Bloomberg Businessweek is an American weekly business magazine published since 2009 by Bloomberg L. P. Businessweek, founded in 1929, aimed to provide information and interpretation about events in the business world; the magazine is headquartered in New York City. Megan Murphy served as editor from November 2016; the magazine is published 47 times a year. Businessweek was first published in September 1929, weeks before the stock market crash of 1929; the magazine provided information and opinions on what was happening in the business world at the time. Early sections of the magazine included marketing, finance and Washington Outlook, which made Businessweek one of the first publications to cover national political issues that directly impacted the business world. Businessweek was published to be a resource for business managers. However, in the 1970s, the magazine shifted its strategy and added consumers outside the business world; as of 1975, the magazine was carrying more advertising pages annually than any other magazine in the United States.
Businessweek began publishing its annual rankings of United States business school MBA programs in 1988. Stephen B. Shepard served as editor-in-chief from 1984 until 2005 when he was chosen to be the founding dean of the CUNY Graduate School of Journalism. Under Shepard, Businessweek's readership grew to more than six million in the late 1980s, he was succeeded by Stephen J. Adler of The Wall Street Journal. In 2006, Businessweek started publishing annual rankings of undergraduate business programs in addition to its MBA program listing. Businessweek suffered a decline in circulation during the late-2000s recession as advertising revenues fell one-third by the start of 2009 and the magazine's circulation fell to 936,000. In July 2009, it was reported that McGraw-Hill was trying to sell Businessweek and had hired Evercore Partners to conduct the sale; because of the magazine's liabilities, it was suggested that it might change hands for the nominal price of $1 to an investor, willing to incur losses turning the magazine around.
In late 2009, Bloomberg L. P. bought the magazine—reportedly for between $2 million to $5 million plus assumption of liabilities—and renamed it Bloomberg BusinessWeek. It is now believed McGraw-Hill received the high end of the speculated price, at $5 million, along with the assumption of debt. In early 2010, the magazine title was restyled Bloomberg Businessweek as part of a redesign; as of 2014, the magazine was losing $30 million per year, about half of the $60 million it was reported losing in 2009. Adler resigned as editor-in-chief and was replaced by Josh Tyrangiel, deputy managing editor of Time magazine. In 2016 Bloomberg announced changes to Businessweek, losing between $20 and $30 million. Nearly 30 Bloomberg News journalists were let go across the U. S. Europe and Asia and it was announced that a new version of Bloomberg Businessweek would launch the following year. In addition, editor in chief Ellen Pollock stepped down from her position and Washington Bureau Chief Megan Murphy was named as the next editor in chief.
International editions of Businessweek were available on newsstands in Europe and Asia until 2005 when publication of regional editions was suspended to help increase foreign readership of customized European and Asian versions of Businessweek's website. However, the same year the Russian edition was launched in collaboration with Rodionov Publishing House. At the same time, Businessweek partnered with InfoPro Management, a publishing and market research company based in Beirut, Lebanon, to produce the Arabic version of the magazine in 22 Arab countries. In 2011, Bloomberg Businessweek continued the magazine's international expansion and announced plans to introduce a Polish-language edition called Bloomberg Businessweek Polska, as well as a Chinese edition, relaunched in November 2011. Bloomberg Businessweek launched an iPad version of the magazine using Apple's subscription billing service in 2011; the iPad edition was the first to use this subscription method, which allows one to subscribe via an iTunes account.
There are over 100,000 subscribers to the iPad edition of Businessweek. On October 4, 2018, Bloomberg Businessweek published a report claiming that China had hacked dozens of technology corporations including Amazon and Apple by placing an extra integrated circuit on a Supermicro server motherboard during manufacturing; the claim has been questioned. The report was refuted by Amazon and Supermicro; the United States security department DHS and UK's GCHQ put out statements that they saw no reason to question those refutations. NSA claims to have no knowledge of the attack. FBI, named by Bloomberg to be investigating the alleged attack, is prevented from commenting on it, but notes that it would have an obligation to inform US companies of attacks like these, should they occur. Experts describe the attack as implausible and in technical details impossible. One source quoted in the Bloomberg text claims that several details of the attack as described by Bloomberg are identical to hypothetical scenarios that he presented to Bloomberg.
