Walter Isaacson is an American writer and journalist. He is the University Professor of History at Tulane University, he has been the President and CEO of the Aspen Institute, a nonpartisan educational and policy studies organization based in Washington, D. C. chairman and CEO of CNN and Managing Editor of Time. He has written biographies of Leonardo da Vinci, Steve Jobs, Benjamin Franklin, Albert Einstein, Henry Kissinger. Isaacson was born in New Orleans, the son of Irwin and Betty Lee Isaacson, his father was a "kindly Jewish distracted humanist engineer with a reverence for science" and his mother was a real estate broker. Isaacson attended New Orleans' Isidore Newman School, he attended Deep Springs College for the Telluride Association Summer Program before graduating from Harvard University in 1974, where he majored in History and Literature. At Harvard, Isaacson was the president of the Signet Society, member of the Harvard Lampoon, resident of Lowell House, he attended the University of Oxford as a Rhodes scholar at Pembroke College, where he studied Philosophy and Economics and graduated with First-Class Honours.
Isaacson began his career in journalism at The Sunday Times of London, followed by a position with the New Orleans Times-Picayune. He joined Time magazine in 1978, serving as the magazine's political correspondent, national editor, editor of new media before becoming the magazine's 14th editor in 1996. Isaacson became chairman and CEO of CNN in July 2001, replacing Tom Johnson, only two months guided CNN through the events of 9/11. Shortly after his appointment at CNN, Isaacson attracted attention for seeking the views of Republican Party leaders on Capitol Hill regarding criticisms that CNN broadcast content, unfair to Republicans or conservatives, he was quoted in Roll Call magazine as saying: "I was trying to reach out to a lot of Republicans who feel that CNN has not been as open to covering Republicans, I wanted to hear their concerns." The CEO's conduct was criticized by the Fairness & Accuracy In Reporting organization, which said that Isaacson's "pandering" behavior was endowing conservative politicians with power over CNN.
In January 2003, he announced that he would step down as president at CNN to become president of the Aspen Institute. Jim Walton replaced Isaacson as president of CNN. Isaacson served as the president and CEO of the Aspen Institute from 2003 until 2018, when he announced that he would step down to become a professor of history at Tulane University and an advisory partner at the New York City financial services firm Perella Weinberg Partners. In November 2017, the Aspen Institute named Dan Porterfield, the president of Franklin and Marshall College, as Isaacson's successor. In March 2017, Isaacson launched a podcast with Dell Technologies called Trailblazers, which focuses on technology's effects on business. In 2018, Isaacson was named as a cohost of "Amanpour & Company," a new show on PBS and CNN that replaced "The Charlie Rose Show." Isaacson is the author of American Sketches, Einstein: His Life and Universe, Benjamin Franklin: An American Life and Kissinger: A Biography. He is the co-author, with Evan Thomas, of The Wise Men: the World They Made.
On October 24, 2011, Steve Jobs, Isaacson's authorized biography of Apple Computer's Jobs, was published by Simon & Schuster, only several weeks after Jobs' death. It became an international best-seller; the book was based on over forty interviews with Jobs over a two-year period up until shortly before his death, on conversations with friends, family members, business rivals of the entrepreneur. In October 2014, Isaacson published The Innovators: How a Group of Inventors, Hackers and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution, which explores the history of the key technological innovations that are prominent in the digital revolution, most notably the parallel developments of the computer and the Internet, it became a New York Times bestseller. Writing for the New York Times, Janet Maslin described the author as "a kindred spirit to the visionaries and enthusiasts" who Isaacson wrote about, he is the editor of Profiles in Leadership: Historians on the Elusive Quality of Greatness. His biography of Leonardo da Vinci was published on October 17, 2017, to positive reviews from critics.
In August 2017, Paramount Pictures won a bidding war against Universal Pictures for the rights to adapt Isaacson's biography of da Vinci. The studio bought the rights under its deal with Leonardo DiCaprio's Appian Way Productions, which said that it planned to produce the film with DiCaprio as the star. Screenwriter John Logan has been tapped to pen the script. In October 2005, Louisiana Governor Kathleen Blanco appointed Isaacson vice chairman of the Louisiana Recovery Authority, a board that oversaw spending on the recovery from Hurricane Katrina. In December 2007, he was appointed by President George W. Bush to the chairman of the U. S.-Palestinian Partnership, which seeks to create economic and educational opportunities in the Palestinian territories. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton appointed him vice-chair of the Partners for a New Beginning, which encourages private-sector investments and partnerships in the Muslim world, he served as the co-chair of the U. S.-Vietnamese Dialogue on Agent Orange, which in January 2008 announced completion of a project to contain the dioxin left behind by the U.
