Most often, it refers to a former monarch, or descendant thereof, whose throne is occupied or claimed by a rival or has been abolished. The term claimant is sometimes preferred, but the term pretend in itself is not pejorative in this context, the original meaning of the English word pretend comes from the French word prétendre, and originally meant to put forward, to profess or claim. A pretender was, simply one who put forward or professed a claim to a title or, in modern terms, only did the word acquire its modern sense of professing or claiming falsely. The term pretender applies to claimants with arguably genuine rights and it can be used for those possessing an arguable right to a position who do not actively claim it, as well as impostors with wholly fabricated claims. People in the category often assume the identities of deceased or missing royalty to support their claim. A Papal pretender is called an Antipope, ancient Rome knew many pretenders to the offices making up the title of Roman Emperor, especially during the crisis of the Third Century.
The Loeb translation of the chapter of the Augustan History therefore represents the Latin triginta tyranni by Thirty Pretenders to avoid this artificial. Not all of them were afterwards considered pretenders, several were successful in becoming Emperor at least in part of the Empire for a brief period. Disputed successions to the Roman Empire long continued at Constantinople, at times, some of these states and titles were subjected to multiple claims. Following the defeat and death of King James III King of Cyprus in 1474, his younger and illegitimate brother, Eugène Matteo de Lusignan, styled dArménie removed to Sicily, to Malta. He was acknowledged as heir to the thrones of Cyprus, Jerusalem. The title of Barone de Baccari was created in 1508 for Jacques Matteo dArmenia with the remainder to his descendants in perpetuity, the claimant to the throne of the last Greek kingdom is Constantine II, who reigned as king from 1964 to 1973. He belongs to the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, a branch of the House of Oldenburg.
His designated heir is his son Pavlos, Crown Prince of Greece, the establishment of the First Republic and the execution of Louis XVI in 1793 led to the kings son becoming pretender to the abolished throne, styled as Louis XVII. As Louis XVII was a child and imprisoned in Paris by the revolutionaries, his uncle, after Louis XVII died in 1795, the Comte de Provence became pretender himself, as Louis XVIII. Louis XVIII was restored to the throne in 1814, and was succeeded by his brother Charles X in 1824, Charles X was, forced into exile by the July Revolution. For most of the July Monarchy, the legitimists, as supporters of the senior line came to be known, were uncertain of whom to support. On his uncles death, Bordeaux proclaimed himself king as Henry V, but remains known to history by his title of pretense, the Count of Chambord
Philip V of Spain
Before his reign, Philip occupied an exalted place in the royal family of France as a grandson of King Louis XIV. His father, the Grand Dauphin, had the strongest genealogical claim to the throne of Spain when it became vacant in 1700. It was well known that the union of France and Spain under one monarch would upset the balance of power in Europe, Philip was the first member of the House of Bourbon to rule as king of Spain. The sum of his two reigns,45 years and 21 days, is the longest in modern Spanish history and he was a younger brother of Louis, Duke of Burgundy, the father of Louis XV of France. At birth, Philip was created Duke of Anjou, a title for younger sons in the French royal family. He would be known by name until he became the king of Spain. Philip was tutored with his brothers by François Fénelon, Archbishop of Cambrai, the three were educated by Paul de Beauvilliers. In 1700 the King Charles II of Spain died childless and his will named the turning 17-year-old Philip, grandson of Charles half-sister Maria Theresa, the first wife of Louis XIV, as his successor.
Upon any possible refusal, the crown of Spain would be offered next to Philips younger brother, Philip had the better genealogical claim to the Spanish throne, because his Spanish grandmother and great-grandmother were older than the ancestors of the Archduke Charles of Austria. However, the Austrian branch claimed that Philips grandmother had renounced the Spanish throne for herself and this was countered by the French branchs claim that it was on the basis of a dowry that had never been paid. After the Royal Council decided to accept the provisions of the will of Charles II naming Philip king of Spain, the ambassador, along with his son, knelt before Philip and made a long speech in Spanish which Philip did not understand, although Louis XIV did. Philip only learned to speak Spanish, on 2 November 1701 the almost 18 year old Philip married the 13-year-old Maria Luisa of Savoy, as chosen by his grandfather King Louis XIV, by an old man of 63. She was the daughter of Victor Amadeus II, Duke of Savoy, there was a proxy ceremony at Turin, the capital of the Duchy of Savoy, and another one at Versailles on 11 September.