No other media organization has, by the end of October, corroborated the story. None of the 30 companies that Bloomberg claims were hit by the infiltration have confirmed this. Apple's CEO and Amazon's CTO have demanded. In the year 2011, Adweek named Bloomberg Businessweek as the top business magazine in the country. In 2012, Bloomberg Businessweek won the general excellence award for general-interest magazines at the National Magazine Awards. In 2012, Bloomberg Businessweek editor Josh
Siemens-VAI based in Linz, was an engineering and plant building company for the iron and steel industry, for the flat-rolling sector of the aluminum industry and for open cast mining. It focused on metallurgical services. Siemens VAI represented in more than 40 countries and employed 9,000 people, it was involved in projects of the iron and steel industry as well as the flat-rolling sector of the aluminum industry in more than 100 countries. Siemens VAI specialized in the ready-to-use construction of production plants and systems within the metallurgical sector. More than 500 manufacturers of metallurgical products, representing 70 percent of global steel production, were among the company's customers; the company itself was not listed on the stock exchange, since it was a 100% subsidiary of Siemens AG. Apart from the headquarters in Linz, Siemens VAI had subsidiaries in Erlangen and Willstätt-Legelshurst, Great Britain, France and Worcester. Linz, Austria Sintering, smelting reduction, steel production, endless strip production, cold rolling and hot rolling mills, automation for iron and steel production.
Stainless steel processing lines: CAPL, HAPL, DRAP, CTCM, etc. Special equipment: Automated strip inspection system, laser welders, mash lap welders, flash butt welders, scale breakers, tension levelers, tinplate tension levelers, skin-pass mills, wiping / air knives system for continuous galvanizing lines, roll coaters, side trimmers, scrap choppers, rotary shears, carrousels for PLTCM entry and hot heavy plate levelers, etc. Sales, Product development, Project management and Workshop were all located at the same location. Worcester, Massachusetts, USAWire and section rolling mills, strand guide rollers. Official website
Leonid Danylovych Kuchma is a Ukrainian politician, the second President of independent Ukraine from 19 July 1994 to 23 January 2005. Kuchma took office after winning the 1994 presidential election against his rival, the incumbent Leonid Kravchuk. Kuchma won re-election for an additional five-year term in 1999, his presidency was surrounded by the lessening of media freedoms. Corruption accelerated after Kuchma's election in 1994, but in 2000–2001, his power began to weaken in the face of exposures in the media. On his watch the Ukrainian economy continued to decline until 1999, whereas growth was recorded since 2000, bringing relative prosperity to some segments of urban residents. During his presidency, Ukrainian-Russian ties began to improve. After a successful career in the machine-building industry of the Soviet Union, Kuchma began his political career in 1990, when he was elected to the Verkhovna Rada, he served as Ukrainian Prime Minister between October 1992 and September 1993. From July 2014 until October 2018 Kuchma was a special presidential representative of Ukraine at the semi-official peace talks regarding the ongoing War in Donbass.
Leonid Kuchma was born in the village of Chaikine in rural Chernihiv Oblast. His father Danylo Prokopovych Kuchma was wounded in World War II and died of his wounds in the field hospital #756 when Leonid was four, his mother Paraska Trokhymivna Kuchma worked at a kolhoz. Kuchma attended the Kostobobrove general education school in the neighboring Semenivka Raion, he enrolled in Dnipropetrovsk National University and graduated in 1960 with a degree in mechanical engineering. The same year he joined the Communist Party of Soviet Union. Kuchma is a candidate of technical sciences. In 1967 Kuchma married Lyudmyla. After graduation, Kuchma worked in the field of aerospace engineering for the Yuzhnoye Design Bureau in Dnipropetrovsk. At 28 he became a testing director for the Bureau deployed at the Baikonur cosmodrome; some political observers suggested that Kuchma's early career was boosted by his marriage to Lyudmila Talalayeva, an adopted daughter of Gennadiy Tumanov, the Yuzhmash chief engineering officer and the Soviet Minister of Medium Machine Building.