S. at the Da Nang air base and plans to build health centers and a dioxin laboratory in the affected regions. In 2009, he was appointed by President Obama to be Chairman of the Broadcasting Board of Governors, which runs Voi
A chain store or retail chain is a retail outlet in which several locations share a brand, central management, standardized business practices. They have come to dominate the retail and dining markets, many service categories, in many parts of the world. A franchise retail establishment is one form of chain store. In 2004, the world's largest retail chain, became the world's largest corporation based on gross sales. In 1792, Henry Walton Smith and his wife Anna established W. H. Smith as a news vending business in London that would become a national concern in the mid-19th century under the management of their grandson William Henry Smith; the firm took advantage of the railway boom by opening news-stands at railway stations beginning in 1848. The firm, now called WHSmith, had more than 1,400 locations as of 2017. In the U. S. chain stores began with the founding of The Great Atlantic & Pacific Tea Company in 1859. The small chain sold tea and coffee in stores located in New York City and operated a national mail order business.
The firm grew to 70 stores by 1878 when George Huntington Hartford turned A&P into the country's first grocery chain. In 1900, it operated 200 stores. Isidore and Modeste Dewachter originated the idea of the chain department store in Belgium in 1868, ten years before A&P began offering more than coffee and tea, they started with four locations for Maisons Dewachter: La Louvière, Mons and the tiny crossroads village of Leuze. They incorporated as Dewachter frères on January 1, 1875; the brothers offered ready-to-wear clothing for men and children and specialty clothing such as riding apparel and beachwear. Isidore owned 51% of the company, while his brothers split the remaining 49%. Under Isidore's leadership, Maisons Dewachter would become one of the most recognized names in Belgium and France with stores in 20 cities and towns; some cities had multiple stores, such as France. Louis Dewachter became an internationally known landscape artist, painting under the pseudonym Louis Dewis. By the early 1920s, the U.
S. boasted three national chains: A&P, Woolworth's, United Cigar Stores. By the 1930s, chain stores had come of age, stopped increasing their total market share. Court decisions against the chains' price-cutting appeared as early as 1906, laws against chain stores began in the 1920s, along with legal countermeasures by chain-store groups. A chain store is characterised by the ownership or franchise relationship between the local business or outlet and a controlling business. While chains are "formula retail", a chain refers to ownership or franchise, whereas "formula retail" refers to the characteristics of the business. There is considerable overlap because key characteristic of a formula retail business is that it is controlled as a part of a business relationship, is part of a chain. Most codified municipal regulation relies on definitions of formula retail, in part because a restriction directed to "chains" may be deemed an impermissible restriction on interstate commerce, or as exceeding municipal zoning authority.
Non-codified restrictions will sometimes target "chains". Brick-and-mortar chain stores have been in decline as retail has shifted to online shopping, leading to high retail vacancy rates; the hundred-year-old Radio Shack chain went from 7,400 stores in 2001 to 400 stores in 2018. FYE is the last remaining music chain store in the United States and has shrunk from over 1000 at its height to 270 locations in 2018. In 2019, Payless ShoeSource stated that it would be closing all remaining 2,100 stores in the US. A restaurant chain is a set of related restaurants in many different locations that are either under shared corporate ownership or franchising agreements; the restaurants within a chain are built to a standard format through architectural prototype development and offer a standard menu and/or services. Fast food restaurants are the most common, but sit-down restaurant chains exist. Restaurant chains are found near highways, shopping malls and tourist areas; the displacement of independent businesses by chains has sparked increased collaboration among independent businesses and communities to prevent chain proliferation.
These efforts include community-based organizing through Independent Business Alliances and "buy local" campaigns. In the U. S. trade organizations such as the American Booksellers Association and American Specialty Toy Retailers do national promotion and advocacy. NGOs like the New Rules Project and New Economics Foundation provide research and tools for pro-independent business education and policy while the American Independent Business Alliance provides direct assistance for community-level organizing. A variety of towns and cities in the United States whose residents wish to retain their distinctive character—such as San Francisco, they don't exclude the chain itself, only the standardized formula the chain uses, described as "formula businesses". For example, there could be a restaurant owned by McDonald's that sells hamburgers, but not the formula franchise operation with the golden arches and standardized menu and procedures; the reason these towns regulate chain stores is aesthetics and tourism.
