Prince Amedeo of Belgium, Archduke of Austria-Este
Prince Amedeo of Belgium, Archduke of Austria-Este is a member of the Belgian Royal Family. He is the heir to the headship of the House of Austria-Este, a branch of the Habsburg-Lorraine. Amedeo was born at the University Clinic St. Luc, Woluwe-St-Lambert, Belgium and he bears the same given name as his paternal great-grandfather Prince Amedeo, Duke of Aosta. His godparents are his uncle, King Philippe of Belgium and maternal grandmother, Amedeo himself is godfather to his cousin, the Princess Elisabeth, Duchess of Brabant. Amedeo has one younger brother Joachim and three sisters, Maria Laura, Luisa Maria and Laetitia Maria. He was baptised and married by the Archbishop of Mechelen, Cardinal Danneels, Amedeo undertook primary school and the greater part of his secondary education at the Jesuit school Sint-Jan Berchmanscollege in Brussels, popular with Belgian aristocracy and royalty. He finished his education at Sevenoaks School in Kent, England between 2001 and 2004. He spent a year in Belgiums Royal Military Academy, in September 2005 he began studies at the London School of Economics, where he graduated in 2008 with a Bachelor of Science and took a sabbatical before entering professional life.
Amedeo completed military service and is an officer in the Belgian Army. He worked as a research analyst intern at Accumulus Capital Management, during 2013 and 2014 Amedeo resumed his studies, obtaining a Master of Business Administration at the Columbia Business School of Columbia University. Thereafter he started to work as a management consultant for Deloitte in New York, on 15 February 2014, the Belgian Royal Court announced the engagement of Prince Amedeo to Italian journalist Nobile Elisabetta Lili Maria Rosboch von Wolkenstein. The couple were planning to relocate in Belgium after the wedding, in 1991 Amedeo obtained, along with his mother and younger siblings, succession rights to the Belgian throne. In 1993 his maternal grandfather acceded to the throne as King Albert II and he became third in Belgiums line of succession, following his uncle Philippe, Duke of Brabant, and his mother. The abdication on 21 July 2013 of his grandfather King Albert II of the Belgians promoted him to sixth in line to the throne, in November 2015, a royal decree expressing King Philips retroactive permission for the marriage was gazetted in the Moniteur Belge.
In April 2016, it was announced that the couple were expecting their first child and their daughter, Archduchess Anna Astrid of Austria-Este, was born on 17 May 2016 in Brussels. e. Archduke/Archduchess of Austria-Este, Prince Royal of Hungary, internationally his abbreviated style is HI&RH Prince Amedeo of Belgium, Archduke of Austria-Este
Baudouin of Belgium
Baudouin reigned as 5th King of the Belgians, following his fathers abdication, from 1951 until his death in 1993. He was the last Belgian king to be sovereign of Congo and he was the elder son of King Leopold III and his first wife, Princess Astrid of Sweden. Because he had no children with his wife, Fabiola de Mora, the crown passed to his younger brother, Albert II, following his death. Baudouin was born in the Château du Stuyvenberg, near Laeken, Brussels, in Belgium, in 1930, the son of Prince Leopold, the Duke of Brabant and his father became King of the Belgians, as Leopold III, in 1934. Baudouins mother died in 1935 in an automobile accident, part of Leopold IIIs unpopularity was the result of a second marriage in 1941 to Mary Lilian Baels, an English-born Belgian commoner, known as Princess de Réthy. Though reinstated in a plebiscite, the controversy surrounding Leopold led to his abdication, during the war the king was deported by command of Adolf Hitler to Hirschstein. He ascended the throne and became the fifth King of the Belgians upon taking the oath on 17 July 1951.