As queen of Spain, Maria Luisa proved very popular with her subjects and she served as regent for her husband on several occasions. Her most successful term was when Philip was away touring his Italian domains for nine months in 1702, in 1714, she died at the age of 26 from tuberculosis, a devastating emotional blow to her husband. The actions of Louis XIV heightened the fears of the English, the Dutch, however, a second act of the French king justified a hostile interpretation, pursuant to a treaty with Spain, Louis occupied several towns in the Spanish Netherlands. This was the spark that ignited the powder keg created by the issues of the War of the League of Augsburg. Almost immediately the War of the Spanish Succession began, inside Spain, the Crown of Castile supported Philip of France
Maria Theresa of Austria-Este, Queen of Sardinia
Maria Theresa of Austria-Este was born an Archduchess of Austria and a Princess of Modena. She was Queen of Sardinia as consort of Victor Emmanuel I of Sardinia and she was born at the Royal Palace of Milan, a daughter of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, governor of Milan and son of Empress Maria Theresa of Austria after whom she was named. Her mother was Maria Beatrice dEste, heiress to the Duchy of Modena, Maria Theresa married on 25 April 1789 at the age of 15 with the 29-year-old Victor Emmanuel, Duke of Aosta future King Victor Emmanuel I. Their relationship was a happy one and she was a good friend of Marie Clotilde of France, the childless consort of Charles Emmanuel, Prince of Piedmont. She was close to the Duchess of Chablais, at the time of her marriage, her spouse was the Duke of Aosta as such she was styled as Her Royal Highness the Duchess of Aosta till she became Queen. The couple had six daughters and one son, who died young, upon the invasion of Savoy by Napoleon in 1798, she left with her family first to Tuscany and to Sardinia.
Maria Theresa was initially welcomed in Turin, but she soon aroused great discontent among the public. Her conduct has been suggested as one of the reasons behind the discontent which led to the rebellions of 1821 which led to her consorts abdication, after the outbreak of a liberal revolution in 1821, her husband Victor Emmanuel abdicated in favor of his brother, Charles Felix. During the riots, she declared herself willing to assume regency if necessary, she followed her abdicated spouse to Nice. Maria Theresa survived Victor Emmanuel by eight years and she was accused of having tried to convince her childless brother-in-law Charles Felix to assign Francis IV, duke of Modena, as heir to the throne. Due to the hostility directed toward her, she was not allowed to return to Turin until 1831 and she was buried in the Basilica of Superga. Princess Maria Beatrice Victoria Josepha of Savoy, married Francis IV, Princess Maria Adelaide of Savoy died in infancy. Prince Charles Emmanuel of Savoy died of smallpox, Maria Teresa of Savoy married Charles II, Duke of Parma, had issue.
Princess Maria Anna of Savoy married Ferdinand I of Austria, no issue, Princess Maria Cristina of Savoy married Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies, had issue. Prior to 1804, members of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine were only entitled to Royal Highness as Archdukes or Archduchesses of Austria, la regina infelice, Lettere damore segrete di Maria Teresa di Savoia. Verlag Carl Ueberreuter, Wien 1988, S. 345f, media related to Maria Theresa of Austria-Este at Wikimedia Commons
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family, usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system but sometimes appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a house, historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the dynasty may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends. The word dynasty itself is often dropped from such adjectival references, until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty, that is, to increase the territory and power of his family members. The longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. Succession through a daughter when permitted was considered to establish a new dynasty in her husbands ruling house, some states in Africa, determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mothers dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
It is extended to unrelated people such as poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team. The word dynasty derives via Latin dynastia from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to power, dominion and it was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, power or ability, from dýnamai, to be able. A ruler in a dynasty is referred to as a dynast. For example, following his abdication, Edward VIII of the United Kingdom ceased to be a member of the House of Windsor. A dynastic marriage is one that complies with monarchical house law restrictions, the marriage of Willem-Alexander, Prince of Orange, to Máxima Zorreguieta in 2002 was dynastic, for example, and their eldest child is expected to inherit the Dutch crown eventually. But the marriage of his younger brother Prince Friso to Mabel Wisse Smit in 2003 lacked government support, thus Friso forfeited his place in the order of succession, lost his title as a Prince of the Netherlands, and left his children without dynastic rights.
