Brilliant (diamond cut)
A brilliant is a diamond or other gemstone cut in a particular form with numerous facets so as to have exceptional brilliance. The shape resembles that of a cone and provides maximized light return through the top of the diamond. With modern techniques, the cutting and polishing of a diamond crystal always results in a dramatic loss of weight; the round brilliant cut is preferred when the crystal is an octahedron, as two stones may be cut from one such crystal. Oddly shaped crystals such as macles are more to be cut in a fancy cut—that is, a cut other than the round brilliant—which the particular crystal shape lends itself to; the original round brilliant-cut was developed by Marcel Tolkowsky in 1919. The modern round brilliant consists of 58 facets, ordinarily today cut in two pyramids placed base to base: 33 on the crown, truncated comparatively near its base by the table, 25 on the pavilion, which has only the apex cut off to form the culet, around which 8 extra facets are sometimes added.
In recent decades, most girdles are faceted. Many girdles have 64, 80, or 96 facets. While the facet count is standard, the actual proportions are not universally agreed upon; some gem cutters refer to a Scandinavian brilliant cut. Quoting Green et al. 2001: Because every facet has the potential to change a light ray's plane of travel, every facet must be considered in any complete calculation of light paths. Just as a two-dimensional slice of a diamond provides incomplete information about the three-dimensional nature of light behavior inside a diamond, this two-dimensional slice provides incomplete information about light behavior outside the diamond. A diamond's panorama is three-dimensional. Although diamonds are symmetrical, light can enter a diamond from many directions and many angles; this factor further highlights the need to reevaluate Tolkowsky's results, to recalculate the effects of a diamond's proportions on its appearance aspects. Another important point to consider is that Tolkowsky did not follow the path of a ray, reflected more than twice in the diamond.
However, we now know that a diamond's appearance is composed of many light paths that reflect more than two times within that diamond. Once again, we can see that Tolkowsky's predictions are helpful in explaining optimal diamond performance, but they are incomplete by today's technological standards. Figures 1 and 2 show the facets of a round brilliant diamond. Figure 1 assumes that the "thick part of the girdle" is the same thickness at all 16 "thick parts", it does not consider the effects of indexed upper girdle facets. Figure 2 is adapted from Figure 37 of Marcel Tolkowsky's Diamond Design, published in 1919. Since 1919, the lower girdle facets have become longer; as a result, the pavilion main facets have become narrower. The relationship between the crown angle and the pavilion angle has the greatest effect on the look of the diamond. A steep pavilion angle can sometimes be complemented by a shallower crown angle, vice versa. Other proportions affect the look of the diamond: The table ratio is significant.
The length of the lower girdle facets affects whether Hearts and arrows can be seen in the stone, under certain viewers. Most round brilliant diamonds have the same girdle thickness at all 16 "thick parts". So-called "cheated" girdles have thicker girdles where the main facets touch the girdle than where adjacent upper girdle facets touch the girdle; these stones weigh more, have worse optical performance. So-called "painted" girdles have thinner girdles where the main facets touch the girdle than where adjacent upper girdle facets touch the girdle; these stones have less light leakage at the edge of the stone. Some diamonds with painted girdles receive lower grades in the GIA's cut grading system, for reasons given in a 2005 GIA article. Several groups have developed diamond cut grading standards, they all disagree somewhat on. There are certain proportions; the AGA standards may be the strictest. David Atlas has suggested; the HCA changed several times between 2001 and 2004. As of 2004, an HCA score below two represented an excellent cut.