Proponents of formula restaurants and formula retail allege th
Publishing is the dissemination of literature, music, or information. It is the activity of making information available to the general public. In some cases, authors may be their own publishers, meaning originators and developers of content provide media to deliver and display the content for the same; the word "publisher" can refer to the individual who leads a publishing company or an imprint or to a person who owns/heads a magazine. Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works such as newspapers. With the advent of digital information systems and the Internet, the scope of publishing has expanded to include electronic resources such as the electronic versions of books and periodicals, as well as micropublishing, blogs, video game publishers, the like. Publishing includes the following stages of development: acquisition, copy editing, printing and distribution. Publication is important as a legal concept: As the process of giving formal notice to the world of a significant intention, for example, to marry or enter bankruptcy As the essential precondition of being able to claim defamation.
Self-publishing: The author has to meet the total expense to get the book published. The author should retain full rights known as vanity publishing. Publishing became possible with the invention of writing, became more practical upon the introduction of printing. Prior to printing, distributed works were copied manually, by scribes. Due to printing, publishing progressed hand-in-hand with the development of books; the Chinese inventor Bi Sheng made movable type of earthenware circa 1045, but there are no known surviving examples of his printing. Around 1450, in what is regarded as an independent invention, Johannes Gutenberg invented movable type in Europe, along with innovations in casting the type based on a matrix and hand mould; this invention made books less expensive to produce, more available. Early printed books, single sheets and images which were created before 1501 in Europe are known as incunables or incunabula. "A man born in 1453, the year of the fall of Constantinople, could look back from his fiftieth year on a lifetime in which about eight million books had been printed, more than all the scribes of Europe had produced since Constantine founded his city in A.
D. 330."Eventually, printing enabled other forms of publishing besides books. The history of modern newspaper publishing started in Germany in 1609, with publishing of magazines following in 1663. Publishing has been handled by publishers, with the history of self-publishing progressing until the advent of computers brought us electronic publishing, made evermore ubiquitous from the moment the world went online with the Internet; the establishment of the World Wide Web in 1989 soon propelled the website into a dominant medium of publishing, as websites are created by anyone with Internet access. The history of wikis started shortly thereafter, followed by the history of blogging. Commercial publishing progressed, as printed forms developed into online forms of publishing, distributing online books, online newspapers, online magazines. Since its start, the World Wide Web has been facilitating the technological convergence of commercial and self-published content, as well as the convergence of publishing and producing into online production through the development of multimedia content.
Book and magazine publishers spend a lot of commissioning copy. At a small press, it is possible to survive by relying on commissioned material, but as activity increases, the need for works may outstrip the publisher's established circle of writers. For works written independently of the publisher, writers first submit a query letter or proposal directly to a literary agent or to a publisher. Submissions sent directly to a publisher are referred to as unsolicited submissions, the majority come from unpublished authors. If the publisher accepts unsolicited manuscripts the manuscript is placed in the slush pile, which publisher's readers sift through to identify manuscripts of sufficient quality or revenue potential to be referred to acquisitions editors for review; the acquisitions editors send their choices to the editorial staff. The time and number of people involved in the process are dependent on the size of the publishing company, with larger companies having more degrees of assessment between unsolicited submission and publication.
Unsolicited submissions have a low rate of acceptance, with some sources estimating that publishers choose about three out of every ten thousand unsolicited manuscripts they receive. Many book publishers around the world maintain a strict "no unsolicited submissions" policy and will only accept submissions via a literary agent; this policy shifts the burden of assessing and developing writers out of the publisher and onto the literary agents. At these publishers, unsolicited manuscripts are thrown out, or sometimes returned, if the author has provided pre-paid postage. Established authors may be represented by a literary agent to market their work to publishers and n
San Francisco Chronicle
The San Francisco Chronicle is a newspaper serving the San Francisco Bay Area of the U. S. state of California. It was founded in 1865 as The Daily Dramatic Chronicle by teenage brothers Charles de Young and Michael H. de Young. The paper is owned by the Hearst Corporation, which bought it from the de Young family in 2000, it is the only major daily paper covering the county of San Francisco. The paper benefited from the growth of San Francisco and was the largest circulation newspaper on the West Coast of the United States by 1880. Like many other newspapers, it has experienced a rapid fall in circulation in the early 21st century, was ranked 24th by circulation nationally for the six months to March 2010; the newspaper publishes two web sites: and sfchronicle.com, which reflects the articles that appear in the print paper, SFGate, which has a mixture of online news and web features. The Chronicle was founded by brothers Charles and M. H. de Young in 1865 as The Daily Dramatic Chronicle, inside of 10 years, it had the largest circulation of any newspaper west of the Mississippi River.