In historical and monarchist references to formerly reigning families, a dynast is a member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchys rules still in force. Even since abolition of the Austrian monarchy and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position. The term dynast is sometimes used only to refer to descendants of a realms monarchs. The term can therefore describe overlapping but distinct sets of people, yet he is not a male-line member of the royal family, and is therefore not a dynast of the House of Windsor. Thus, in 1999 he requested and obtained permission from Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco. Yet a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time and that exclusion, ceased to apply on 26 March 2015, with retroactive effect for those who had been dynasts prior to triggering it by marriage to a Catholic
Francis IV, Duke of Modena
His father was Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Este, Duke of Breisgau, his mother Maria Beatrice Ricciarda dEste, Duchess of Massa and Princess of Carrara, Lady of Lunigiana. He was a grandson of Maria Theresa of Austria, head of the House of Habsburg and he thus became the first member of the House of Habsburg-Este to rule the Este inheritance in Northern Italy. Francis is distinguished for his stern and tyrannic rule by which he repressed all the democratic movements appearing during his reign, the harshness of the Ducal policies are illustrated by the hanging of Ciro Menotti for an attempted insurrection against the Duke. In 1812 Francis married his niece the Princess Maria Beatrice of Savoy, the couple had four children, Maria Theresa, married Henri, comte de Chambord. Francis V, Duke of Modena, married Princess Adelgunde of Bavaria, Ferdinand Karl, married Archduchess Elisabeth Franziska of Austria. Father of Maria Theresia, Archduchess of Austria-Este, Maria Beatrix, married Juan, Count of Montizón.
Andrew Knight of the Order of St. Alexander Nevsky Knight of the Order of St
The Legitimists are royalists in France who adhere to the rights of dynastic succession of the descendants of the elder branch of the Bourbon dynasty, which was overthrown in the 1830 July Revolution. They reject the claim of the July Monarchy of 1830–1848, whose king was a member of the junior Orléans line of the Bourbon dynasty, the other two right-wing factions are, according to historian René Rémond, the Orléanists and the Bonapartists. Legitimists hold that the king of France must be according to the traditional rules of succession based in the Salic law. The main current legitimist pretender is Louis Alphonse, Duke of Anjou, following the Bourbon Restoration in 1814, a strongly restricted census suffrage sent to the Chamber of Deputies an ultra-royalist majority in 1815–1816 and from 1824 to 1827. By the same token, Ultras opposed all liberal and their importance during the Restoration was in part due to electoral laws which largely favored them. Louis XVIIIs first ministers, who included Talleyrand, the duc de Richelieu, Louis XVIII finally decided to dissolve this chaotic assembly, but the new liberals who replaced them were no easier to govern.
The death in 1824 of the moderate Louis XVIII emboldened the Ultra faction, in January 1825, Villèles government passed the Anti-Sacrilege Act, which punished by death the theft of sacred vessels. This anachronistic law was in the end never applied and repealed in the first months of Louis Philippe Is reign, the Ultras wanted to create courts to punish Radicals, and passed laws restricting freedom of the press. They softened their views and made the restoration of the House of Bourbon their main aim, from 1830 on they became known as Legitimists. Until the deaths of Charles X and his son in 1836 and 1844, many Legitimists continued to each of them in turn as the rightful king. The fall of King Louis Philippe I in 1848 led to a strengthening of the Legitimist position, although the childlessness of Chambord weakened the hand of the Legitimists, they came back into political prominence during the Second Republic. Legitimists joined with Orleanists to form the Party of Order which dominated parliament from the elections of May 1849 until Bonapartes coup on December 2,1851, through much of this time there was discussion of fusion with the Orleanist Party so that the two could effect a monarchical restoration.
