Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor
Ferdinand I was Holy Roman Emperor from 1558, king of Bohemia and Hungary from 1526, and king of Croatia from 1527 until his death. Before his accession, he ruled the Austrian hereditary lands of the Habsburgs in the name of his brother, Charles V. Also, he served as Charles representative in Germany and developed useful relationships with German princes. Ferdinand was able to defend his realm and make it more cohesive. His flexible approach to Imperial problems, mainly religious, finally brought more result than the more confrontational attitude of his brother, Ferdinands motto was Fiat iustitia, et pereat mundus, Let justice be done, though the world perish. Ferdinand shared his customs and even his birthday with his maternal grandfather Ferdinand II of Aragon and he was born and educated in Spain, and did not learn German when he was young. In the summer of 1518 Ferdinand was sent to Flanders following his brother Charless arrival in Spain as newly appointed King Charles I the previous autumn.
He returned in command of his brothers fleet but en route was blown off-course and he was Archduke of Austria from 1521 to 1564. Though he supported his brother, Ferdinand managed to strengthen his own realm, by adopting the German language and culture late in his life, he grew close to the German territorial princes. After the death of his brother-in-law Louis II, Ferdinand ruled as King of Bohemia and Hungary. Ferdinand served as his brothers deputy in the Holy Roman Empire during his brothers many absences, according to the terms set at the First Congress of Vienna in 1515, Ferdinand married Anne Jagiellonica, daughter of King Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary on 22 July 1515. Therefore, after the death of his brother-in-law Louis II, King of Bohemia and of Hungary, at the battle of Mohács on 29 August 1526, the success was only partial, as the Diet refused to recognise Ferdinand as hereditary lord of the Kingdom. The Croatian nobles unanimously elected Ferdinand I as their king in the 1527 election in Cetin, in Hungary, Nicolaus Olahus, secretary of Louis, attached himself to the party of Ferdinand but retained his position with his sister, Queen Dowager Mary.
Ferdinand was elected King of Hungary by a rump Diet in Pozsony in December 1526, the throne of Hungary became the subject of a dynastic dispute between Ferdinand and John Zápolya, Voivode of Transylvania. They were supported by different factions of the nobility in the Hungarian kingdom, Ferdinand had the support of his brother, the Emperor Charles V. Ferdinand defeated Zápolya at the Battle of Tarcal in September 1527 and again in the Battle of Szina in March 1528. Zápolya fled the country and applied to Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent for support, a further Ottoman invasion was repelled in 1533. In 1538, in the Treaty of Nagyvárad, Ferdinand induced the childless Zápolya to name him as his successor, but in 1540, just before his death, Zápolya had a son, John II Sigismund, who was promptly elected King by the Diet. Ferdinand invaded Hungary, but the regent, Frater George Martinuzzi, Bishop of Várad, Suleiman marched into Hungary and not only drove Ferdinand out of central Hungary, he forced Ferdinand to agree to pay tribute for his lands in western Hungary
Sigismund, Archduke of Austria
Sigismund of Austria, Archduke of Further Austria was a Habsburg archduke of Austria and ruler of Tirol from 1446 to 1490. Sigismund was born in Innsbruck, his parents were Frederick IV, Duke of Austria and he was a first cousin of Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, who served as regent until 1446. In 1449, he married Eleanor of Scotland, the daughter of James I, for much of his reign, Sigismund was engaged in disputes with Nicholas of Cusa, bishop of Brixen, for the control of the Eisack and Inn valleys. In 1460, when he had Nicholas imprisoned, he was excommunicated by Pope Pius II, the bishop fled to Todi, but died before the archduke surrendered in order to receive the papal pardon. In 1469, he sold his lands on the Rhine and in the Alsace to Charles, in any case, he bought back these possessions in 1474, and together with the Swiss and the Alsatian cities, he sided against Charles in the Battle of Héricourt. In 1477, Frederick III made him archduke, three years later, Eleanor died, and 1484, Sigismund married the 16-year-old Catherine of Saxony, daughter of Albert, Duke of Saxony.
He had no offspring from either marriage and this coin was the ancestor of many of the major European coin denominations to come and of the US dollar. This production of large coinage exploded as silver from Spains colonies in the Americas flooded the European economy and it is from these reforms in part that Sigismund acquired the nickname of der Münzreiche, or rich in coin. Sigismund was easily swayed by the bad advice of his council and in March 1487 entered into a war with the Republic of Venice. Tyrol stormed the Pass of Calliano and besieged the castle at Rovereto using a massive bombard, the war continued through summer but ended with no decisive victory for either side. One notable casualty of the conflict was the condottiero Roberto Sanseverino dAragona, by 1490 the opposition of the population of Tirol compelled Sigismund to hand over the rulership to Archduke Maximilian I, who became Holy Roman Emperor. Whether Sigismund voluntarily handed over power to Maximilian or was coerced by the latter is not clear.