The paper's first office was in a building at the corner of Kearney Streets. The brothers commissioned a building from Burnham and Root at 690 Market Street at the corner of Third and Kearney Streets to be their new headquarters, in what became known as Newspaper Row; the new building, San Francisco's first skyscraper, was completed in 1889. It was damaged in the 1906 earthquake, but it was rebuilt under the direction of William Polk, Burnham's associate in San Francisco; that building, known as the "Old Chronicle Building" or the "DeYoung Building", still stands and was restored in 2007. It is the location of the Ritz-Carlton Club and Residences. In 1924, the Chronicle commissioned a new headquarters at 901 Mission Street on the corner of 5th Street in what is now the South of Market neighborhood of San Francisco, it was designed by Charles Peter Weeks and William Peyton Day in the Gothic Revival architecture style, but most of the Gothic Revival detailing was removed in 1968 when the building was re-clad with stucco.
This building remains the Chronicle's headquarters in 2017, although other concerns are located there as well. Between World War II and 1971, new editor Scott Newhall took a bold and somewhat provocative approach to news presentation. Newhall's Chronicle included investigative reporting by such journalists as Pierre Salinger, who played a prominent role in national politics, Paul Avery, the staffer who pursued the trail of the self-named "Zodiac Killer", who sent a cryptogram in three sections in letters to the Chronicle and two other papers during his murder spree in the late 1960s, it featured such colorful columnists as Pauline Phillips, who wrote under the name "Dear Abby," "Count Marco", Stanton Delaplane, Terence O'Flaherty, Lucius Beebe, Art Hoppe, Charles McCabe, Herb Caen. The newspaper grew in circulation to become the city's largest, overtaking the rival San Francisco Examiner; the demise of other San Francisco dailies through the late 1950s and early 1960s left the Examiner and the Chronicle to battle for circulation and readership superiority.
The competition between the Chronicle and Examiner took a financial toll on both papers until the summer of 1965, when a merger of sorts created a Joint Operating Agreement under which the Chronicle became the city's sole morning daily while the Examiner changed to afternoon publication. The newspapers were owned by the San Francisco Newspaper Agency, which managed sales and distribution for both newspapers and was charged with ensuring that one newspaper's circulation did not grow at the expense of the other. Revenue was split which led to a situation understood to benefit the Examiner, since the Chronicle, which had a circulation four times larger than its rival, subsidized the afternoon newspaper; the two newspapers produced a joint Sunday edition, with the Examiner publishing the news sections and the Sunday magazine and the Chronicle responsible for the tabloid entertainment section and the book review. From 1965 on the two papers shared a single classified-advertising operation; this arrangement stayed in place until the Hearst Corporation took full control of the Chronicle in 2000.
Beginning in the early 1990s, the Chronicle started to face competition beyond the borders of San Francisco. The newspaper had long enjoyed a wide reach as the de facto "newspaper of record" in Northern California, with distribution along the Central Coast, the Inland Empire and as far as Honolulu, Hawaii. There was little competition in the Bay Area suburbs and other areas that the newspaper served, but as Knight Ridder consolidated the San Jose Mercury News in 1975; the Chronicle launched five zoned sections to appear in the Friday edition of the paper. The sections covered San Francisco, four different suburban areas, they each featured enterprise pieces and local news specific to the community. The newspaper added 40 full-time staff positions to work in the suburban bureaus. Despite the push to focus on suburban coverage, the Chronicle was hamstrung by the Sunday edition, being produced by the San Francisco-centric "un-Chronicle" Examiner, had none of the focus on the suburban communities that the Chronicle was striving to cultivate.