The HCA distinguishes between brilliant and fiery cuts. The American Gem Society standards changed in 2005 to better match Tolkowsky's model and Octonus' ray tracing results; the 2005 AGS standards penalize stones with "cheated" girdles. They grade from 0 to 10; the GIA began grading cut on every grading report beginning 2006 based on their comprehensive study of 20,000 proportions with 70,000 observations of 2,000 diamonds. The single descriptive words are as follows: Excellent, Very Good, Good and Poor; the distance from the viewer's eye to the diamond is important. The 2005 AGS cut standards are based on a distance of 25 centimeters; the 2004 HCA cut standards are based on a distance of 40 centimeters. Polish and symmetry are two important aspects of the cut; the polish grade describes the smoothness of the diamond's facets, the symmetry grade refers to alignment of the facets. With
Geneva is the second-most populous city in Switzerland and the most populous city of Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland. Situated where the Rhône exits Lake Geneva, it is the capital of the Canton of Geneva; the municipality has a population of 200,548, the canton has 495,249 residents. In 2014, the compact agglomération du Grand Genève had 946,000 inhabitants in 212 communities in both Switzerland and France. Within Swiss territory, the commuter area named "Métropole lémanique" contains a population of 1.26 million. This area is spread east from Geneva towards the Riviera area and north-east towards Yverdon-les-Bains, in the neighbouring canton of Vaud. Geneva is a global city, a financial centre, a worldwide centre for diplomacy due to the presence of numerous international organizations, including the headquarters of many agencies of the United Nations and the Red Cross. Geneva hosts the highest number of international organizations in the world, it is where the Geneva Conventions were signed, which chiefly concern the treatment of wartime non-combatants and prisoners of war.
In 2017, Geneva was ranked as the world's fifteenth most important financial centre for competitiveness by the Global Financial Centres Index, fifth in Europe behind London, Zürich and Luxembourg. In 2019 Geneva was ranked among the ten most liveable cities in the world by Mercer together with Zürich and Basel; the city has been referred to as the world's most compact metropolis and the "Peace Capital". In 2017, Geneva was ranked as the seventh most expensive city in the world. Geneva was ranked third in purchasing power in a global cities ranking by UBS in 2018; the city was mentioned in Latin texts, by Caesar, with the spelling Genava from the Celtic *genawa- from the stem *genu-, in the sense of a bending river or estuary. The medieval county of Geneva in Middle Latin was known as pagus major Genevensis or Comitatus Genevensis. After 1400 it became the Genevois province of Savoy; the name takes various forms in modern languages, Geneva in English, French: Genève, German: Genf, Italian: Ginevra, Romansh: Genevra.
The city shares the origin of * genawa "estuary", with the Italian port city of Genoa. Geneva was an Allobrogian border town, fortified against the Helvetii tribe, when the Romans took it in 121 BC, it became Christian under the Late Roman Empire, acquired its first bishop in the 5th century, having been connected to the Bishopric of Vienne in the 4th. In the Middle Ages, Geneva was ruled by a count under the Holy Roman Empire until the late 14th century, when it was granted a charter giving it a high degree of self-governance. Around this time, the House of Savoy came to at least nominally dominate the city. In the 15th century, an oligarchic republican government emerged with the creation of the Grand Council. In the first half of the 16th century, the Protestant Reformation reached the city, causing religious strife, during which Savoy rule was thrown off and Geneva allied itself with the Swiss Confederacy. In 1541, with Protestantism on the rise, John Calvin, the Protestant Reformer and proponent of Calvinism, became the spiritual leader of the city and established the Republic of Geneva.
By the 18th century, Geneva had come under the influence of Catholic France, which cultivated the city as its own. France tended to be at odds with the ordinary townsfolk, which inspired the failed Geneva Revolution of 1782, an attempt to win representation in the government for men of modest means. In 1798, revolutionary France under the Directory annexed Geneva. At the end of the Napoleonic Wars, on 1 June 1814, Geneva was admitted to the Swiss Confederation. In 1907, the separation of Church and State was adopted. Geneva flourished in the 19th and 20th centuries, becoming the seat of many international organizations. Geneva is located at 46°12' North, 6°09' East, at the south-western end of Lake Geneva, where the Rhône flows out, it is surrounded by three mountain chains, each belonging to the Jura: the Jura main range lies north-westward, the Vuache southward, the Salève south-eastward. The city covers an area of 15.93 km2, while the area of the canton is 282 km2, including the two small exclaves of Céligny in Vaud.
