A glacial period is an interval of time within an ice age that is marked by colder temperatures and glacier advances. Interglacials, on the hand, are periods of warmer climate between glacial periods. The last glacial period ended about 15,000 years ago, the Holocene epoch is the current interglacial. A time when there are no glaciers on Earth is considered a greenhouse climate state, within the Quaternary glaciation, there have been a number of glacials and interglacials. The last glacial period was the most recent glacial period within the current ice age, occurring in the Pleistocene epoch, the glacial advance reached its maximum extent about 18,000 BP. In Europe, the ice sheet reached northern Germany, since orbital variations are predictable, computer models that relate orbital variations to climate can predict future climate possibilities. Work by Berger and Loutre suggests that the current warm climate may last another 50,000 years
Oyster is the common name for a number of different families of salt-water bivalve molluscs that live in marine or brackish habitats. In some species the valves are highly calcified, and many are somewhat irregular in shape, but not all, oysters are in the superfamily Ostreoidea. Some kinds of oysters are consumed by humans, cooked or raw. Some kinds of oysters are harvested for the pearl produced within the mantle. Windowpane oysters are harvested for their translucent shells, which are used to various kinds of decorative objects. True oysters are members of the family Ostreidae and this family includes the edible oysters, which mainly belong to the genera Ostrea, Crassostrea and Saccostrea. Examples include the Belon oyster, eastern oyster, Olympia oyster, Pacific oyster, almost all shell-bearing mollusks can secrete pearls, yet most are not very valuable. Pearl oysters are not closely related to oysters, being members of a distinct family. Both cultured pearls and natural pearls can be extracted from pearl oysters, though other molluscs, such as the freshwater mussels, the largest pearl-bearing oyster is the marine Pinctada maxima, which is roughly the size of a dinner plate.
Not all individual oysters produce pearls naturally, in fact, in a harvest of two and a half tons of oysters, only three to four oysters produce what commercial buyers consider to be absolute perfect pearls. In nature, pearl oysters produce pearls by covering a minute invasive object with nacre, over the years, the irritating object is covered with enough layers of nacre to become a pearl. The many different types and shapes of pearls depend on the pigment of the nacre. Pearl farmers can culture a pearl by placing a nucleus, usually a piece of polished mussel shell, in three to seven years, the oyster can produce a perfect pearl. These pearls are not as valuable as natural pearls, but look exactly the same, in fact, since the beginning of the 20th century, when several researchers discovered how to produce artificial pearls, the cultured pearl market has far outgrown the natural pearl market. A number of molluscs have common names that include the word oyster, usually because they either taste like or look somewhat like true oysters.
Examples include, Thorny oysters in the genus Spondylus Pilgrim oyster, another term for a scallop, because of its good flavor, it commands high prices. Oysters are filter feeders, drawing water in over their gills through the beating of cilia. Suspended plankton and particles are trapped in the mucus of a gill, and from there are transported to the mouth, where they are eaten, Oysters feed most actively at temperatures above 10 °C
The Columbia River is the largest river in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. The river rises in the Rocky Mountains of British Columbia, Canada and it flows northwest and south into the US state of Washington, turns west to form most of the border between Washington and the state of Oregon before emptying into the Pacific Ocean. The river is 1,243 miles long, and its largest tributary is the Snake River and its drainage basin is roughly the size of France and extends into seven US states and a Canadian province. By volume, the Columbia is the fourth-largest river in the United States, the rivers heavy flow and relatively steep gradient gives it tremendous potential for the generation of electricity. The Columbia and its tributaries have been central to the regions culture and they have been used for transportation since ancient times, linking the many cultural groups of the region. The river system hosts many species of fish, which migrate between freshwater habitats and the saline waters of the Pacific Ocean.
In the following decades, fur trading companies used the Columbia as a key transportation route, steamships along the river linked communities and facilitated trade, the arrival of railroads in the late 19th century, many running along the river, supplemented these links. Since the late 19th century and private sectors have developed the river. The development, commonly referred to as taming or harnessing of the river, has been massive, to aid ship and barge navigation, locks have been built along the lower Columbia and its tributaries, and dredging has opened and enlarged shipping channels. Since the early 20th century, dams have been built across the river for the purposes of power generation, navigation and flood control. Today, a reservoir lies along nearly every US mile of the once free-flowing river. Production of nuclear power has taken place at two sites along the river, plutonium for nuclear weapons was produced for decades at the Hanford Site, which is now the most contaminated nuclear site in the US.