The de Young family controlled the paper, via the Chronicle Publishing Company, until July 27, 2000, when it was sold to Hearst Communications, Inc. which owned the Examiner. Following the sale, the
Local history is the study of history in a geographically local context and it concentrates on the local community. It incorporates social aspects of history. Local history is not national history writ small but a study of past events in a given geographical but one, based on a wide variety of documentary evidence and placed in a comparative context, both regional and national. Historic plaques are one form of documentation of significant occurrences in the past and oral histories are another. Local history is documented by local historical societies or groups that form to preserve a local historic building or other historic site. Many works of local history are compiled by amateur historians working independently or archivists employed by various organizations. An important aspect of local history is the publication and cataloguing of documents preserved in local or national records which relate to particular areas. In a number of countries a broader concept of local lore is known, a comprehensive study of everything pertaining to a certain locality: history, geography, natural history, etc.
Local history tends to be less documented than other types, with fewer books and artifacts than that of a country or continent. Many local histories are recorded as oral tales or stories and so are more vulnerable than more well known issues. Artifacts of local history are collected in local history museums, which may be housed in a historic house or other building. Individual historic sites are inherently local, although they may have national or world history importance as well. Many however add depth to the local area. In Australia, local history is focussed on country towns and regions. In cities, local history might concentrate on a CBD and its bordering suburbs, on a specific suburb or municipality, or on an agglomeration of suburbs and municipalities. Outside the larger cities, local history examines regional towns and surrounding areas. Records are stored at state libraries, municipal libraries, historical societies and public record offices. For example, the State Library of Victoria holds extensive local history records for Melbourne and other places in Victoria.
Many other Melbourne libraries have local history collections, along with the Public Record Office Victoria and the Royal Historical Society of Victoria. In New South Wales, the Royal Australian Historical Society has studied local history as part of its remit since its founding in 1901, it holds local history records along with the State Library of NSW and other state and local libraries and archives. Historians have examined the ways local history has been written in Australia since the nineteenth century. Early on, the emphasis was on settler history; the creative ways that local history contributed to making community has been argued. Subsequently, local history, urban history, public history and heritage were connected in Australia; the British Association for Local History in the United Kingdom encourages and assists in the study of local history as an academic discipline and as a leisure activity by both individuals and groups. Most historic counties in England have record societies and archaeological and historical societies which coordinate the work of historians and other researchers concerned with that area.
Local history in the UK took a long time to be accepted as an academic discipline. In the 18th and 19th centuries, it was regarded as an antiquarian pursuit, suitable for country parsons; the Victoria History of the Counties of England project begun in 1899 in honour of Queen Victoria with the aim of creating an encyclopaedic history of each of the historic counties of England. The project is coordinated by the Institute of Historical Research at the University of London; the first academic post related to local history was at Reading University which appointed a research fellow in local history in 1908. There was a department of local history at Leicester University from 1947. H. P. R. Finberg was the first Professor of English Local History, he was appointed by Leicester in 1964. Local history continues to be neglected as an academic subject within universities. Academic local historians are found within a more general department of history or in continuing education. Local history is taught as a separate subject in British schools.
In 1908, a Board of Education circular had urged that schools should pay attention "to the history of the town and district" in which they were situated. In 1952, the Ministry of Education suggested schools should use local material to illustrate national themes. Within the current National Curriculum, pupils at level 4 are expected to "show their knowledge and understanding of local and international history"; the Alan Ball Local History Awards were established in the 1980s to recognize outstanding contributions in local history publishing in the UK, to encourage the publishing of such works by public libraries and local authorities. Local history can become a crucial component to policy-making and serve as a marketable resource and this is demonstrated in the case of Northern Ireland. Aside from its contribution to local development, local history is being used as a non-contentious meeting ground in addressing conflicting traditions by reinforcing shared past rather than adversarial political history.
In the United States, local history is concentrated on any history of the place and people from a particular village or township. Several villages and townships would comprise county history. Library records are divided by
Dover, New Hampshire
Dover is a city in Strafford County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 29,987 at the 2010 census, the largest in the New Hampshire Seacoast region; the population was estimated at 31,398 in 2017. It is the county seat of Strafford County, home to Wentworth-Douglass Hospital, the Woodman Institute Museum, the Children's Museum of New Hampshire. First recorded in its Latinised form of Portus Dubris, the name derives from the Brythonic word for waters; the same element is present in the town's Modern Welsh forms. The first known European to explore the region was Martin Pring from Bristol, England, in 1603. In 1623, William and Edward Hilton settled Cochecho Plantation, adopting its Abenaki name, making Dover the oldest permanent settlement in New Hampshire, seventh in the United States. One of the colony's four original townships, it included Durham, Newington, Lee and Rollinsford; the Hiltons' name survives at Hilton Park on Dover Point, where the brothers settled near the confluence of the Bellamy and Piscataqua rivers.