The part of the lake, attached to Geneva has an area of 38 km2 and is sometimes referred to as petit lac. The canton has only a 4.5-kilometre-long border with the rest of Switzerland. Of 107.5 km of border, 103 are shared with France, the Département de l'Ain to the north and west and the Département de la Haute-Savoie to the south and east. Of the land in the city, 0.24 km2, or 1.5%, is used for agricultural purposes, while 0.5 km2, or 3.1%, is forested. The rest of the land, 14.63 km2, or 91.8%, is built up, 0.49 km2, or 3.1%, is either rivers or lakes and 0.02 km2, or 0.1%, is wasteland. Of the built up area, industrial buildings made up 3.4%, housing and buildings made up 46.2% and transportation infrastructure 25.8%, while parks, green belts and sports fields made up 15.7%. Of the agricultural land, 0.3% is used for growing crops. Of the water in the municipality, 0.2 % is composed of lakes and 2.9 % streams. The altitude of Geneva is 373.6 metres, corresponds to the altitude of
Black, Starr & Frost
Black, Starr & Frost is an American jewelry company. Founded in 1810, the company is the oldest continuously operating jewelry firm in the United States; the Molina Group relocated its headquarters to Phoenix. Since Alfredo J. Molina has served as chairman and CEO. Founded in 1810 by Isaac Marquand – a silversmith whose family immigrated from France – Black, Starr & Frost opened as Marquand & Co. in New York City, making it the oldest continuously operating jewelry firm in the United States. At that time, two store clerks – William Black and Henry Ball – joined the firm, which became Black, Ball & Company. In 1912, the company – by named Black, Starr & Frost – moved to New York City offices at the southeast corner of Fifth Avenue and 48th Street, known as the diamond district. Black, Starr & Frost has had a number of notable clients, such as the Rockefellers, Carnigies, Bunny Mellon, Elizabeth Taylor and Zsa Zsa Gabor. 1833: Black, Starr & Frost is the first to use plate-glass windows to display merchandise to pedestrians.
1837: Black, Starr & Frost crafted first class ring for West Point. Famous West Point grads who wore Black, Starr & Frost rings include President Ulysses S. Grant, General George A. Custer and General Douglas MacArthur. 1851: Black Starr & Frost's pure gold four-piece tea service displayed at the London Crystal Palace Exhibition.1859: Black, Starr & Frost provided more than $100,000 in pearls and diamonds to the bride Frances Amelia Bartlett as a gift from the groom Don Esteban Santa Cruz de Oviedo in the “Diamond Wedding” at St. Patrick's Cathedral. 1860: The Company received an order for more than $12,000 of jewelry and silverware from Edward, Prince of Wales. 1860: Built the finest business structure and most famous shop of its time on Broadway and Prince Street. The first fireproof building in New York, it was constructed of white marble, in its vaults the modern safe deposit system was fashioned. 1863: Created the Gillmore Medal, the inspiration for the first Congressional Medal of Honor.
Medal, created by Ball, Black & Co. was issued on October 28, 1863, by Major General Quincy A. Gillmore, Commander of Union troops. Given to those who served during the Fort Sumter battle, the medal was among the first to recognize honor on the battlefield. Only about 400 were issued. 1863: The company created the Kearny Cross for acts of valor during war. 1865: Mary Todd Lincoln owed $64,000 to the firm at the time her husband was assassinated, which represents $11 million today. 1876: Cortlandt Starr and Aaron Frost joined the company, which became known as Black Starr & Frost. 1876: Black, Starr & Frost built the first apartment building and jewelry salon on 28th Street and Fifth Avenue. 1911: Black, Starr & Frost made the key for the ceremonial opening of the New York Public Library. 1912: The C. T. Cook residence on Fifth Avenue and 48th Street was converted into the new home of Black, Starr & Frost. Not until the 1920s did other jewelers and diamond dealers join Black, Starr & Frost in this part of the city, recognized worldwide today as New York City's “Diamond District.”