At 38 Kuchma became the Communist party chief at Yuzhny Machine-building Plant and a member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine. He was a delegate of the 28th Congresses of the Communist Party of Soviet Union. By the end of the 1980s, Kuchma criticized the Communist Party. In 1982 Kuchma was appointed the first deputy of general design engineer at Yuzhmash, from 1986 to 1992, he held the position of the company's general director. From 1990 to 1992, Kuchma was a member of the Verkhovna Rada. In 1992 he was appointed as Prime Minister of Ukraine, he resigned a year complaining of "slow pace of reform". He was re-elected into parliament in 1994. Kuchma resigned from the position of Prime Minister of Ukraine in September 1993 to run for the presidency in 1994 on a platform to boost the economy by restoring economic relations with Russia and faster pro-market reforms. Kuchma won a clear victory against the incumbent President Leonid Kravchuk, receiving strong support from the industrial areas in the east and south.
His worst results were in the west of the country. Kuchma was re-elected in 1999 to his second term; this time the areas that gave him strongest support last time voted for his opponents, the areas which voted against him last time came to his support. During Kuchma's Presidency, he closed opposition papers and several journalists died in mysterious circumstances. According to historian Serhy Yekelchyk President Kuchma's administration "employed electoral fraud freely" during the 2000 constitutional referendum and 1999 presidential elections. In October 1994, Kuchma announced comprehensive economic reforms, including reduced subsidies, lifting of price controls, lower taxes, privatization of industry and agriculture, reforms in currency regulation and banking; the parliament approved the plan's main points. The International Monetary Fund promised a $360 million loan to initiate reforms, he was re-elected in 1999 to his second term. Opponents accused him of involvement in the killing in 2000 of journalist Georgiy Gongadze, which he has always denied.
Critics blamed Kuchma for restrictions on press freedom. Kuchma is believed to have played a key role in sacking the Cabinet of Viktor Yushchenko by Verkhovna Rada on 26 April 2001. Kuchma's Prime Minister from 2002 until early January 2005 was Viktor Yanukovych, after Kuchma dismissed Anatoliy Kinakh, his previous appointee. In 2002 Kuchma stated that Ukraine wanted to sign an association agreement with the European Union by 2003–2004 and that Ukraine would meet all EU membership requirements by 2007–2011, he hoped for a free-trade treaty with the EU. In his inaugural address Kuchma said: Historically, Ukraine is part of the Euro-Asian cultural and economics space. Ukraine's vitally important national interests are now concentrated on this territory of the former Soviet Union.... We are linked with... the former republics of the Soviet Union by traditional scientific and family ties... I am convinced that Ukraine can assume the role of one of the leaders of Euro-Asian economic integration. Kuchma signed a "Treaty of Friendship and Partnership" with Russia, endorsed a round of talks with the CIS.
Additionally, he referred to Russian as "an official language". He signed a special partnership ag
Rinat Leonidovych Akhmetov is a Ukrainian businessman and oligarch. He is the founder and President of System Capital Management, is ranked among the wealthiest men in Ukraine; as of February 2015, he was listed as the 216th richest man in the world with an estimated net worth of US 5 billion. Some sources have claimed that Akhmetov has been involved in organized crime, but Akhmetov has never been charged with a crime, his lawyers refuted these accusations. Akhmetov is President of the Ukrainian football club Shakhtar Donetsk. In 2006–2007 and 2007–2012 Akhmetov was a member of the Ukrainian Verkhovna Rada for the Party of Regions. Akhmetov made numerous statements, since March 2014, appealing for integrity of Ukraine and finding peaceful solutions of the crisis. Rinat Akhmetov was born in Donetsk, Ukrainian SSR to a working-class family, he is a practicing Sunni Muslim. His father, Leonid Akhmetov was a coal-miner, his mother, Nyakiya Nasredinovna, was a shop assistant. Rinat Akhmetov has an older brother, who worked as a coal miner but had to resign due to work-related health complications.
Akhmetov obtained a Bachelor of Arts / Science in Economics from the Donetsk National University. He graduated in 2001. Details regarding Akhmetov's past, how he obtained his wealth after the fall of communism in Ukraine, the decade between 1985 and 1995 remain controversial. Akhmetov has stated in interviews that he obtained his wealth by making risky business investments in the first years after the collapse of the Soviet Union, responded to allegations in 2010, denying he has inherited any money from Akhat Bragin or anyone else: "I have earned my first million by trading coal and coke, spent the money on assets that no one wanted to buy, it was a risk but it was worth it". Many publications in Ukraine and other European countries have made claims about Akhmetov's alleged "criminal past", some of which retracted their statements. In 2005 Akhmetov hired American lawyers Akin Gump Strauss Hauer & Feld, who issued a statement denying that Akhmetov has any ties with the criminal world. In his documentary book Donetsk Mafia: Anthology, Ukrainian author Serhiy Kuzin claims Akhmetov held the role of a'mafia thug' in his early years.
