Temple of Castor and Pollux
The Temple of Castor and Pollux is an ancient temple in the Roman Forum, central Italy. It was built in gratitude for victory at the Battle of Lake Regillus. Castor and Pollux were the the "twins" of Gemini, the twin sons of Zeus and Leda, their cult came to Rome from the Greek culture of Southern Italy. The Roman temple is one of a number of known Dioscuri temples remaining from antiquity; the last king of Rome, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, his allies, the Latins, waged war on the infant Roman Republic. Before the battle, the Roman dictator Aulus Postumius Albus Regillensis vowed to build a temple to the Dioscuri if the Republic were victorious. According to legend Castor and Pollux appeared on the battlefield as two able horsemen in aid of the Republic; the temple stands on the supposed spot of their appearance. One of Postumius’ sons was elected duumvir in order to dedicate the temple on 15 July 484 BC. In Republican times the temple served as a meeting place for the Roman Senate, from the middle of the 2nd century BC the front of the podium served as a speaker's platform.
During the imperial period the temple housed the office for weights and measures, was a depository for the State treasury. The archaic temple was reconstructed and enlarged in 117 BC by Lucius Caecilius Metellus Dalmaticus after his victory over the Dalmatians. Gaius Verres again restored this second temple in 73 BC. In 14 BC a fire that ravaged major parts of the forum destroyed the temple, Tiberius, the son of Livia by a previous marriage and adopted son of Augustus and the eventual heir to the throne, rebuilt it. Tiberius' temple was dedicated in 6 AD; the remains visible today are from the temple of Tiberius, except the podium, from the time of Metellus. According to Edward Gibbon, the temple of Castor served as a secret meeting place for the Roman Senate. Frequent meetings of the Senate are reported by Cicero, he said the senate was roused to rebellion against Emperor Maximinus Thrax and in favor of future emperor Gordian I at the Temple of Castor in 237 AD. If still in use by the 4th-century, the temple would have been closed during the persecution of pagans in the late Roman Empire.
The temple was already falling apart in the fourth century, when a wall in front of the Lacus Juturnae was erected from reused material. Nothing is known of its subsequent history, except that in the 15th century, only three columns of its original structure were still standing; the street running by the building was called via Trium Columnarum. In 1760, the Conservatori, finding the columns in a state of imminent collapse, erected scaffolding for effecting repairs. Both Piranesi and the young English architect George Dance the Younger were able to climb up and make accurate measurements. Today the podium survives without the facing, as do the three columns and a piece of the entablature, one of the most famous features in the Forum; the octastyle temple was peripteral, with eight Corinthian columns at the short sides and eleven on the long sides. There was a single cella paved with mosaics; the podium measures 7 m in height. The building was constructed in opus caementicium and covered with slabs of tuff which were removed.
According to ancient sources, the temple had a single central stairway to access the podium, but excavations have identified two side stairs. The temple complex was excavated and studied between 1983 and 1989 by a joint archaeological mission of the Nordic academies in Rome, led by Inge Nielsen and B. Poulsen; the Roman temple is one of a number of known Dioscuri sites remaining from antiquity. Among others, the Baroque basilica church of San Paolo Maggiore in Naples is built on the site of a Temple of Castor and Pollux, its porch and pediment survived until the 1688 Sannio earthquake. The vanished Anakeion near the Acropolis in Athens was a Dioscuri temple. Writing in about 150 AD, Pausanias described it as ancient. Pausanias identified another temple in Argos depicting Castor and Pollux, their sons Anaxias and Mnasinus, their wives Hilaeira and Phoebe; the extensive ruins of the Valle dei Templi in Agrigento, include the site of another Temple of the Dioscuri. In his 1888 description of the Dioscuri temple in ancient Greek colonial city of Naucratis in Egypt, Ernest Arthur Gardner remarked that such temples were common enough to have a characteristic orientation.