All these developments have had a impact on river environments, mainly through industrial pollution. The Columbia begins its 1, 243-mile journey in the southern Rocky Mountain Trench in British Columbia, Columbia Lake –2,690 feet above sea level – and the adjoining Columbia Wetlands form the rivers headwaters. The trench is a broad and long glacial valley between the Canadian Rockies and the Columbia Mountains in BC. Rounding the northern end of the Selkirk Mountains, the river turns south through a region known as the Big Bend Country, passing through Revelstoke Lake. Revelstoke, the Big Bend, and the Columbia Valley combined are referred to in BC parlance as the Columbia Country. Below the Arrow Lakes, the Columbia passes the cities of Castlegar, located at the Columbias confluence with the Kootenay River, the Pend Oreille River joins the Columbia about 2 miles north of the US–Canada border
For this reason the alternative terms of Precontact Americas, Pre-Colonial Americas or Prehistoric Americas are in use. In areas of Latin America the term used is Pre-Hispanic. Other civilizations were contemporary with the period and were described in European historical accounts of the time. A few, such as the Maya civilization, had their own written records, because many Christian Europeans of the time viewed such texts as heretical, men like Diego de Landa destroyed many texts in pyres, even while seeking to preserve native histories. Only a few documents have survived in their original languages, while others were transcribed or dictated into Spanish, giving modern historians glimpses of ancient culture. Indigenous American cultures continue to evolve after the pre-Columbian era, many of these peoples and their descendants continue traditional practices, while evolving and adapting new cultural practices and technologies into their lives. Now, the study of pre-Columbian cultures is most often based on scientific.
Asian nomads are thought to have entered the Americas via the Bering Land Bridge, now the Bering Strait, genetic evidence found in Amerindians maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA supports the theory of multiple genetic populations migrating from Asia. Over the course of millennia, Paleo-Indians spread throughout North and South America, exactly when the first group of people migrated into the Americas is the subject of much debate. One of the earliest identifiable cultures was the Clovis culture, with sites dating from some 13,000 years ago, older sites dating back to 20,000 years ago have been claimed. Some genetic studies estimate the colonization of the Americas dates from between 40,000 and 13,000 years ago, the chronology of migration models is currently divided into two general approaches. The first is the short chronology theory with the first movement beyond Alaska into the New World occurring no earlier than 14, 000–17,000 years ago, followed by successive waves of immigrants. The second belief is the long chronology theory, which proposes that the first group of people entered the hemisphere at an earlier date, possibly 50.
In that case, the Eskimo peoples would have arrived separately and at a date, probably no more than 2,000 years ago. The North American climate was unstable as the ice age receded and it finally stabilized by about 10,000 years ago, climatic conditions were very similar to todays. Within this timeframe, roughly pertaining to the Archaic Period, numerous archaeological cultures have been identified, the unstable climate led to widespread migration, with early Paleo-Indians soon spreading throughout the Americas, diversifying into many hundreds of culturally distinct tribes. The paleo-indians were hunter-gatherers, likely characterized by small, mobile bands consisting of approximately 20 to 50 members of an extended family and these groups moved from place to place as preferred resources were depleted and new supplies were sought. During much of the Paleo-Indian period, bands are thought to have subsisted primarily through hunting now-extinct giant land animals such as mastodon, Paleo-Indian groups carried a variety of tools
The term lithic stage refers to the cultures of the post-glacial hunters and collectors in South America. The stage derived its name from the first appearance of Lithic flaked stone tools, throughout South America, there are stone tool traditions of the lithic stage, such as the fluted fishtail that reflect localized adaptations to the diverse habitats of the continent. During the lithic stage people lived in small, mobile groups that survived on hunting, fishing. The intensive and continual use of plants and animals eventually led to genetic changes to some of the species. This lifestyle continued until around 5000 BC when people started to use domesticated plants, one of the leading figures is Alex Krieger who has documented hundreds of sites that have yielded crude, percussion-flaked tools. The most convincing evidence for a stage is based upon data recovered from sites in South America where such crude tools have been found. Examples include the Clovis culture and Folsom tradition groups, the Lithic stage was followed by the Archaic stage
Horr's Island archaeological site
The Horrs Island archaeological site is a significant Archaic period archaeological site located on an island in Southwest Florida formerly known as Horrs Island. Horrs Island is on the side of Marco Island in Collier County. The site includes four mounds and a shell ring and it has one of the oldest known mound burials in the eastern United States, dating to about 3400 radiocarbon years Before Present. One of the mounds has been dated to as early as 6700 BP and it was the largest known community in the southeastern United States to have been permanently occupied during the Archaic period. The island is named for Capt, john Foley Horr, who raised pineapples on the island in the late 19th century. John Foley Horr House was listed on the U. S. National Register of Historic Places on October 8,1997, in the late 1980s, a development company planned to build a bridge to Horrs Island and develop it. In response to state law requiring an archaeological assessment of the island before it could be developed, the research team carried out excavations for three months.