Andrew Wilson, a scholar specializing in Ukrainian politics, categorized Akhmetov as an alleged former'enforcer' and'leader' of " Bragin's'Tatar' clan", responsible for the use of "mafia methods to push aside the'red directors' of the ". By the early 1990s, Akhmetov began acquiring property in Donetsk by means of extortion with the assistance of Volodymyr Malyshev, Lieutenant-General of The Head of Ministry of Internal Affairs Department in Donetsk Oblast. Malyshev, now a member of Ukraine's Parliament on the committee controlling law enforcement, is accused by Kuzin of using his position to do away with existing police records concerning Akhmetov shortly before becoming chief of security for Akhmetov's company. "In, Akhmetov was different – he was private with no public persona, was trying to find ways to deal with his'difficult past'", noted U. S. ambassador William Taylor. Further in that article cited the answer of the spokesperson for Akhmetov addressed to the Kyiv Post: "We don't know whether this phrase is authentic and what it means.
Although, any accusations of Mr Akhmetov's involvement in criminal structures is slander." In October 1995, president of Shakhtar Donetsk football club, was killed in a mysterious bombing along with six of his bodyguards at the team's stadium during a match. Some rumours associate Akhmetov with the death of Bragin. Following the assassinations, Akhmetov is said to have "inherited a vast financial empire from Bragin". Akhmetov would head Dongorbank in 1995. In September 1999, an official Ukrainian Ministry of Internal Affairs report titled the "Overview of the Most Dangerous Organized Crime Structures in Ukraine" identified Akhmetov as a leader of an organized crime syndicate; the report tied the group to money laundering, financial fraud, the control of numerous large and fictitious companies. The report says that the group's activities "have been stopped," and says further that their criminal natures "have not been confirmed". Released in a WikiLeaks diplomatic cable, Volodymyr Horbulin, one of Ukraine's most respected policy strategists and former presidential advisor, told the U.
S. Ambassador to Ukraine in 2006 that the Party of Regions, which "enjoyed deep pockets, being financed by billionaire Donetsk boss Rinat Akhmetov" is composed of "pure criminals" and "criminal and anti-democracy figures". In a U. S. diplomatic cable dated 3 February 2006 U. S. Ambassador John Herbst referred to Akhmetov's Party of Regions as "long a haven for Donetsk-based mobsters and oligarchs" and called Akhmetov the "godfather" of the Donetsk clan. After Ukraine's Orange Revolution of late 2004, in an attempt to fight corruption, several prominent businessmen who were Party of Regions members came unde
Viktor Andriyovych Yushchenko is a Ukrainian politician, the third President of Ukraine from 23 January 2005 to 25 February 2010. As an informal leader of the Ukrainian opposition coalition, he was one of the two main candidates in the 2004 Ukrainian presidential election. Yushchenko won the presidency through a repeat runoff election between him and Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych; the Ukrainian Supreme Court called for the runoff election to be repeated because of widespread electoral fraud in favor of Viktor Yanukovych in the original vote. Yushchenko won in the revote. Public protests prompted by the electoral fraud played a major role in that presidential election and led to Ukraine's Orange Revolution. Following an assassination attempt in late 2004 during his election campaign, Yushchenko was confirmed to have ingested hazardous amounts of TCDD, the most potent dioxin and a contaminant in Agent Orange, he has since made a full physical recovery. Before his election as president, Yushchenko had a career in Ukrainian politics.