Temples to the gods tended to face east. Temples to heroes and demi-gods such as Castor and Pollux faced west. Aedes Castoris in Foro Romano
The composite order is a mixed order, combining the volutes of the Ionic order capital with the acanthus leaves of the Corinthian order. In many versions the composite order volutes are larger and there is some ornament placed centrally between the volutes; the column of the composite order is ten diameters high, though as with all the orders these details may be adjusted by the architect for particular buildings. The Composite order is treated as Corinthian except for the capital, with no consistent differences to that above or below the capital; the composite order is not found in ancient Greek architecture and until the Renaissance was not ranked as a separate order. Instead it was considered as an imperial Roman form of the Corinthian order. Though the Arch of Titus, in the forum in Rome and built in 82 AD, is sometimes cited as the first prominent surviving example of a composite order, the order was invented "a little before Augustus's reign, well-developed before his death, the time when the Roman version of Corinthian was being established."With the Tuscan order, a simplified version of the Doric order found in ancient Roman architecture but not included by Vitruvius in his three orders, the Composite was added by Renaissance writers to make five classical orders.
Sebastiano Serlio published his book I sette libri d'architettura in 1537 in which he was the second to mention the composite order as its own order and not just as an evolution of the Corinthian order as suggested by Leon Battista Alberti. Leon Battista Alberti in his De re aedificatoria mentions the composite order, calling it "Italic"; the Composite is based on the Ionic order, where the volutes are joined by an horizontal element across the top of the capital, so that they resemble a scroll rolled at each end. Despite this origin many Composite capitals in fact treat the two volutes as different elements, each springing from one side of their leafy base. In this, in having a separate ornament between them, they resemble the Archaic Greek Aeolic order, though this seems not to have been the route of their development in early Imperial Rome. Where the Greek Ionic volute is shown from the side as a single unit of unchanged width between the front and back of the column, the Composite volutes are treated as four different thinner units, one at each corner of the capital, projecting at some 45° to the facade.
This has the advantage of removing the necessity to have a different appearance between the front and side views, the Ionic developed bending forms that allowed this. The treatment of details has been variable, with the inclusion of figures, heraldic symbols and the like in the capital; the relationship of the volutes to the leaves has been treated in many different ways, the capital may be distinctly divided into different horizontal zones, or may treat the whole capital as a single zone. The composite order, due to its delicate appearance, was deemed by the Renaissance to be suitable for the building of churches dedicated to The Virgin Mary or other female saints. In general it has been since been used to suggest grandeur. Bramante used the composite order in the second order of the cloister of Santa Maria della Pace, Rome. For the first order, the Ionic order was used. Francesco Borromini developed the composite order in Rome; the interior of the church has 16 composite columns. The load-bearing columns placed underneath the arches have inverted volutes.
This choice was criticised at the time, thinking it was a lack of knowledge of the Vittruvian orders that led him to his decision. The inverted volutes can be seen in Borromini's Oratorio dei Filippini in the lower order. There the controversy was higher, considering that Borromini removed the acanthus leaves, leaving a bare capital. RomanArch of Titus, Rome Arch of Septimius Severus, Rome Santa Costanza, interior, mid-4th centuryModernOspedale degli Innocenti, Florence, 1421, Filippo Brunelleschi Palazzo Valmarana, Vicenza, 1565, Andrea Palladio Palazzo del Capitaniato, Vicenza, 1571-1572, Andrea Palladio Lescot Wing, Louvre Palace, Paris Church of the Gesù, Rome Easton Neston, England, c. 1700 Palazzo Madama, Turin, c. 1720, Filippo Juvarra Archbasilica of St. John Lateran Somerset House, London, 1776, William Chambers Narva Triumphal Arch, Saint Petersburg, 1814 Ethnographic Museum, Budapest Alabama Governor's Mansion, 1907 Buonincasa, Carmine. Architettura come dis-identità. Bari: Dedalo librerie.
Zampa, Paola. L'ordine composito: alcune considerazioni. Reggio calabria: Dipartimento Patrimonio Architettonico e Urbanistico. Media related to Composite order at Wikimedia Commons
Temple of Vespasian and Titus
The Temple of Vespasian and Titus is located in Rome at the western end of the Roman Forum between the Temple of Concordia and the Temple of Saturn. It is dedicated to his son, the deified Titus, it was begun by Titus in 79 after Titus's succession. Titus’ brother, Domitian and dedicated the temple to Titus and Vespasian in 87. Throughout Roman history, there was an emphasis on increasing the fame and glory of a family name through monuments commemorating the deceased. Therefore, the temple was constructed to honor the Flavian Dynasty, which comprised the emperors Vespasian and Domitian. Historians question whether or not Domitian had a good relationship. Titus and Vespasian were each deified through the ceremony of apotheosis. In doing so, tradition guaranteed that Roman citizens and subjects would honor Vespasian and Titus as Roman deities; this imperial cult worship was as much a sign of allegiance to the emperor of Rome, or as a political and diplomatic gesture, as it was a formal religion.
