran pre-selected by Labor to contest Herbert, however Liberal incumbent Peter Lindsay managed to retain the seat with a wafer-thin 50.2 percent two-party vote from a 6 percent two-party swing while his party lost government.
Ewen Jones of the merged Liberal National Party succeeded Lindsay and retained the seat at the following two elections with increased margins. Herbert featured the closest result of any division at the 2016 federal election. Following a recount, the Australian Electoral Commission confirmed on 31 July that Labor's Cathy O'Toole defeated the LNP incumbent by 37 votes, becoming the first Labor member to win the seat since 1996; the LNP considered a legal challenge to the result. Division of Herbert — Australian Electoral Commission