Four mounds were identified on Horrs Island, but Mounds B and C were found to be simple middens, a flexed burial was found in Mound B. The other two mounds were complex and appeared to be purposely constructed, Mound A, the largest at 20 feet in height, had a large pile of shells at its core. There was no evidence of habitation on the ground surface where the shells had been piled. Several layers of sand had been added over the shells, one layer of sand had charcoal added. The additions of sand by individual baskets could be distinguished by the variations in the amount of charcoal in the sand, the final layer of sand had shells mixed in it, and the mound was topped by another layer of shells. Two burials were found in Mound A, the graves had been dug into the top of the mound after it was completed. Radiocarbon testing for one of the burials yielded a date of about 3,400 years Before Present and this is the oldest known mound burial in the eastern United States. As the center of Mound A was not excavated, it is whether there were other burials in the mound.
Various samples from Mound A have been dated to 3620-4760 BP, Mound D, the other purpose-built mound, has been dated to 4450 BP. Mound C has been dated to 4870-4860 BP, samples from Mound B yielded dates between 6730 and 4030 BP. The Horrs Island site includes a ring, in which shell middens surround a central open space
Agriculture is the cultivation and breeding of animals and fungi for food, biofuel, medicinal plants and other products used to sustain and enhance human life. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of human civilization. The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science, the history of agriculture dates back thousands of years, and its development has been driven and defined by greatly different climates and technologies. Industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture farming has become the dominant agricultural methodology, genetically modified organisms are an increasing component of agriculture, although they are banned in several countries. Agricultural food production and water management are increasingly becoming global issues that are fostering debate on a number of fronts, the major agricultural products can be broadly grouped into foods, fibers and raw materials. Specific foods include cereals, fruits, meats, fibers include cotton, hemp and flax. Raw materials include lumber and bamboo, other useful materials are produced by plants, such as resins, drugs, perfumes and ornamental products such as cut flowers and nursery plants.
The word agriculture is a late Middle English adaptation of Latin agricultūra, from ager, Agriculture usually refers to human activities, although it is observed in certain species of ant and ambrosia beetle. To practice agriculture means to use resources to produce commodities which maintain life, including food, forest products, horticultural crops. This definition includes arable farming or agronomy, and horticulture, all terms for the growing of plants, even then, it is acknowledged that there is a large amount of knowledge transfer and overlap between silviculture and agriculture. In traditional farming, the two are often combined even on small landholdings, leading to the term agroforestry, Agriculture began independently in different parts of the globe, and included a diverse range of taxa. At least 11 separate regions of the Old and New World were involved as independent centers of origin, wild grains were collected and eaten from at least 105,000 years ago. Pigs were domesticated in Mesopotamia around 15,000 years ago, rice was domesticated in China between 13,500 and 8,200 years ago, followed by mung and azuki beans.