The Temple of Vespasian was in the Corinthian order and prostyle. It was narrow due to the limited space, measuring 33 meters long and 22 wide. In a constricted space between the temple and the Concord, a small, two story vaulted room made of brick and concrete, lined with marble, was built against the wall of the Tabularium, was dedicated to Titus. Titus began construction and finished the foundations, made of tuff concrete, the core of the podium, made of white marble. Domitian, completed the interior work after Titus’ death.Τhe original inscription on the upper part of the architrave reads: DIVO VESPASIANO AVGUSTO S. P. Q. R; the cella walls were in travertine, lined with marbles imported at great expense from the eastern provinces. The interior is ornate and the frieze depicts sacred objects that would have been used as the symbols, or badges, of the various priestly collegia in Rome. Around 200 to 205, Emperors Septimius Severus and his son, Antoninus Caracalla, conducted renovations on the temple.
Beneath the previous inscription a new one is added: IMPP. CAESS. SEVERVS ET ANTONINVS PII FELIC AVGG RESTITVER. Only the last word is saved on the frieze of the front. If still in use by the 4th-century, the temple would have been closed during the persecution of pagans in the late Roman Empire; the temple suffered significant damage during medieval times c. 1300, in Pope Nicholas V's remodelling of the Forum. All that survives today is the podium's core, parts of the cella, three Corinthian columns at pronaos's south-east corner. Temple of Vespasian and Titus Digitally Reconstructed Temple Location Temple Remains
Giovanni Antonio Canal, better known as Canaletto, was an Italian painter of city views or vedute, of Venice and London. He painted imaginary views, although the demarcation in his works between the real and the imaginary is never quite clearcut, he was further an important printmaker using the etching technique. In the period from 1746 to 1756 he worked in England where he painted many views of London, other sites as far north as Warwick Castle and Alnwick Castle, he was successful in England, thanks to the British merchant and connoisseur Joseph "Consul" Smith, whose large collection of Canaletto's works was sold to King George III in 1762. He was born in Venice as the son of the painter Bernardo Canal, hence his mononym Canaletto, Artemisia Barbieri. Canaletto served his apprenticeship with his brother, he began in that of a theatrical scene painter. Canaletto was inspired by the Roman vedutista Giovanni Paolo Pannini, started painting the daily life of the city and its people. After returning from Rome in 1719, he began painting in his topographical style.
His first known signed and dated work is Architectural Capriccio. Studying with the older Luca Carlevarijs, a well-regarded painter of urban cityscapes, he became his master's equal. In 1725, the painter Alessandro Marchesini, the buyer for the Lucchese art collector Stefano Conti, had inquired about buying two more'views of Venice', when the agent urged him to consider instead the work of "Antonio Canale... it is like Carlevaris, but you can see the sun shining in it." Much of Canaletto's early artwork was painted "from nature", differing from the customary practice of completing paintings in the studio. Some of his works do revert to this custom, as suggested by the tendency for distant figures to be painted as blobs of colour – an effect produced by using a camera obscura, which blurs farther-away objects – although research by art historians working for the Royal Collection in the United Kingdom has shown Canaletto never used a camera obscura. However, his paintings are always notable for their accuracy: he recorded the seasonal submerging of Venice in water and ice.
Canaletto's early works remain his most coveted and, according to his best. One of his early pieces is The Stonemason's Yard, it is regarded one of his finest works and was presented by Sir George Beaumont in 1823 and 1828. Canaletto painted grand scenes of the canals of Venice and the Doge's Palace, his large-scale landscapes portrayed the city's pageantry and waning traditions, making innovative use of atmospheric effects and strong local colours. For these qualities, his works may be said to have anticipated Impressionism, his graphic print S. A. Giustina in Prà della Vale was found in the 2012 Munich Art Hoard. Many of his pictures were sold to Englishmen on their Grand Tour, first through the agency of Owen Swiny and the banker Joseph Smith, appointed British Consul in Venice in 1744, it was Swiny in the late 1720s who encouraged the artist to paint small topographical views of Venice with a commercial appeal for tourists and foreign visitors to the city. Sometime before 1728, Canaletto began his association with Joseph Smith, an English businessman and collector living in Venice, who became the artist's principal agent and patron.