The Congolese called the young king Mwana Kitoko, on 15 December 1960, Baudouin was married in Brussels to Doña Fabiola de Mora y Aragón. The King and Queen had no children, all of the Queens five pregnancies ended in miscarriage, during Baudouins reign the colony of Belgian Congo became independent. During the last ceremonial inspection of the Force Publique, the sabre of the king was stolen during a parade by Ambroise Boimbo. The photograph, taken by Robert Lebeck, was published in world newspapers. The next day the king attended the reception, he gave a speech that received a blistering response by Congolese Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba. Baudouin attended the State funeral of John F, in 1990, when Baudouin refused to sign into law a bill permitting abortion, the cabinet assumed the power to promulgate the law while he was treated as unable to govern for twenty-four hours. In 1976, on the 25th anniversary of Baudouins accession, the King Baudouin Foundation was formed and he was the 1, 176th Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece in Spain in 1960 and the 930th Knight of the Order of the Garter.
Baudouin was a devout Roman Catholic, through the influence of Leo Cardinal Suenens, Baudouin participated in the growing Renewal Movement and regularly went on pilgrimages to the French shrine of Paray-le-Monial. In 1990, when a law submitted by Roger Lallemand and Lucienne Herman-Michielsens that liberalised Belgiums abortion laws was approved by Parliament and this was unprecedented, although Baudouin was de jure Belgiums chief executive, Royal Assent has long been a formality. However, due to his religious convictions, Baudouin asked the Government to declare him temporarily unable to reign so that he could avoid signing the measure into law, the Government under Wilfried Martens complied with his request on 4 April 1990. According to the provisions of the Belgian Constitution, in the event the King is temporarily unable to reign, all members of the Government signed the bill, and the next day the Government declared that Baudouin was capable of reigning again
Georg von Habsburg
He has worked as a television journalist, based in Budapest, since 1993. On 1 May 2004 he was chairman of the Grand Europe Ball, georg was the President of Red Cross in Hungary, having been named Hungarys Ambassador extraordinary to the European Parliament in 1996. He is a Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece and his family live near the village of Sóskút, in Pest County in Hungary
Francesca von Habsburg
Francesca von Habsburg-Lothringen is an art collector and the wife of Karl Habsburg-Lothringen, head of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine. She was educated at Le Rosey in Switzerland and at the age of eighteen attended Saint Martins School of Art, after leaving the college she worked as an actress and model Her partying lifestyle in London in the 1980s earned her reputation as an It girl. For the ten years after she left Saint Martins college she lived in England, New York, during the war in Croatia Francesca visited the country to help protect Croatias heritage and artworks and to help restore churches and paintings damaged during the fighting. And has built up her own art collection with four hundred pieces of contemporary video. Since 2012, TBA21 has a new space in Viennas second district. The exhibition space was therefore renamed Thyssen-Bornemisza Art Contemporary–Augarten and it exhibits works from the collection in thematic exhibitions twice a year. The Foundation organises exhibitions of its world wide.
Von Habsburg has criticised her stepmother, Carmen Cervera, for the management of the Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum in Madrid after the sale of John Constables painting. She appeared as Queen Marie-Henriette in the production Kronprinz Rudolf, directed by Robert Dornhelm, Francesca married the heir to the Habsburg dynasty, Archduke Karl, son of Dr. Otto von Habsburg, in Mariazell on 31 January 1993. Francesca and Karl have been separated since 2003. She owns a residence in Port Antonio, where she is a supporter of the Reggae music industry
Walburga Habsburg Douglas
Walburga Habsburg, Countess Douglas is a German-born Swedish lawyer and politician, serving in the Riksdag of Sweden as a member of the Moderate Party. She is the vice-president of the Paneuropean Union and a member of the Institute for Information on the Crimes of Communism. Born in 1958 in Berg am Starnberger See, she is the daughter of the late Otto von Habsburg, last crown prince of Austria-Hungary and her given names are Walburga Maria Franziska Helene Elisabeth. At the time of her birth, her father was stateless, the Austrian Republic was forced to repeal the banishment of Walburga and her family, which was found to violate their human rights, as a precondition for admission to the European Union. After her Abitur graduation in 1977 in Tutzing, she studied law to the doctoral level in Salzburg. From 1979 to 1992 she worked as an assistant at the European Parliament, in 1983 she studied at the National Journalism Center in Washington, D. C. and worked at the office of Readers Digest in the same city.