Sheep were domesticated in Mesopotamia between 13,000 and 11,000 years ago. From around 11,500 years ago, the eight Neolithic founder crops and einkorn wheat, hulled barley, lentils, bitter vetch, chick peas and flax were cultivated in the Levant. Cattle were domesticated from the aurochs in the areas of modern Turkey. In the Andes of South America, the potato was domesticated between 10,000 and 7,000 years ago, along with beans, llamas, alpacas and some root vegetables were domesticated in New Guinea around 9,000 years ago. Sorghum was domesticated in the Sahel region of Africa by 7,000 years ago, cotton was domesticated in Peru by 5,600 years ago, and was independently domesticated in Eurasia at an unknown time
Deer are the ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae. The two main groups are the Cervinae, including the muntjac, the deer and the chital, and the Capreolinae, including the elk, the Western roe deer. Female reindeer, and male deer of all species, grow, in this they differ from permanently horned antelope, which are in the same order, Artiodactyla. The musk deer of Asia and water chevrotain of tropical African and Asian forests are not usually regarded as true deer and form their own families and Tragulidae, respectively. Deer appear in art from Palaeolithic cave paintings onwards, and they have played a role in mythology and their economic importance includes the use of their meat as venison, their skins as soft, strong buckskin, and their antlers as handles for knives. Deer hunting has been a sport since at least the Middle Ages. Deer live in a variety of biomes, ranging from tundra to the tropical rainforest, while often associated with forests, many deer are ecotone species that live in transitional areas between forests and thickets and prairie and savanna.
The majority of deer species inhabit temperate mixed deciduous forest, mountain mixed coniferous forest, tropical seasonal/dry forest. Clearing open areas within forests to some extent may actually benefit deer populations by exposing the understory and allowing the types of grasses, additionally, access to adjacent croplands may benefit deer. However, adequate forest or brush cover must still be provided for populations to grow, fallow deer have been introduced to South Africa. There are species of deer that are highly specialized, and live almost exclusively in mountains, swamps. Some deer have a distribution in both North America and Eurasia. Examples include the caribou that live in Arctic tundra and taiga and moose that inhabit taiga, huemul deer of South Americas Andes fill the ecological niches of the ibex and wild goat, with the fawns behaving more like goat kids. Mountain slope habitats vary from moist coniferous/mixed forested habitats to dry forests with alpine meadows higher up. The foothills and river valleys between the mountain provide a mosaic of cropland and deciduous parklands.
The rare woodland caribou have the most restricted range living at altitudes in the subalpine meadows. Elk and mule deer both migrate between the alpine meadows and lower coniferous forests and tend to be most common in this region, elk inhabit river valley bottomlands, which they share with White-tailed deer. They live in the aspen parklands north of Calgary and Edmonton, the adjacent Great Plains grassland habitats are left to herds of elk, American bison, and pronghorn antelope
Kennewick Man is the name generally given to the skeletal remains of a prehistoric Paleoamerican man found on a bank of the Columbia River in Kennewick, United States, on July 28,1996. It is one of the most complete ancient skeletons ever found, radiocarbon tests on bone have shown it to date from 8. 9k to 9k calibrated years before present. In the early 2000s, genetic analysis did not have sufficient techniques to analyze such ancient DNA, by 2013, techniques had improved and the ancient DNA was analyzed. In June 2015 the team announced their conclusions, that Kennewick Man had most in common with Native Americans among living peoples, the discovery of the remains led to considerable controversy for more than a decade. The Umatilla people and other tribes have wanted the remains returned to them for reburial under the federal Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act. The law was designed to remedy long-standing wrongs done to tribes and to facilitate the return of human remains and they said the remains had features that more closely resembled Polynesian or Southeast Asian peoples, a finding that would exempt the bones from NAGPRA.
Under NAGPRA, the tribes would maintain the right to rebury the remains of Kennewick Man, the US Army Corps of Engineers, which oversaw the land where the remains were found, agreed to comply with the requests of the tribes. Its ruling allowed scientific study of the remains to continue while the USACE retained custody of the remains, in July 2005, a team of scientists from around the United States convened in Seattle for 16 days to study the remains in detail. Their research results were published in 2014 in Kennewick Man, The Scientific Investigation of an Ancient American Skeleton edited by Douglas Owsley, the international team of scientists had confirmed that finding to the Army Corps of Engineers in 2013. Chatters, the discoverer of the bones, had changed his conclusions after finding similar skull shapes among confirmed ancestors of Native Americans. The results did not surprise scientists who study the genetics of ancient people, analysis showed that Kennewick Man is “very closely related to the Colville tribe in northeast Washington.