Smith acquired nearly fifty paintings, one hundred fifty drawings, fifteen rare etchings from Canaletto, the largest and finest single group of the artist's works, that he sold to King George III in 1763. In the 1740s Canaletto's market was disrupted when the War of the Austrian Succession led to a reduction in the number of British visitors to Venice. Smith arranged for the publication of a series of etchings of "capricci" in his vedute ideale, but the returns were not high enough, in 1746 Canaletto moved to London, to be closer to his market, he remained in England until 1755, producing views of his patrons' castles and houses. His 1754 painting of Old Walton Bridge includes an image of Canaletto himself, he was expected to paint England in the fashion with which he had painted his native city. Canaletto's painting began to suffer from repetitiveness, losing its fluidity, becoming mechanical to the point that the English art critic George Vertue suggested that the man painting under the name'Canaletto' was an impostor.
Historian Michael Levey described his work from this period as "inhibited". The artist was compelled to give public painting demonstrations in order to refute this claim. After his return to Venice, Canaletto was elected to the Venetian Academy in 1763 and appointed prior of the Collegio dei Pittori, he continued to paint until his death in 1768. In his years he worked from old sketches, but he sometimes produced surprising new compositions, he was willing to make subtle alternations to topography for artistic effect. His pupils included his nephew Bernardo Bellotto, Francesco Guardi, Michele Marieschi, Gabriele Bella, Giuseppe Moretti; the painter, Giuseppe Bernardino Bison was a follower of his style. Joseph Smith sold much of his collection to George III, creating the bulk of the large collection of works by Canaletto owned by the Royal Collection. in 1762, George III paid £20,000 for Consul Smith's collection of 50 paintings and 142 drawings. There are many examples of h
The Palatine Hill is the centremost of the Seven Hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city and has been called "the first nucleus of the Roman Empire.". It stands 40 metres above the Roman Forum, looking down upon it on one side, upon the Circus Maximus on the other. From the time of Augustus Imperial palaces were built here; the hill is its cognates in other languages. The term palace, from Old French palais or paleis, stems from the proper name of Palatine Hill; the Palatine Hill is the etymological origin of "palatine", a 16th century English adjective that signified something pertaining to the Caesar's palace, or someone, invested with the king's authority. Its use shifted to a reference to the German Palatinate; the office of the German count palatine had its origins in the comes palatinus, an earlier office in Merovingian and Carolingian times. Another modern English word "paladin", came into usage to refer to any distinguished knight under Charlemagne in late renditions of Matter of France.
According to Livy the Palatine hill got its name from the Arcadian settlement of Pallantium. More it is derived from the noun palātum "palate". According to Roman mythology, the Palatine Hill was the location of the cave, known as the Lupercal, where Romulus and Remus were found by the she-wolf Lupa that kept them alive. Another legend occurring on the Palatine is Hercules' defeat of Cacus after the monster had stolen some cattle. Hercules struck Cacus with his characteristic club so hard that it formed a cleft on the southeast corner of the hill, where a staircase bearing the name of Cacus was constructed. Rome has its origins on the Palatine. Excavations show that people have lived in the area since the 10th century BC. Excavations performed on the hill in 1907 and again in 1948 unearthed a collection of huts believed to have been used for funerary purposes between the 9th and 7th century BC approximating the time period when the city of Rome was founded. According to Livy, after the immigration of the Sabines and the Albans to Rome, the original Romans lived on the Palatine.
The Palatine Hill was the site of the ancient festival of the Lupercalia. Many affluent Romans of the Republican period had their residences there. From the start of the Empire Augustus built his palace there and the hill became the exclusive domain of emperors. Augustus built a temple to Apollo here; the great fire of 64 AD destroyed Nero's palace, but he replaced it by 69 AD with the larger Domus Aurea over, built Domitian's Palace The Palatine Hill is an archaeological site open to the public. The Palace of Domitian which dominates the site and looks out over the Circus Maximus was rebuilt during the reign of Domitian over earlier buildings of Nero. Emperors the Severans made significant additions to the buildings; the House of Livia, the wife of Augustus, is conventionally attributed to her based only on the generic name on a clay pipe and circumstantial factors such as proximity to the House of Augustus. The building is located near the Temple of Magna Mater at the western end of the hill, on a lower terrace from the temple.