In 1993, he became governor of the National Bank of Ukraine. From 1999 to 2001 he was prime minister. After his dismissal as prime minister, Yushchenko went into opposition to President Leonid Kuchma and he founded the Our Ukraine bloc, which at the 2002 parliamentary election became Ukraine's most popular political force, with 23.57% of the votes. After Yushchenko's election in 2004 to the presidency, this alliance was unable to continue this success, garnering only 13.95% of the votes in 2006 and 14.15% of the votes in the 2007 parliamentary election. Yushchenko failed to secure a run-off spot during the 2010 Ukrainian presidential election. During the 2012 Ukrainian parliamentary elections, Yushchenko headed the election list of Our Ukraine; the party won 1.11% of the national votes and no constituencies, thus failed to win parliamentary representation. Viktor Andriyovych Yushchenko was born on 23 February 1954, in Khoruzhivka, Sumy Oblast, Ukrainian SSR, Soviet Union, into a family of teachers.
His father, Andriy Andriyovych Yushchenko, fought in the Second World War, was captured by German forces and imprisoned as a POW in a series of concentration camps in the German Reich, including Auschwitz-Birkenau. He survived the ordeal, after returning home, taught English at a local school. Viktor's mother, Varvara Tymofiyovna Yushchenko, taught mathematics at the same school; the Sumy Oblast region where he was born is predominantly Ukrainian-speaking, this differentiated him in life from his political counterparts, for whom Russian was the mother tongue. Viktor Yushchenko graduated from the Ternopil Finance and Economics Institute in 1975 and began work as an accountant, as a deputy to the chief accountant in a kolkhoz. From 1975 to 1976, he served as a conscript in the Transcaucasian Military District on the Soviet–Turkish border. In 1976 Yushchenko began a career in banking. In 1983, he became the Deputy Director for Agricultural Credit at the Ukrainian Republican Office of the Soviet Union State Bank.
From 1990 to 1993, he worked as vice-chairman and first vice-chairman of the JSC Agroindustrial Bank Ukraina. In 1993, he was appointed Governor of the National Bank of Ukraine. In 1997, Verkhovna Rada, the parliament of Ukraine, re-appointed him; as a central banker, Yushchenko played an important part in the creation of Ukraine's national currency, the hryvnia, the establishment of a modern regulatory system for commercial banking. He successfully overcame a debilitating wave of hyper-inflation that hit the country—he brought inflation down from more than 10,000 percent to less than 10 percent—and managed to defend the value of the currency following the 1998 Russian financial crisis. In 1998, he wrote a thesis entitled "The Development of Supply and Demand of Money in Ukraine" and defended it in the Ukrainian Academy of Banking, he thereby earned a doctorate in economics. In December 1999, Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma unexpectedly nominated Yushchenko to be the prime minister after the parliament failed by one vote to ratify the previous candidate, Valeriy Pustovoytenko.
Ukraine's economy improved during Yushchenko's cabinet service. However, his government Deputy Prime Minister Yulia Tymoshenko, soon became embroiled in a confrontation with influential leaders of the coal mining and natural gas industries; the conflict resulted in a 2001 no-confidence vote by the parliament, orchestrated by the Communists, who opposed Yushchenko's economic policies, by centrist groups associated with the country's powerful "oligarchs." The vote resulted in Yushchenko's removal from office. In 2002, Yushchenko became the leader of the Our Ukraine political coalition, which received a plurality of seats in the year's parliamentary election. However, the number of seats won was not a majority, efforts to form a majority coalition with other opposition parties failed. Since Yushchenko has remained the leader and public face of the Our Ukraine parliamentary faction. In 2001, both Yushchenko and Yulia Tymoshenko broached at creating a broad opposition bloc against the incumbent President Leonid Kuchma in order to win the Ukrainian presidential election 2004.
In late 2002 Yushchenko, Oleksandr Moroz, Petro Symonenko and Yulia Tymoshenko issued a joint statement concerning "the beginning of a state revolution in Ukraine". Though the communists stepped out of the alliance and though Symonenko opposed having one singl
Rebar, known when massed as reinforcing steel or reinforcement steel, is a steel bar or mesh of steel wires used as a tension device in reinforced concrete and reinforced masonry structures to strengthen and aid the concrete under tension. Concrete has weak tensile strength. Rebar increases the tensile strength of the structure. Rebar's surface is deformed to promote a better bond with the concrete; the most common type of rebar is carbon steel consisting of hot-rolled round bars with deformation patterns. Other available types include stainless steel, composite bars made of glass fiber, carbon fiber, or basalt fiber; the steel reinforcing bars may be coated in an epoxy resin designed to resist the effects of corrosion in saltwater environments, but land based constructions. Bamboo has been shown to be a viable alternative to reinforcing steel in concrete construction; these alternate types tend to be more expensive or may have lesser mechanical properties and are thus more used in specialty construction where their physical characteristics fulfill a specific performance requirement that carbon steel does not provide.