This prospect prompted several sons of Louis Philippe to declare their support for Chambord, but fusion was not actually achieved, and after 1850 the two parties again diverged. The period of the Second Empire saw the Legitimists once again cast out of political life. Nevertheless, the Legitimists remained a significant party within elite opinion, after the Siege of Paris in 1870 and the 1871 Paris Commune, the Legitimists returned for one final time to political prominence. This time, the Legitimists were able to agree with the Orleanists on a program of fusion, the liberal Orleanists agreed to recognize Chambord as king, and the Orleanist claimant himself, Louis-Philippe Albert dOrléans, count of Paris, recognized Chambord as head of the French royal house. In return, Legitimists in the Assembly agreed that, should Chambord die childless, the death of Chambord effectively dissolved the parti légitimiste as a political force in France. Those Legitimists who had rallied to the Republic in 1893, after the comte de Chambords death ten years before, but they changed their name in 1899, and entered the 1902 elections under the name Action libérale
Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia
Victor Amadeus III was King of Sardinia from 1773 to his death. Although he was conservative, he carried out numerous administrative reforms until he declared war on Revolutionary France in 1792. He was the father of the last three mainline Kings of Sardinia, born at the Royal Palace of Turin, he was a son of Charles Emmanuel III of Sardinia and his second wife Polyxena of Hesse-Rotenburg. He was styled as the Duke of Savoy from birth until he succeeded to his fathers throne and he was the eldest son of his parents and was the heir apparent from birth which was greeted with much celebration. His father had had a son with his first wife, Countess Palatine Anne Christine of Sulzbach who was named Victor Amadeus, Duke of Aosta and his education was entrusted to Gerdil Giacinto Sigismondo, with a particular emphasis on military training. Throughout his life he would have a great interest in the military on which he lavished attention. As a young prince, he surrounded himself with intellectuals and ministers and he was privately conservative and very religious person, who, as a young boy, stayed far from public life.
His father felt him to be unsuitable to hold power, good-natured but naive, Savoy would be loved by his subjects for his generosity. He married Infanta Maria Antonietta of Spain, youngest daughter of Philip V of Spain and they were married on 31 May 1750 at Oulx and had twelve children. He had a relationship with his wife who exerted little influence over her husband. The marriage had been arranged by Maria Antoniettas half brother, the ruling Ferdinand VI of Spain, the Spanish Infanta had been previously rejected by Louis, Dauphin of France. The union was used to strengthen relations between Madrid and Turin having fought on opposing sides in the War of the Austrian Succession, the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle ended the war. When Victor Amadeus came to the throne in 1773 he started working on bureaucratic and he was suspicious of anything innovative. However, he did implement several public works as well as paying a great deal of attention to his administration and he approved and set up two new important cultural state institutions on the advice of the bourgeoisie and aristocracy alike.
He started works of improvements in the port of Nice, and had dams in the Arce, after four years of fighting, the French under Bonaparte had finally beaten the Piedmontese army in the Battle of Montenotte, the Battle of Millesimo and the Battle of Mondovi. On April 26 the French proclaimed the Republic of Alba on the occupied territories, two days later, with the Armistice of Cherasco, the Republic was ceded back to Victor Amadeus. He was forced to sign the Treaty of Paris on May 15 abandoning the First Coalition against the French Republic. The terms of the treaty required him to cede the fortresses of Cuneo, Ceva and Tortona to France and he was compelled to cede Nice and Savoy
Leopold, Duke of Lorraine
Leopold, surnamed the Good, was Duke of Lorraine and Bar from 1690 to his death. Leopold Joseph Charles Dominique Agapet Hyacinthe was the son of Charles V, Duke of Lorraine, and his wife Eleonora Maria Josefa of Austria, a half-sister of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor. At the time of Leopolds birth and Bar had been occupied by Louis XIV of France, forcing his parents to move into exile to Austria, Leopold was born in the palace of Innsbruck and received his first name in honour of the Emperor. Leopold grew up in Innsbruck, while his father would be engaged in defending Vienna against the Turks, in 1690, his father died and eleven-year-old Leopold inherited the still occupied Duchies. His mother, trying to fulfil her husbands last wishes of returning her children to their patrimony, Leopold was sent to Vienna to receive a military education under the supervision of the Emperor. In Vienna, he grew up with his cousins, the Archdukes Joseph and Charles, Leopold was created a Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece that year.