It is notable for its beautiful frescoes. The House of Tiberius was built by Tiberius, but Tiberius spent much of his time in his palaces in Campania and Capri, it was incorporated into Nero's Domus Transitoria. Part of it is remains in the current Farnese Gardens. During Augustus' reign, an area of the Palatine Hill was roped off for a sort of archaeological expedition, which found fragments of Bronze Age pots and tools, he declared this site the "original town of Rome." Modern archaeology has identified evidence of Bronze Age settlement in the area which predates Rome's founding. There is a museum on the Palatine in which artifacts dating from before the official foundation of the City are displayed; the museum contains Roman statuary. An altar to an unknown deity, once thought to be Aius Locutius, was discovered here in 1820. In July 2006, archaeologists announced the discovery of the Palatine House, which they believe to be the birthplace of Rome's first Emperor, Augustus. Head archaeologist Clementina Panella uncovered a section of corridor and other fragments under Rome's Palatine Hill, which she described on July 20 as "a ancient aristocratic house."
The two story house appears to have been built around an atrium, with frescoed walls and mosaic flooring, is situated on the slope of the Palatine that overlooks the Colosseum and the Arch of Constantine. The Republican-era houses on the Palatine were overbuilt by palaces after the Great Fire of Rome, but this one was not. On the ground floor, three shops opened onto the Via Sacra; the location of the domus is important because of its potential proximity to the Curiae Veteres, the earliest shrine of the curies of Rome. In January 2007, Italian archeologist Irene Iacopi announced that she had found the legendary Lupercal cave beneath the remains of Augustus' residence, the Domus Livia on the Palatine. Archaeologists came across the 16-
Shrine of Venus Cloacina
The Shrine of Venus Cloacina — the "Shrine of Venus of the Sewer" — was a small sanctuary on the Roman Forum, honoring the divinity of the Cloaca Maxima, the spirit of the "Great Drain" or Sewer of Rome. Cloacina, the Etruscan goddess associated with the entrance to the sewer system, was identified with the Roman goddess Venus for unknown reasons, according to Pliny the Elder; the Etruscan deity Cloacina may well have been associated with the small brook that became the city's Cloaca Maxima, but the Shrine of Venus Cloacina is first mentioned by the playwright Plautus in the early second century BC. It was located in the Forum on the Via Sacra; the Tabernae Novae were replaced by the expanded Basilica Aemilia in the middle Republic, but the Shrine was preserved. The round masonry Shrine dates from this construction. Legend, ascribes the origin of the Shrine to the period of the Sabine king Titus Tatius, during the reign of Romulus, it was according to legend that the father of the virtuous Verginia, a butcher in one of the stalls of the Tabernae Novae, came out and stabbed his daughter rather than let her fall victim to the lecherous attentions of Appius Claudius in 449 BC.
Coins minted during the Second Triumvirate by a moneyer named Lucius Mussidius Longus give a clear visual representation of the shrine. They show a round sacellum with a metal balustrade; the scant archaeological remains uncovered between 1899 and 1901 conform nicely to the pictures on the coins. In his Natural History, Pliny the Elder refers to signa Cloacinae, which were evidently the two statues shown on the coins and some other, unidentified objects. One of the statues is waving an object; each statue has a low pillar with a bird on it. It is not known; the Romans believed that a good sewage system was important for the future success of Rome, as a good sewer system was necessary for physical health. Romans cultivated Cloacina as the goddess of purity and the goddess of filth. Cloacina's name is derived the Latin verb cloare, or from cloaca ”. Cloacina Sacrum at the Digital Roman Forum
The Capitolium or Capitoline Hill, between the Forum and the Campus Martius, is one of the Seven Hills of Rome. The hill was earlier known as Mons Saturnius, dedicated to the god Saturn; the word Capitolium first meant the temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus built here, afterwards it was used for the whole hill, thus Mons Capitolinus. Ancient sources refer the name to caput and the tale was that, when laying the foundations for the temple, the head of a man was found, some sources saying it was the head of some Tolus or Olus; the Capitolium was regarded by the Romans as indestructible, was adopted as a symbol of eternity. By the 16th century, Capitolinus had become Capitolino in Italian, Capitolium Campidoglio; the Capitoline Hill contains few ancient ground-level ruins, as they are entirely covered up by Medieval and Renaissance palaces that surround a piazza, a significant urban plan designed by Michelangelo. Influenced by Roman architecture and Roman republican times, the word Capitolium still lives in the English word capitol.