Steel and concrete have similar coefficients of thermal expansion, so a concrete structural member reinforced with steel will experience minimal differential stress as the temperature changes. Reinforcing bars in masonry construction have been used since at least the 15th century. During the 18th century, rebar was used to form the carcass of the Leaning Tower of Nevyansk in Russia, built on the orders of the industrialist Akinfiy Demidov; the cast iron used for the rebar was of high quality, there is no corrosion on the bars to this day. The carcass of the tower was connected to its cast iron tented roof, crowned with one of the first known lightning rods. However, it was not until the mid-19th century that rebar displayed its greatest strengths with the embedding of steel bars into concrete, thus producing modern reinforced concrete. Several people in Europe and North America developed reinforced concrete in the 1850s; these include Joseph-Louis Lambot of France, who built reinforced concrete boats in Paris and Thaddeus Hyatt of the United States, who produced and tested reinforced concrete beams.
Joseph Monier of France is one of the most notable figures for the invention and popularization of reinforced concrete. As a French gardener, Monier patented reinforced concrete flower pots in 1867, before proceeding to build reinforced concrete water tanks and bridges. Ernest L. Ransome, an English engineer and architect who worked in the United States, made a significant contribution to the development of reinforcing bars in concrete construction, he invented twisted iron rebar, which he thought of while designing self-supporting sidewalks for the Masonic Hall in Stockton, California. His twisted rebar was, not appreciated and ridiculed at the Technical Society of California, where members stated that the twisting would weaken the iron. In 1889, Ransome worked on the West Coast designing bridges. One of these, the Alvord Lake Bridge in San Francisco's Golden Gate Park, was the first reinforced concrete bridge built in the United States, he used twisted rebar in this structure. At the same time Ernest L. Ransome was inventing twisted steel rebar, C.
A. P. Turner was designing his "mushroom system" of reinforced concrete floor slabs with smooth round rods and Julius Kahn was experimenting with an innovative rolled diamond-shaped rebar with flat-plate flanges angled upwards at 45°. Kahn predicted concrete beams with this reinforcing system would bend like a Warren Truss, thought of this rebar as shear reinforcement. Kahn's reinforcing system was built in concrete beams and columns; the system was both praised and criticized by Kahn's engineering contemporaries: C. A. P. Turner voiced strong objections to this system as it could cause catastrophic failure to concrete structures, he rejected the idea that Kahn's reinforcing system in concrete beams would act as a Warren Truss and noted that this system would not provide the adequate amount of shear stress reinforcement at the ends of the supported beams, the place where the shear stress is greatest. Furthermore, Turner warned that Kahn's system could result in a brittle failure as it did not have longitudinal reinforcement in the beams at the columns.
This type of failure manifested in the partial collapse of the Bixby Hotel in Long Beach and total collapse of the Eastman Kodak Building in Rochester, New York, both during construction in 1906. It was, concluded that both failures were the consequences of poor quality labor. With the increase in demand of construction standardization, innovative reinforcing systems such as Kahn's were pushed to the side in favor of the concrete reinforcing systems seen today. Requirements for deformations on steel bar reinforcement were not standardized in U. S. construction until about 1950. Modern requirements for deformations were established in "Tentative Specifications for the Deformations of Deformed Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement", ASTM A305-47T. Subsequently, changes were made that increased rib height and reduced rib spacing for certain bar sizes, the qualification of “tentative” was removed when the updated standard ASTM A305-49 was issued in 1949; the requirements for deformations found in current specifications for steel bar reinforcing, such as ASTM A615 and ASTM A706, among others, are the same as those specified in ASTM A305-49.