History of the House of Austria, Henry G. Bohn, New York Street, Covent Garden
Leopold V, Archduke of Austria
Leopold V, Archduke of Further Austria was the son of Archduke Charles II of Inner Austria, and the younger brother of Emperor Ferdinand II, father of Ferdinand Charles, Archduke of Further Austria. He was Bishop of Passau and of Strasbourg, until he resigned to get married, and Archduke of Further Austria including Tirol. He was invested as bishop in 1598, as a child, even though he had not been ordained as a priest and became Bishop of Strasbourg in 1607, a post which he held until 1626. From 1609 onwards he fought with his mercenaries in the War of the Jülich succession against Maximilian III, Archduke of Further Austria in Tirol, and 1611 for Rudolf II in Bohemia. In 1614, he financed the construction of the Church of the Jesuit College of Molsheim, in 1626 he resigned his ecclesiastical positions and married Claudia de Medici. He had the Custom House and the Jesuit Church built in Innsbruck and he fought for the Veltlin and defended Tirol against the Swedes in 1632. With his wife Claudia de Medici, he became the founder of a sideline of the Habsburg family, which persisted until 1665 - the most recent line of Archdukes of Further Austria
Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany
Cosimo I de Medici was the second Duke of Florence from 1537 until 1569, when he became the first Grand Duke of Tuscany. Cosimo was born in Florence, on 12 June 1519, the son of the famous condottiere Giovanni dalle Bande Nere from Forlì and he was the grandson of Caterina Sforza, the Countess of Forlì and Lady of Imola. Cosimo came to power at 17, when the 26-year-old Duke, Alessandro de Medici, was assassinated in 1537, Cosimo was from a different branch of the family, and so far had lived in Mugello, and was almost unknown in Florence. However, many of the men in the city favoured him. Several hoped to rule through him, thereby enriching themselves at the states expense, however, as Benedetto Varchi famously put it The innkeepers reckoning was different from the gluttons. Cosimo proved strong-willed and ambitious, and soon rejected the clause he had signed, when the Florentine exiles heard of the death of Alessandro, they marshalled their forces with support from France and from disgruntled neighbors of Florence.
During this time, Cosimo had a daughter, Bia. Toward the end of July 1537, the exiles marched into Tuscany under the leadership of Bernardo Salviati and Piero Strozzi. When Cosimo heard of their approach, he sent his best troops under Alessandro Vitelli to engage the enemy, which they did at Montemurlo, after defeating the exiles army, Vitelli stormed the fortress, where Strozzi and a few of his companions had retreated to safety. It fell after only a few hours, and Cosimo celebrated his first victory, the prominent prisoners were subsequently beheaded on the Piazza or in the Bargello. Filippo Strozzis body was found with a sword next to it and a note quoting Virgil. In June 1537 Cosimo had sent Bernardo Antonio de Medici to Charles V to gain his recognition as head of the Florentine state and that recognition came in June 1537, in exchange for help against France in the course of the Italian Wars. With this move Cosimo firmly restored the power of the Medici, the help granted to Charles V allowed him to free Tuscany from the Imperial garrisons, and to increase as much as possible its independence from the overwhelming Spanish influence in Italy.
With the support of the Emperor, he defeated the Sienese at the Battle of Marciano, despite the inhabitants desperate resistance, on 17 April 1555, after a 15-month siege, the city fell, its population diminished from forty thousand to eight thousand. In 1559 Montalcino, the last redoubt of Sienese independence, was annexed to Cosimos territories, in 1569, Pope Pius V elevated him to the rank of Grand Duke of Tuscany. In the last 10 years of his reign, struck by the death of two of his sons by malaria, Cosimo gave up the rule to his son and successor Francesco I de Medici. He retreated to live in his villa, Villa di Castello, Cosimo was an authoritarian ruler and secured his position by employing a guard of Swiss mercenaries. In 1548 he managed to have his relative Lorenzino, the last Medici claimant to Florence, Cosimo was an active builder of military structures, in an attempt to save his state from the frequent passage of foreign armies
Sebastian von Rostock
Sebastian von Rostock was a Roman Catholic Bishop of Breslau. He was born Nicolaus Bauckhe at Grottkau, Silesia, a part of the Holy Roman Empire and his father, was a craftsman and his mothers name was Anna. He graduated school in Nysa and in the years 1627-1633 attended the Jesuit academy in Olomouc and studied classics at Neisse and from 1627 to 1633, after his ordination to the priesthood in 1633 he was assigned to pastoral duty at Neisse. When the Swedes captured the city in 1642, Rostock was taken prisoner, after his release he was ennobled by the Emperor, but remained pastor of Neisse until his transfer in 1649 to the cathedral of Breslau, where he spent the rest of his life. Henceforth he played a prominent part in the administration of the diocese and it was largely through his efforts that the right of reformation, granted the emperor by the Peace of Westphalia, was effectively exercised in the territory of Breslau. In all 656 Catholic churches which had seized by the Protestants were restored to their former owners.