She worked for the Ministry of Information of the Sultanate of Oman from 1985–1992, in 1973 she co-founded Paneuropa-Jugend Deutschland, and was its chairperson in Bavaria, and vice chairperson on the national level. She was one of the organisers of the Paneuropa-Picknick at the Iron Curtain on the 19 August 1989, at this occasion, the fence was opened for the first time, letting more than 660 Germans from the GDR escape from the east. This was the largest number of escapees since the Berlin Wall was built and is seen by many as one of the symbols of the fall of Eastern European Communism. Since 2003 she is the chairperson of the branch of the Swedish Moderate Party in Flen. She is a member of the board of the Jarl Hjalmarson Foundation since 2005, in 1999 and 2004 she ran for the European Parliament for the Moderate Party, in 2002 and 2006 she ran for the national parliament. She was elected,17 September 2006 to the Swedish Parliament, chair of the Swedish Parliamentary delegation to the OSCE since 2006.
She was re-elected to the Swedish Parliament in 2010 and she is a board member of the Institute for Information on the Crimes of Communism. Archduchess Walburga married the Swedish Count Archibald Douglas on 5 December 1992 in Budapest and they have a son, Count Moritz Otto Wenzel Douglas. Her husbands family is a prominent noble family in Sweden, descended from the Scots Robert Douglas, the familys comital title, conferred by Queen Christina of Sweden in 1654, is legally recognized in the country. By marriage, she bears the title Countess Douglas
Luxembourg, known as Luxembourg City, is the capital city of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, and the countrys most populous commune. The city contains Luxembourg Castle, established by the Franks in the Early Middle Ages, as of January 2016, the commune had a population of 115,227, which was more than three times the population of the countrys second most populous commune. The citys metropolitan population, including that of surrounding communes of Hesperange, Strassen, in 2011, Luxembourg was ranked as having the second highest per capita GDP in the world at $80,119, with the city having developed into a banking and administrative centre. In the 2011 Mercer worldwide survey of 221 cities, Luxembourg was placed first for personal safety while it was ranked 19th for quality of living, in the Roman era, a fortified tower guarded the crossing of two Roman roads that met at the site of Luxembourg city. Siegfried built his castle, named Lucilinburhuc, on the Bock Fiels, in 987, Archbishop Egbert of Trier consecrated five altars in the Church of the Redemption.
At a Roman road intersection near the church, a marketplace appeared around which the city developed, the city, because of its location and natural geography, has through history been a place of strategic military significance. The first fortifications were built as early as the 10th century, by the end of the 12th century, as the city expanded westward around the new St. Nicholas Church, new walls were built that included an area of 5 hectares. In about 1340, under the reign of John the Blind, in 1443, the Burgundians under Philip the Good conquered Luxembourg. Subsequently, the Burgundians, the Spanish, the French, the Spanish again, the Austrians, the French again, in the 17th century, the first casemates were built, Spain built 23 km of tunnels, starting in 1644. These were enlarged under French rule by Marshal Vauban, during the French Revolutionary Wars, the city was occupied by France twice, briefly, in 1792–3, later, after a seven-month siege. After the Luxembourg Crisis, the 1867 Treaty of London required Luxembourg to dismantle the fortifications in Luxembourg City.