The results were published in Nature magazine, in September 2016, the US House and Senate passed legislation to return the ancient bones to a coalition of Columbia Basin tribes for reburial according to their traditions. The remains were buried on February 18,2017, with 200 members of five Columbia Basin tribes, the discovery of Kennewick Man was accidental. Will Thomas and David Deacy were attending the annual hydroplane races and found the skull in a reservoir on the Columbia River at Columbia Park in Kennewick, the remains had become exposed due to erosion and been scattered by water forces in the reservoir. Following delivery of the cranium by the coroner, the remains were examined by archaeologist James Chatters, in ten visits to the site, Chatters managed to collect 350 bones and pieces of bone, with the skull, completed almost an entire skeleton. The cranium was fully intact with all the teeth that had been present at the time of death, all major bones were found, except the sternum and a few bones of the hands and feet.
Many of the bones were broken several pieces. After studying the bones, Chatters concluded that they belonged to a male of late middle age, and tall, the anthropological term Caucasian was confused by some members of the media and public, who interpreted it as meaning white or European, however
Shellfish is a culinary and fisheries term for exoskeleton-bearing aquatic invertebrates used as food, including various species of molluscs and echinoderms. Although most kinds of shellfish are harvested from saltwater environments, some kinds are found in freshwater, in addition, a few species of land crabs are eaten, for example Cardisoma guanhumi in the Caribbean. Despite the name, shellfish are not a kind of fish, many varieties of shellfish are actually closely related to insects and arachnids, making up one of the main classes of the phylum Arthropoda. Cephalopods and bivalves are molluscs, as are snails and slugs, familiar marine molluscs used as a food source by humans include many species of clams, oysters and scallops. Some crustaceans commonly eaten are shrimp, crayfish, echinoderms are not as frequently harvested for food as molluscs and crustaceans, sea urchin roe is quite popular in many parts of the world. Most shellfish eat a diet composed primarily of phytoplankton and zooplankton, Shellfish are among the most common food allergens.
The term shellfish is used broadly and specifically. In common parlance, as in having shellfish for dinner, it can refer to anything from clams and oysters to lobster, for regulatory purposes it is often narrowly defined as filter-feeding molluscs such as clams and oyster to the exclusion of crustaceans and all else. Although the term is applied to marine species, edible freshwater invertebrates such as crayfish. Although their shells may differ, all shellfish are invertebrates, the word shellfish is both singular and plural, the rarely used shellfishes is sometimes employed to distinguish among various types of shellfish. Archaeological finds have shown that humans have been making use of shellfish as an item for hundreds of thousands of years. In the Japanese cuisine, chefs often use shellfish and their roe in different dishes, sushi features both raw and cooked shellfish. Sashimi primarily consists of fresh raw seafood, sliced into thin pieces. Both sushi and sashimi are served with soy sauce and wasabi paste, thinly sliced pickled ginger root, and a simple garnish such as shiso or finely shredded daikon radish, or both.
Lobster in particular is a delicacy in the United States. Lobsters are eaten on much of the East Coast, the American lobster ranges from Newfoundland down to about the Carolinas, a typical meal involves boiling the lobster with some slight seasoning and serving it with drawn butter, baked potato, and corn on the cob. Clamming is done both commercially and recreationally along the Northeast coastline of the US, various type of clams are incorporated into the cuisine of New England. The soft-shelled clam is eaten fried or steamed
A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering. The formation of the seed is part of the process of reproduction in seed plants, Seeds are the product of the ripened ovule, after fertilization by pollen and some growth within the mother plant. The embryo is developed from the zygote and the coat from the integuments of the ovule. Seed plants now dominate biological niches on land, from forests to both in hot and cold climates. The term seed has a meaning that antedates the above—anything that can be sown, e. g. seed potatoes. In the case of sunflower and corn seeds, what is sown is the seed enclosed in a shell or husk, many structures commonly referred to as seeds are actually dry fruits. Plants producing berries are called baccate, sunflower seeds are sometimes sold commercially while still enclosed within the hard wall of the fruit, which must be split open to reach the seed. Different groups of plants have other modifications, the stone fruits have a hardened fruit layer fused to.