Concrete is a material, strong in compression, but weak in tension. To compensate for this imbalance in concret
Nizhny Tagil is a city in Sverdlovsk Oblast, located 25 kilometers east of the virtual border between Europe and Asia. Population: 361,811 ; the history of Nizhny Tagil begins with the opening of the Vysokogorsky iron ore quarry in 1696. The deposits were rich, included lodes of pure magnetic iron; the surrounding landscape provided everything needed for a successful and productive mining and smelting operation — rivers for transport, forests for fuel, suitable climate. Over the following decades, the city developed as one of the early centers of Russian industrialization, it has been a major producer of cast iron and steel; the town of Nizhny Tagil is known for its production of the famous soviet tank T-34-85. The T-34-85 made here has manufacturing changes like a triangle shape flat armour surface on the turret, wheels with a type of spoke; the first Russian steam locomotive was constructed there in 1833, the father-and-son engineers who developed it, Yefim and Miron Cherepanovs, were in 1956 commemorated by an 8-meter bronze statue which stands in the center of the Theatrical Square in the heart of downtown.
According to some sources, the copper for the skin of the Statue of Liberty was mined and refined in Nizhny Tagil. However, research by Bell Laboratories in New Jersey, USA, suggests that the Visnes mine in Norway was the most source. In the 1990s, police estimated. Membership has declined since then. In early 2007, a mass grave with 30 murdered girls and women was found near Nizhny Tagil, they had been abducted in the city by a prostitution gang between 2002 and 2006. See Nizhny Tagil mass murder. A frightful, fictionalized description of Nizhny Tagil and these murders appears in “The Bourne Sanction,” by Eric Van Lustbader, chapters 28, 30, 34 and 39. Rivers and ponds take up one third of the city's territory. Nizhny Tagil spans 22 kilometers from north to 21 kilometers from east to west; the altitude of the city varies from 170 to 380 meters. The city is built around the extinct volcano Lisya Mountain; this mountain with a watchtower on its top is a symbol of the city. Another hill, Medved-Kamen, is located in the northern part of the city at an altitude of 288 meters.
Neighboring cities include Yekaterinburg 130 kilometers to the south and Priobye in the north, Perm in the west, Alapayevsk and Verkhnyaya Salda in the east. The city's climate is temperate continental. Within the framework of the administrative divisions, Nizhny Tagil serves as the administrative center of Prigorodny District though it is not a part of it; as an administrative division, it is, together with twenty-three rural localities, incorporated separately as the City of Nizhny Tagil—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the City of Nizhny Tagil is incorporated as Nizhny Tagil Urban Okrug; the city is divided into three city districts: Leninsky, encompassing the city center and Nizhnetagilsky Pond. Former mayors: Nikolay Didenko 2006-? Valentina Isayeva 2008-? Sergey Nosov 2012-? In 2015, a large portion of the land within the bounds of the city is dominated by the facilities of the factories located in this industrial city. Nizhny Tagil is an industrial center of the Middle Urals.
Power-intensive industries such as ferrous metallurgy, engineering and metal working are well-developed in the city. A total of 606 manufacturing companies operate in Nizhny Tagil. Nizhny Tagil Iron and Steel Plant is a leading Russian steel company. Uralvagonzavod is the main producer of modern tanks on the territory of the former Soviet Union and Russia, it is the largest main battle tank manufacturer in the world. The T-72, T-90, T-14 are produced in the city; as of 2016 an economic slowdown in Russia had resulted in diminished demand for civilian products such as train cars, but strong demand continued for tanks. There are resources to manufacture medical tools for traumatology at the Nizhny Tagil medical tools plant. Nizhny Tagil is one of centers of exhibition activity in the Middle Urals. Nizhny Tagil Institute of Metals Testing was the host of the international exhibitions such as Ural Expo Arms / Russian Expo Arms, Russian Defense Expo; the 42nd Rocket Division of Strategic Rocket Forces is based here, equipped with 36 Topol nuclear missiles.
There are eight prisons in the city. A number of these are "colonies", which means they are obliged to contribute to supporting themselves through unpaid work. One prison is for police only, another for women, another is a colony, IK-5; some prisoners help manufacture tanks. Nizhny Tagil is known for its decorative trays. Demidovs' initiatives in the area of culture had a favorable influence on the development of Tagil community into the Urals' most important cultural center. In the 19th century, a library and the museum of natural history and antiquity were opened; the city has a network of 28 libraries servicing 75,000 readers every year. Tagil museums include the old regional history museum, the museum of Fine Arts, a number of new museums opened in the 1990s: the museum of tray painting art, the museum of lifestyle and handicrafts representing the starting point of a new ethnographi