They were fishmongers sent from London by The Company of Laconia to establish a colony and fishery on the Piscataqua. In 1631, however, it contained only three houses. William Hilton built, he served as Deputy to the General Court. In 1633, Cochecho Plantation was bought by a group of English Puritans who planned to settle in New England, including Viscount Saye and Sele, Baron Brooke and John Pym, they promoted colonization in America, that year Hilton's Point received numerous immigrants, many from Bristol. They renamed the settlement Bristol. Atop the nearby hill they built a meetinghouse surrounded with a jail nearby; the town was called Dover in 1637 by Reverend George Burdett. It was named after Robert Dover, an English lawyer who resisted Puritanism. With the 1639 arrival of Thomas Larkham, however, it was renamed after Northam in Devon, where he had been preacher, but Lord Saye and Sele's group lost interest in their settlements, both here and at Saybrook, when their plan to establish a hereditary aristocracy in the colonies met disfavor in New England.
The plantation was sold in 1641 to Massachusetts and again named Dover. Settlers built fortified log houses called garrisons, inspiring Dover's nickname "The Garrison City." The population and business center shifted upriver from Dover Point to Cochecho Falls, its drop of 34 feet providing water power for industry On June 28, 1689, Dover suffered a devastating attack by Native Americans. It was revenge for an incident on September 7, 1676, when 400 Native Americans were duped by Major Richard Waldron into performing a "mock battle" near Cochecho Falls. After discharging their weapons, the Native American warriors were captured. Half were sent to Massachusetts for predations committed during King Philip's War either hanged or sold into slavery. Local Native Americans deemed innocent were released, but considered the deception a dishonorable breach of hospitality. Thirteen years passed; when colonists thought the episode forgotten, they struck. Fifty-two colonists, a quarter of the population, were either slain.
During Father Rale's War, in August and September 1723, there were Indian raids on Saco and Dover, New Hampshire. The following year Dover was raided again and Elizabeth Hanson wrote her captivity narrative. Located at the head of navigation, Cochecho Falls brought the Industrial Revolution to 19th-century Dover in a big way; the Dover Cotton Factory was incorporated in 1812 enlarged in 1823 to become the Dover Manufacturing Company. In 1827, the Cocheco Manufacturing Company was founded, which in 1829 purchased the Dover Manufacturing Company. Expansive brick mills, linked by railroad, were constructed downtown. Incorporated as a city in 1855, Dover for a time became a leading national producer of textiles; the mills were purchased in 1909 by the Pacific Mills of Lawrence, which closed the printery in 1913 but continued spinning and weaving. During the Great Depression, textile mills no longer dependent on New England water power began moving to southern states in search of cheaper operating conditions, or went out of business.
Dover's millyard shut in 1937 was bought at auction in 1940 by the city itself for $54,000. There were no other bids. Now called the Cocheco Falls Millworks, its tenants include technology and government services companies, plus a restaurant. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 29.0 square miles, of which 26.7 square miles is land and 2.3 square miles is water, comprising 7.96% of the city. Dover is drained by the Bellamy rivers. Long Hill, elevation greater than 300 feet above sea level and located 3 miles northwest of the city center, is the highest point in Dover. Garrison Hill, elevation 290 ft, is a prominent hill rising directly above the center city, with a park and lookout tower on top. Dover lies within the Piscataqua River watershed; the city is crossed by New Hampshire Route 4, New Hampshire Route 9, New Hampshire Route 16, New Hampshire Route 16B, New Hampshire Route 108, New Hampshire Route 155. It is bordered by the town of Newington to the south, Madbury to the southwest and Rochester to the northwest and Rollinsford to th
The Philadelphia Inquirer
The Philadelphia Inquirer is a morning daily newspaper that serves the Philadelphia metropolitan area of the United States. The newspaper was founded by John R. Walker and John Norvell in June 1829 as The Pennsylvania Inquirer and is the third-oldest surviving daily newspaper in the United States. Owned by Philadelphia Media Network, a subsidiary of The Philadelphia Foundation's nonprofit Institute for Journalism in New Media, The Inquirer has the eighteenth largest average weekday U. S. newspaper has won twenty Pulitzer Prizes. It is the newspaper of record in the Delaware Valley; the paper has fallen in prominence throughout its history. The Inquirer first became a major newspaper during the American Civil War when its war coverage was popular on both sides; the paper's circulation dropped after the war rose by the end of the 19th century. Supportive of the Democratic Party, The Inquirer's political affiliation shifted toward the Whig Party and the Republican Party before becoming politically independent in the middle of the 20th century.