Considerable difficulty was experienced in providing suitable priests for these numerous churches, Rostock consecrated his life to the task, in spite of the almost uninterrupted absence from their diocese of the three bishops under whom he served. In 1645 Emperor Ferdinand III raised him to the rank of nobility, in 1664 he was himself elected bishop, and shortly after the civil administration of the district was placed in his hands. As a bishop, he tried to recover Catholic churches taken by Protestants, improve the life and customs of the clergy and he died June 9,1671 in Wroclaw, and was buried in the Cathedral of Wroclaw. He succumbed to an attack of apoplexy, superinduced by a decree which suspended a decision that had been previously granted. Attribution This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Webber. Cites as a source, Sebastian von Rostock
Albert V, Duke of Bavaria
Albert V was Duke of Bavaria from 1550 until his death. He was born in Munich to William IV and Maria Jacobäa of Baden, Albert was educated at Ingolstadt by Catholic teachers. The union was designed to end the rivalry between Austria and Bavaria. In 1550, Albert succeeded his father as duke of Bavaria, Albert was now free to devote himself to the task of establishing Catholic conformity in his dominions. A strict Catholic by upbringing, Albert was a leader of the German Counter-Reformation, the latter took an important part in the events leading up to the Peace of Passau and the Peace of Augsburg. Duke Albert made strenuous efforts to procure for his son, Ernest of Bavaria and these efforts would not pay off until after Alberts death, however, a member of the Wittelsbach house of Bavaria would be Archbishop of Cologne for almost two centuries thereafter. His personal library founded in 1558 has come to the Bavarian State Library in Munich, in 1552, Albert commissioned an inventory of the jewelry which he and his wife owned.
The resulting manuscript, still held by the Bavarian State Library, was the Jewel Book of the Duchess Anna of Bavaria, in 1559 Albert founded the Paedagogium in Munich. To house his antiquities he commissioned the Antiquarium in the Munich Residenz, Albert appointed Orlando di Lasso to a court post and patronized many other artists, this led to a huge burden of debts. Albert died in 1579 in Munich and was succeeded by his son William and he is buried in the Frauenkirche in Munich. Hofkleiderbuch des Herzogs Wilhelm IV. und Albrecht V. 1508–1551, at the Bavarian State Library This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Samuel Macauley, ed. article name needed. New Schaff–Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge and New York and Wagnalls
Philip I of Castile
Philip I called the Handsome or the Fair, was the first member of the house of Habsburg to be King of Castile. He was the first Habsburg monarch in Spain, the future King Henry VIII of England met Philip the Handsome on a visit Philip made to Henrys fathers court in London and regarded him as providing a model of leadership towards which he aspired. The two would become brothers-in-law since Philip married Joanna of Castile, and Henry married Joannas youngest sister, in 1482, upon the death of his mother, he succeeded to her Burgundian possessions under the guardianship of his father. A period of turmoil ensued which witnessed sporadic hostilities between, the towns of Flanders and the supporters of Maximilian. Both sides came to terms in the Treaty of Senlis in 1493 and this smoothed over the internal power struggle as the two sides agreed to make the 15-year-old Philip prince in the following year. On 20 October 1496, he married Joanna, daughter of King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile, in Lier, the matter became more urgent after Charles VIIIs invasion of Italy.