Nuts are the one-seeded, hard-shelled fruit of plants with an indehiscent seed. Seeds are produced in several related groups of plants, and their manner of production distinguishes the angiosperms from the gymnosperms, angiosperm seeds are produced in a hard or fleshy structure called a fruit that encloses the seeds, hence the name. Some fruits have layers of hard and fleshy material. In gymnosperms, no special structure develops to enclose the seeds, the seeds do become covered by the cone scales as they develop in some species of conifer. Seed production in natural plant populations varies widely from year-to-year in response to weather variables and diseases, over a 20-year period, for example, forests composed of loblolly pine and shortleaf pine produced from 0 to nearly 5 million sound pine seeds per hectare. Over this period, there were six bumper, five poor, and nine good seed crops, right after fertilization, the zygote is mostly inactive, but the primary endosperm divides rapidly to form the endosperm tissue.
This tissue becomes the food the young plant will consume until the roots have developed after germination, after fertilization the ovules develop into the seeds. The ovule consists of a number of components, The funicle or seed stalk which attaches the ovule to the placenta and hence ovary or fruit wall, the nucellus, the remnant of the megasporangium and main region of the ovule where the megagametophyte develops. The micropyle, a pore or opening in the apex of the integument of the ovule where the pollen tube usually enters during the process of fertilization. The chalaza, the base of the ovule opposite the micropyle, the shape of the ovules as they develop often affects the final shape of the seeds
Watson Brake is an archaeological site in Ouachita Parish, Louisiana from the Archaic period. Dated to about 5400 years ago, Watson Brake is considered the earliest mound complex in North America and it is an arrangement of human-made mounds located in the floodplain of the Ouachita River near Monroe in northern Louisiana, United States. Watson Brake consists of a formation of eleven mounds from three to 25 feet in height, connected by ridges to form an oval nearly 900 feet across. Watson Brakes dating is 1,900 years before the better-known Poverty Point in Louisiana, begun about 1500 BCE, in the Americas, mound building started at an early date. While primarily hunter-gatherers, they were able to plan and organize large work forces over centuries to accomplish the complex mound, monumental constructions have marked the rise of social complexity world-wide. The earthen mounds of Eastern North America are linked to mankinds monument tradition, in 1983, Jones and John Belmont published the site in a survey of pre-history in the Ouachita River Valley.
Around this time Joe Saunders, regional archaeologist for the state, was shown the site, the site had been privately controlled since the 1950s. Approximately half the site is owned by several family members. Recognizing the sites significance, in 1996 The Archaeological Conservancy purchased half the site, since the 1990s, radiocarbon dating by a team from Northeast Louisiana University established the great antiquity of the site. The team of Joe W. Saunders et al. published a paper in Science in 1997 that established the age of the mound complex, the analysis of 27 radiocarbon dates indicates that the site was initially occupied around 4000 BCE during the Middle Archaic period. Mound construction began at approximately 3500 BCE, and continued for approximately 500 years, during that time period, the mounds were enlarged in several stages. Excavations indicate that there was sufficient time between building episodes for midden deposits of residents to accumulate on top of the mounds and ridges.
In addition, teams from the University of Texas at Austin, evidence of the middens indicate that Watson Brake may have been used as a base by mobile hunter-gatherers from summer through fall. Saunders and his team suggest that the episodes at Watson Brake coincide with periods of unpredictable rainfall caused by El Nino-Southern Oscillation events. They may represent a response to new stresses of droughts. Midden remains showed the population relied on fish and riverine animals, supplemented by local annuals, knotweed, the site appears to have been abandoned around 2800 BCE. This may have been caused by a decline in the channel, gravel/sand shoal habitats, backwater swamps. The projectile points are Middle to Late Archaic in age, and were produced more casually than those at Poverty Point, the people heated local gravel for cooking stones to steam some of their food