By the end of the 1960s, The Inquirer trailed its chief competitor, the Philadelphia Evening Bulletin, lacked modern facilities and experienced staff. In the 1970s, new owners and editors turned the newspaper into one of the country's most prominent, winning 20 Pulitzers; the editor is Gabriel Escobar. Stan Wischnowski is vice president of news operations; the Philadelphia Inquirer was founded as The Pennsylvania Inquirer by printer John R. Walker and John Norvell, former editor of Philadelphia's largest newspaper, the Aurora & Gazette. An editorial in the first issue of The Pennsylvania Inquirer promised that the paper would be devoted to the right of a minority to voice their opinion and "the maintenance of the rights and liberties of the people against the abuses as the usurpation of power." They pledged support to then-President Andrew Jackson and "home industries, American manufactures, internal improvements that so materially contribute to the agricultural and national prosperity." Founded on June 1, 1829, The Philadelphia Inquirer is the third-oldest surviving daily newspaper in the United States.
However, in 1962, an Inquirer-commissioned historian traced The Inquirer to John Dunlap's The Pennsylvania Packet, founded on October 28, 1771. In 1850, The Packet was merged with another newspaper, The North American, which merged with the Philadelphia Public Ledger; the Public Ledger merged with The Philadelphia Inquirer in the 1930s, between 1962 and 1975, a line on The Inquirer's front page claimed that the newspaper is the United States' oldest surviving daily newspaper. Six months after The Inquirer was founded, with competition from eight established daily newspapers, lack of funds forced Norvell and Walker to sell the newspaper to publisher and United States Gazette associate editor Jesper Harding. After Harding acquired The Pennsylvania Inquirer, it was published as an afternoon paper before returning to its original morning format in January 1830. Under Harding, in 1829, The Inquirer moved from its original location between Front and Second Streets to between Second and Third Streets.
When Harding bought and merged the Morning Journal in January 1830, the newspaper was moved to South Second Street. Ten years The Inquirer again was moved, this time to its own building at the corner of Third Street and Carter's Alley. Harding expanded The Inquirer's content and the paper soon grew into a major Philadelphian newspaper; the expanded content included the addition of fiction, in 1840, Harding gained rights to publish several Charles Dickens novels for which Dickens was paid a significant amount. At the time the common practice was to pay little or nothing for the rights of foreign authors' works. Harding retired in 1859 and was succeeded by his son William White Harding, who had become a partner three years earlier. William Harding changed the name of the newspaper to The Philadelphia Inquirer. Harding, in an attempt to increase circulation, cut the price of the paper, began delivery routes and had newsboys sell papers on the street. In 1859, circulation had been around 7,000. Part of the increase was due to the interest in news during the American Civil War.
Twenty-five to thirty thousand copies of The Inquirer were distributed to Union soldiers during the war and several times the U. S. government asked The Philadelphia Inquirer to issue a special edition for soldiers. The Philadelphia Inquirer supported the Union. Confederate generals sought copies of the paper, believing that the newspaper's war coverage was accurate. Inquirer journalist Uriah Hunt Painter was at the First Battle of Bull Run in 1861, a battle which ended in a Confederate victory. Initial reports from the government claimed a Union victory, but The Inquirer went with Painter's firsthand account. Crowds threatened to burn The Inquirer's building down because of the report. Another report, this time about General George Meade, angered Meade enough that he punished Edward Crapsey, the reporter who wrote it. Crapsey and other war correspondents decided to attribute any victories of the Army of the Potomac, Meade's command, to Ulysses S. Grant, commander of the entire Union army. Any defeats of the Army of the Potomac would be attributed to Meade.
During the war, The Inquirer continued to grow with more staff being added and another move into a larger building on Chestnut Street. However, after the war, economic hits combined with Harding becoming ill, hurt The Inquirer. Despite Philadelphia's population growth, distribution fell from 70,000 during the Civil War to 5,000 in 1888. Beginning in 1889, the paper w