Philips sister Margaret married John, Prince of Asturias, only son of Ferdinand and Isabella and heir apparent to the crowns of Castile. The double alliance was never intended to let the Spanish kingdoms fall under Habsburg control, at the time of her marriage to Philip, Joanna was third in line to the throne, with John and their sister Isabella married and hopeful of progeny. In 1500, shortly after the birth in Flanders of Joanna and Philips second child, the heir apparent, had died in 1497 very shortly after his marriage to Margaret of Austria. The crown thereby seemed destined to devolve upon his and Joannas elder sister Isabella, the succession to the Castilian and Aragonese crowns now fell to Joanna. Because Ferdinand could produce another heir, the Cortes of Aragon refused to recognize Joanna as heir presumptive to the Kingdom of Aragon, in the Kingdom of Castile, the succession was clear. Moreover, there was no Salic tradition which the Castilian Cortes could use to thwart the succession passing to Joanna.
Philip and the majority of the returned to the Low Countries in the following year, leaving a pregnant Joanna behind in Madrid. Philips life with Joanna was rendered extremely unhappy by his infidelity and political insecurity, most historians now agree she was merely clinically depressed at the time, not insane as commonly believed. Before her mothers death, in 1504, husband and wife were living apart. In 1504, Philips mother-in-law, Queen Isabella of Castile, Isabella Is widower and former co-monarch, King Ferdinand II, endeavored to lay hands on the regency of Castile, but the nobles, who disliked and feared him, forced him to withdraw. Philip was summoned to Spain, where he was recognized as king, however, en route to Spain in January 1506, Philip and Joanna were caught in a tempest and shipwrecked off the Dorset coast, forcing them on shore near Melcombe Regis. The couple stayed as guests of Henry VII of England but were in fact hostages for the duration of their stay, after handing over Edmund and Joanna were allowed to leave England after a stay of six weeks
William V, Duke of Bavaria
It can refer to William II of Provence. William V, Duke of Bavaria, called the Pious, was Duke of Bavaria from 1579 to 1597, William was born in Landshut, the son of Albert V and Anna of Austria. He received a Jesuit education and showed keen attachment to the Jesuit Counter Reformation tenets and his title the Pious was given to him because he devoted his daily routine to masses, prayer and devotional reading. He took part in public devotions and pilgrimages and his residence as crown prince was the ancient fortified Wittelsbach seat Trausnitz Castle in Landshut. Like his Wittelsbach father and grandfather, William was a supporter of the counter-reformation. This dignity remained in the possession of the family for nearly 200 years, two of his sons followed ecclesiastical careers, Philipp Wilhelm became the Bishop of Regensburg and eventually a Cardinal, and Ferdinand succeeded his uncle, to become Archbishop of Cologne. In 1591, Wilhelm expelled Salzburg from the Berchtesgaden Provostry, William is responsible for numerous executions due to Witch-hunt in his duchy.
The Jesuit St. Michaels Church and college of the Jesuits were built in Munich between 1583 and 1597 as spiritual centers for the counter-reformation, williams spending on Church-related projects, including funding missionaries outside Bavaria—as far away as Asia and the Americas—put tremendous strain on the Bavarian treasury. The Italian confidence man Marco Bragadino who was promising to make copious amounts of gold to erase the Dukess debts was called upon by William V in 1590, and executed after he had failed. William abdicated on 15 October 1597 in favour of his son, Maximilian I and retired into a monastery where he spent the remainder of his life in contemplation and he died in 1626 in Schleissheim Palace. He is buried in St. Michaels Church, already as crown prince in Landshut William patronised the arts. Michaels Church, of the college and of the palace Wilhelminische Veste in Munich. The sculptors Hans Krumpper and Hubert Gerhard along with painters Peter Candid, the history of Schleissheim Palace started with a renaissance country house and hermitage founded by William.
In 1589 William initialized the Hofbräu Brewery, married Renata of Lorraine in Munich on 22 February 1568. Albert VI, in 1612 married Mechthilde v. Leuchtenberg Magdalene of Bavaria and her tomb is in Hofkirche Neuburg a. d. Donau), in 1613 married Wolfgang Wilhelm, Pfalzgraf von Neuburg Encyclopædia Britannica,1910 edition genealogy
Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor
Ferdinand III was Holy Roman Emperor from 15 February 1637 until his death, as well as King of Hungary and Croatia, King of Bohemia and Archduke of Austria. Ferdinand was born in Graz, the eldest son of Emperor Ferdinand II of Habsburg and his first wife, educated by the Jesuits, he became Archduke of Austria in 1621, King of Hungary in 1625, and King of Bohemia in 1627. Leader of the party at court, he helped negotiate the Peace of Prague with the Protestant states. Having been elected King of the Romans in 1636, he succeeded his father as Holy Roman Emperor in 1637, during the last period of the war, in 1644 Ferdinand III gave to all rulers of German states the right to conduct their own foreign policy. This way the emperor was trying to gain allies in the negotiations with France. This very edict contributed to the erosion of the imperial authority in the Holy Roman Empire. After 1648 the emperor was engaged in carrying out the terms of the treaty, on 20 February 1631 Ferdinand III married his first wife Archduchess Maria Anna of Spain.