The Capitol Hill in Washington, D. C. is assumed to be named after the Capitoline Hill, but the relation is not clear. At this hill, the Sabines, creeping to the Citadel, were let in by the Roman maiden Tarpeia. For this treachery, Tarpeia was the first to be punished by being flung from a steep cliff overlooking the Roman Forum; this cliff was named the Tarpeian Rock after the Vestal Virgin, became a frequent execution site. The Sabines, who immigrated to Rome following the Rape of the Sabine Women, settled on the Capitoline; the Vulcanal, an 8th-century BC sacred precinct, occupied much of the eastern lower slopes of the Capitoline, at the head of what would become the Roman Forum. The summit was the site of a temple for the Capitoline Triad, started by Rome's fifth king, Tarquinius Priscus, completed by the seventh and last king, Tarquinius Superbus, it was considered one of the most beautiful temples in the city. The city legend starts with the recovery of a human skull when foundation trenches were being dug for the Temple of Jupiter at Tarquin's order.
Recent excavations on the Capitoline uncovered an early cemetery under the Temple of Jupiter. There are several important temples built on Capitoline hill: the temple of Juno Moneta, the temple of Virtus, the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus Capitolinus; the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus Capitolinus is the most important of the temples. It was nearly as large as the Parthenon; the hill and the temple of Jupiter became the symbols of the capital of the world. The Temple of Saturn was built at the foot of Capitoline Hill in the western end of the Forum Romanum; when the Senones Gauls raided Rome in 390 BC, after the battle of River Allia, the Capitoline Hill was the one section of the city to evade capture by the barbarians, due to its being fortified by the Roman defenders. According to legend Marcus Manlius Capitolinus was alerted to the Gallic attack by the sacred geese of Juno; when Julius Caesar suffered an accident during his triumph indicating the wrath of Jupiter for his actions in the Civil Wars, he approached the hill and Jupiter's temple on his knees as a way of averting the unlucky omen.
Vespasian's brother and nephew were besieged in the temple during the Year of Four Emperors. The Tabularium, located underground beneath the piazza and hilltop, occupies a building of the same name built in the 1st century BC to hold Roman records of state; the Tabularium looks out from the rear onto the Roman Forum. The main attraction of the Tabularium, besides the structure itself, is the Temple of Veiovis. During the lengthy period of ancient Rome, the Capitoline Hill was the geographical and ceremonial center. However, by the Renaissance, the former center was an untidy conglomeration of dilapidated buildings and the site of executions of criminals; the church of Santa Maria in Aracoeli is adjacent to the square, located near where the ancient arx, or citadel, atop the hill it once stood. At its base are the remains of a Roman insula, with more than four storeys visible from the street. In the Middle Ages, the hill’s sacred function was obscured by its other role as the center of the civic government of Rome, revived as a commune in the 11th century.
The city's government was now to be under papal control, but the Capitoline was the scene of movements of urban resistance, such as the dramatic scenes of Cola di Rienzo's revived republic. In 1144, a revolt by the citizens against the authority of the Pope and nobles led to a senator taking up his official residence on the Capitoline Hill; the senator’s new palace turned its back on the ancient forum, beginning the change in orientation on the hill that Michelangelo would accentuate. A small piazza was laid out in front of the senator’s palace, intended for communal purposes. In the middle of the 14th century, the guilds’ court of justice was constructed on the southern end of the piazza; this would house the Conservatori in the 15th century. As a result, the piazza was surrounded by buildings by the 16th century; the existing design of the Piazza del Campidoglio and the surrounding palazzi was created by Renaissance artist and architect Michelangelo Buonarroti in 1536–1546. At the height of his fame, he w