Like his father before him, he entered the Imperial Army and, aged eighteen, three years later, he received the command of the Army of the Rhine. On 30 October 1697, the Nine Years War ended with the signing of the Treaty of Ryswick, the treaty restored the Duchies of Lorraine and Bar to the House of Lorraine, as Leopolds mother had hoped, she died four days in Vienna. On 17 August 1698, Duke Lepold made a triumphant entry into his capital Nancy and he reconstructed and repopulated his war-stricken duchy, encouraging immigration. At the end of his reign the duchy was safe and prosperous, in his foreign policy, Leopold tried to further good relations with France and to appease his powerful neighbor. On 13 October 1698 at the Palace of Fontainebleau, Leopold married Élisabeth Charlotte dOrléans, the niece of Louis XIV, Elisabeth Charlotte turned out to be a caring mother and gave birth to thirteen children, of whom five survived into adulthood. Three of them died within a week in May 1711 due to an outbreak at the Château de Lunéville.
Despite Leopolds diplomatic attempts, his capital, was occupied by troops during the War of the Spanish Succession. Fearing for his family, Leopold relocated the court to the Château de Lunéville and it was here that his first child Leopold was born in 1700. In 1703, the Duke introduced the Code Léopold regulating the government of the Duchy and he tried to install his eldest daughter, Elisabeth Charlotte, as Abbess of Remiremont but failed due to the opposition of Pope Clement XI. Leopolds marital life was troubled in 1706, when he took Anne-Marguerite de Lignéville, Princess of Beauvau-Craon as his mistress, Elisabeth Charlotte however, following her mothers advice, remained silent. In 1708, Leopold had claimed the Duchy of Montferrat as the closest relative of his cousin, Charles III Gonzaga, erstwhile Duke of Mantua, who had been deposed and died without male issue. However, the Emperor had already promised Montferrat to the Dukes of Savoy but wishing to compensate the House of Lorraine, during the visit, Leopold, as a foreign prince, received the style of Royal Highness
Maria Antonia Ferdinanda of Spain
Maria Antonia Ferdinanda of Spain was an Infanta of Spain and the youngest daughter of Philip V of Spain and Elisabeth Farnese. She was the wife of Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia whom she married in 1750 and she was the mother of the last three mainline Kings of Sardinia. She was born at the Royal Alcázar of Seville in Seville and was the youngest daughter of Philip V of Spain and she was born in Seville during the signing of the Treaty of Seville which ended the Anglo-Spanish War. She spent her infancy in the city of her birth before moving to Madrid in 1733 and she was baptised with the names María Antonia along with Fernanda in honour of her half brother, the heir to the throne. Variations in her range from Antonia Fernanda and Antonietta Ferdinanda. As a daughter of the King of Spain, she held the title of Infanta of Spain, in a double marriage plan she would marry Louis, Dauphin of France, and her brother, Infante Philip, would marry the Dauphins sister Louise Élisabeth of France. Her mother consented to the union but insisted on waiting for Maria Antonia Ferdinanda to reach a more mature age.
The Infantas hand was sought by the Electoral Prince of Saxony. The marriage between Infante Philip and Louise Élisabeth occurred in 1739 and eventually her older sister Infanta Maria Teresa Rafaela married the Dauphin in 1745. However, upon the death of Maria Teresa Rafaela in 1746 Ferdinand VI tried to engage Maria Antonia Fernandina to the Dauphin, instead he chose Maria Josepha of Saxony. The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle ended the war, as a wedding gift, the apartments of the new Duchess of Savoy at the Royal Palace of Turin were remodelled by the architect Benedetto Alfieri. Maria Antonia Ferdinanda was given a dowry of 3,500,000 Piedmontese Lires as well as Spanish possessions in Milan, in Italy she was known as Maria Antonietta Ferdinanda. Operas by Baldassare Galuppi were specially composed for her marriage to the Duke of Savoy, the match was seen as unpopular, but the two remained close until her death. From marriage until her husbands accession she was styled as the Duchess of Savoy, the couple surrounded themselves with modern thinkers and various politicians.
The first lady of the land, she brought a rigid etiquette from her native Spain to the court of Savoy and she was very religious and was said to have a cold, shy personality. She was the mother of children, three of whom died in infancy. Two of her children had issue, at the death of her father-in-law Charles Emmanuel III of Sardinia in 1773, her husband succeeded him as Victor Amadeus III. She was the first queen of Sardinia in over thirty years since the death of Elisabeth Therese of Lorraine in 1741 and her oldest son Charles Emmanuel, Prince of Piedmont married Marie Clotilde of France, sister of Louis XVI in 1775