She was the youngest daughter of Philip III of Spain and Margaret of Austria and they were first cousins as Maria Annas mother was a sister of Ferdinands father. They were parents to six children, Ferdinand IV, King of the Romans Maria Anna Mariana, married her maternal uncle Philip IV of Spain. She was a daughter of Leopold V, Archduke of Austria and they were first cousins as male-line grandchildren of Charles II, Archduke of Austria, and Maria Anna of Bavaria. They had a son, Karl Josef, Archduke of Austria. He was Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights from 1662 to his death, in 1651, Ferdinand III married Eleonora Gonzaga. She was a daughter of Charles IV Gonzaga, Duke of Rethel, Maria Anna Josepha of Austria, who married Johann Wilhelm, Elector Palatine. Ferdinand Josef Alois, Archduke of Austria Ferdinand III was a patron of music. He studied music under Giovanni Valentini, who bequeathed his works to him. Some of Ferdinands own compositions survive in manuscripts, motets and other sacred music and his Drama musicum was praised by Athanasius Kircher, and the extant works, although clearly influenced by Valentini, show a composer with an individual style and a solid technique.
Recordings of Ferdinands compositions include, Jesu Redemptor Omnium, with Schmelzer, Lamento Sopra La Morte de Ferdinand III. Leopold I, Sonata Piena, Laudate Pueri, Ferdinand III, Hymnus Jesu Corona Virginum
Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor
Frederick III, called the Peaceful or the Fat, was Holy Roman Emperor from 1452 until his death, the first emperor of the House of Habsburg. He was the emperor to be crowned by the Pope. Prior to his coronation, he was duke of the Inner Austrian lands of Styria and Carniola from 1424. He was elected and crowned King of Germany in 1440 and he was the longest-reigning German monarch when in 1493, after ruling his domains for more than 53 years, he was succeeded by his son Maximilian I. During his reign, Frederick concentrated on re-uniting the Habsburg hereditary lands of Austria, nevertheless, by his dynastic entitlement to Hungary as well as by the Burgundian inheritance, he laid the foundations for the Habsburg Empire. Mocked as Arch-Sleepyhead of the Holy Roman Empire during his lifetime, according to the 1379 Treaty of Neuberg, the Leopoldinian branch ruled over the duchies of Styria and Carniola, or what was referred to as Inner Austria. Only three of Fredericks eight siblings survived childhood, his younger brother Albert, and his sisters Margaret and Catherine.
In 1424, nine-year-old Fredericks father died, making Frederick the duke of Inner Austria, as Frederick V, with his uncle, Duke Frederick IV of Tyrol, from 1431, Frederick tried to obtain majority but for several years was denied by his relatives. Finally, in 1435, Albert V, duke of Austria, almost from the beginning, Fredericks younger brother Albert asserted his rights as a co-ruler, as the beginning of a long rivalry. Already in these years, Frederick had begun to use the symbolic A. E. I. O. U, signature as a kind of motto with various meanings. In 1436 he made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, accompanied by numerous nobles knighted by the Order of the Holy Sepulchre, upon the death of his uncle Duke Frederick IV in 1439, Frederick took over the regency of Tyrol and Further Austria for the dukes heir Sigismund. Again he had to ward off the claims raised by his brother Albert VI, likewise he acted as regent for his nephew Ladislaus the Posthumous, son of late King Albert II and his consort Elizabeth of Luxembourg, in the duchy of Austria.
Frederick was now the head of the Habsburg dynasty, though his regency in the lands of the Albertinian Line was still viewed with suspicion. In 1442, Frederick allied himself with Rudolf Stüssi, burgomaster of Zurich, against the Old Swiss Confederacy in the Old Zurich War but lost. In 1448, he entered into the Concordat of Vienna with the Holy See, as a cousin of late King Albert II, Frederick became a candidate for the imperial election. In 1452, at the age of 37, Frederick III travelled to Italy to receive his bride and his fiancée, the 18-year-old infanta Eleanor, daughter of King Edward of Portugal, landed at Livorno after a 104-day trip. Her dowry would help Frederick alleviate his debts and cement his power, the couple met at Siena on 24 February and proceeded together to Rome. As per tradition, they spent a night outside the walls of Rome before entering the city on 9 March, where Frederick and Pope Nicholas V exchanged friendly greetings