Their demolition took sixteen years, cost 1.5 million gold francs, the Prussian garrison was to be withdrawn. When, in 1890, Grand Duke William III died without any heirs, the Grand Duchy passed out of Dutch hands. Despite Luxembourgs best efforts to remain neutral in the First World War, on 30 August, Helmuth von Moltke moved his headquarters to Luxembourg City, closer to his armies in France in preparation for a swift victory. However, the victory never came, and Luxembourg would play host to the German high command for another four years. At the end of the occupation, Luxembourg City was the scene of an attempted communist revolution, on 9 November 1918, communists declared a socialist republic, in 1921, the city limits were greatly expanded. The communes of Eich, Hamm and Rollingergrund were incorporated into Luxembourg City, in 1940, Germany occupied Luxembourg again. Under the occupation, the citys streets all received new, German names
Uccle or Ukkel is one of the 19 municipalities located in the Brussels-Capital Region of Belgium. According to legend, Uccles church of St. Peter was dedicated by Pope Leo III in the year 803, with Charlemagne and Gerbald, Bishop of Liège, during the following centuries, several noble families built their manors and took residency here. The first mention of the name Woluesdal, now evolved into Wolvendael, in 1467, Isabella of Portugal, wife of Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy founded a Franciscan convent on Uccles territory. Later, Uccle became the capital of the area including Brussels. Throughout the early stages of its history, the village of Uccle always had a rural character and lived mostly from the products of forestry. At the end of the 18th century, a few years after the French Revolution, Uccle merged with neighbouring territories to become a commune, with its own mayor and municipal assembly. It had to wait until 1828, for the Dutch authorities to allow the construction of the first town hall and this was a time of economic prosperity and growth, stimulated by the proximity to the two main roads linking Brussels to the industrial south.
A newer and larger town hall was built between 1872 and 1882, banker and philanthropist Georges Brugmann contributed a lot to the urbanisation of the city just before the turn of the 20th century. In the early 20th century Michel van Gelder introduced a new breed of chicken, lying beyond Forest and Ixelles and skirting the Sonian Forest, Uccle is Brussels largest and most southerly commune. Uccle is mainly an area but has a lot of parks and forested areas, such as the Wolvendael Park. Wolvendael is the site of a 1763 castle, owned by a number of aristocrats from the 18th and 19th centuries. The municipality is situated to the immediate west of the Bois de la Cambre. St. Job Square and the area near St. Peters Church, right next door is the Royal Observatory of Belgium. Uccle Cemetery, known as Dieweg Cemetery, was created following an epidemic in Brussels in 1866. Although burials ended in 1958, the grave of Hergé, the creator of Tintin who died in 1983, the Bloemenwerf, a turn of the 20th century Art Nouveau villa built by architect Henry Van de Velde.
Nemo 33 is the second deepest indoor swimming pool in the world, château de La Fougeraie, built in 1911 for the industrialist Paul Wittouck by the architects Louis Süe and Paul Huillard. European School of Brussels I is located in Uccle, lycée Français Jean Monnet is located in Uccle. Escher, Dutch graphic artist Lara Fabian, singer Jean-Michel Folon, illustrator and sculptor Martin Gray Warschau ghetto and Holocaust survivor, writer
Because most old families reside in Belgium for hundreds of years, their members have belonged to various nations. A major part of Spanish nobles resided in Flanders in the 15th and 16th century and married to local houses, in the Holland period, the nobility formed an important factor in the independnce. After the independence of Belgium the Kingdom of the Netherlands lost an important part of nobles, all the families lived in the south. Although most old families are older and reside much longer in the the Royal House. At court the nobility played a role and was strongly Connected to the royal family. In some old families the heads of the house have the right of multiple titles, most important families pass these old titles still only in male line. A part of the nobility lost their land to France, originally belonging to Flanders the Marquess of Morbecque had lost his land after the Battle of Cassel, during the Spanish period many noble houses received titles and privileges, some of those titles still exist today.
When King Leopold III renmarried to Liliane de Rethy, the majority of the old houses did not accept this commoner at court, in the Second world war many members of the Nobility joined the resistance. Dozens of Noble houses lost family members in Concentration camps and on the battlefield, famous is the sad history of the Knight Armand de Menten de Horne, who was arrested by the SS at the funeral of his son when the Brabanconne was played too loud. He was released from prison and died soon after, Count Pierre dAlcantara de Querrieu died in Sachsenhausen. Marie-Madeleine della Faille dHuysse, Countess de Beaufort, she died in the gaschamber of Ravensbrück, rené baron Greindl died in Buchenwald. Mary Lippens died in Camp Belzig, ferdinand Nève de Mévergnies died in Neuengamme. José baron Gillès de Pélichy died in Mauthausen, some old important and old houses have died out, the House of Glymes, Von Cobenzl, Coloma, of Bette, Rubens, Goubau and the House of Baillet. The modern Belgian nobility is known to be mostly traditionalist, all the noble old houses are Roman Catholic.
In the Kingdom of Belgium there were as of 2013 approximately 1,300 noble families, the noble lineage of only approximately 400 families dates back to the 17th century or earlier. As Belgium is a constitutional monarchy there are no legal privileges attached to bearing a noble title or to being a member of the aristocracy. According to article 113 of the constitution, The King may confer titles of nobility, most nobles in Belgium still belong to the elite of society. They sometimes own and manage companies, or have leading positions in Catholic Church, Cultural society, banking, many of the older families still own important castles or country houses
Brussels, officially the Brussels-Capital Region, is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels which is the capital of Belgium. The Brussels-Capital Region is a part of both the French Community of Belgium and the Flemish Community, but is separate from the region of Flanders or Wallonia. The region has a population of 1.2 million and an area with a population of over 1.8 million. Brussels is the de facto capital of the European Union as it hosts a number of principal EU institutions, the secretariat of the Benelux and the headquarters of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization are located in Brussels. Today, it is considered an Alpha global city, historically a Dutch-speaking city, Brussels has seen a language shift to French from the late 19th century onwards. Today, the majority language is French, and the Brussels-Capital Region is a bilingual enclave within the Flemish Region. All road signs, street names, and many advertisements and services are shown in both languages, Brussels is increasingly becoming multilingual with increasing numbers of migrants and minority groups speaking their own languages.
The most common theory of the origin of Brussels name is that it derives from the Old Dutch Broekzele or Broeksel, meaning marsh, Saint Vindicianus, the bishop of Cambrai made the first recorded reference to the place Brosella in 695 when it was still a hamlet. The origin of the settlement that was to become Brussels lies in Saint Gaugericus construction of a chapel on an island in the river Senne around 580. The official founding of Brussels is usually situated around 979, when Duke Charles of Lower Lotharingia transferred the relics of Saint Gudula from Moorsel to the Saint Gaugericus chapel, Charles would construct the first permanent fortification in the city, doing so on that same island. Lambert I of Leuven, Count of Leuven gained the County of Brussels around 1000 by marrying Charles daughter, as it grew to a population of around 30,000, the surrounding marshes were drained to allow for further expansion. The Counts of Leuven became Dukes of Brabant at about this time, in the 13th century, the city got its first walls.
After the construction of the city walls in the early 13th century, to let the city expand, a second set of walls was erected between 1356 and 1383. Today, traces of it can still be seen, mostly because the small ring, Brabant had lost its independence, but Brussels became the Princely Capital of the prosperous Low Countries, and flourished. In 1516 Charles V, who had been heir of the Low Countries since 1506, was declared King of Spain in St. Michael and St. Gudula Cathedral in Brussels. Upon the death of his grandfather, Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor in 1519 and it was in the Palace complex at Coudenberg that Charles V abdicated in 1555. This impressive palace, famous all over Europe, had expanded since it had first become the seat of the Dukes of Brabant. In 1695, during the Nine Years War, King Louis XIV of France sent troops to bombard Brussels with artillery, together with the resulting fire, it was the most destructive event in the entire history of Brussels