1915: The first auto-racing trophy, known as The Astor Cup, was created by Black, Starr & Frost. 1917: Black, Starr & Frost sold a diamond necklace for $200,000 to stage star Peggy Hopkins Joyce, the inspiration for Marilyn Monroe's character in “Gentlemen Prefer Blondes.” 1921: Designed and produced the silver platter for The Davis Cup for the U. S. Lawn Tennis Association. 1928: Sold the 127-carat Portuguese Diamond for $373,000 to Hopkins Joyce. Today the diamond is housed in the National Museum of Natural History of the Smithsonian Institution and is the largest faceted diamond in that collection. 1929: Black, Starr & Frost merged with Gorham Corporation, was renamed Black, Frost-Gorham. 1930: Black, Starr & Frost acquired the diamonds and jewels of “Diamond Jim Brady,” a financier. 1931: Acquired the 25-carat “Lucky” Baldwin Ruby, named after California gold mining pioneer E. J. “Lucky” Baldwin. The ruby was purchased from a gemstone broker. 1939: Displayed two unique jewel-encrusted Mystery Clocks – the only square-faced Mystery Clock in the world and the “Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil” clock – at the New York World's Fair.
Black Starr & Frost was one of five jewelers invited to exhibit at the New York World's Fair that year. 1949: Carol Channing played Lorelei Lee, inspired by Peggy Hopkins Joyce, on Broadway and is the first to sing “Diamonds are a Girl’s Best Friend,” which mentions Black Starr & Frost. 1953: Marilyn Monroe portrays Lorelei Lee on the big screen in Gentlemen Prefer Blondes and sings “Diamonds are a Girl’s Best Friend” with the verse “Tiffany, Black, Frost-Gorham. Talk to me Harry Winston. Tell me all about it.” 1956: Manufactured the “Princeton Mace” – a ceremonial club – used at Princeton University for key observances at the school. 1962: Marcus and Company acquired Black, Frost-Gorham, restored the name to Black, Starr & Frost. 1962: Black, Starr & Frost purchased Cartier USA. This was the first of many steps that expanded Starr & Frost. 1972: Kay Jewelers acquired Black, Starr & Frost and expanded to 33 locations. 1986: New York's The Plaza Hotel became home to another Black, Starr & Frost jewelry salon.
1990: Sterling Inc. acquired Kay Jewelers and Black, Starr & Frost.1991: Paul Lam, Costa Mesa, acquired Black, Starr & Frost. 2006: The Molina Group acquired Black, Starr & Frost.2012: Black, Starr & Frost sold the Archduke Joseph Diamond, a 76-carat, D-color, internally flawless diamond, the largest D color internally flawless Golconda diamond in the world for $21.5 million at Christie's Geneva Magnificent Jewels auction, setting three world recor
A chemically pure and structurally perfect diamond is transparent with no hue, or color. However, in reality no gem-sized natural diamonds are perfect; the color of a diamond may be affected by chemical impurities and/or structural defects in the crystal lattice. Depending on the hue and intensity of a diamond's coloration, a diamond's color can either detract from or enhance its value. For example, most white diamonds are discounted in price when more yellow hue is detectable, while intense pink diamonds or blue diamonds can be more valuable. Of all colored diamonds, red diamonds are the rarest; the Aurora Pyramid of Hope displays a spectacular array of colored diamonds, including red diamonds. Diamonds occur in a variety of colors—steel gray, blue, orange, green, pink to purple and black. Colored diamonds contain interstitial impurities or structural defects that cause the coloration, pure diamonds are transparent and colorless. Diamonds are scientifically classed into two main types and several subtypes, according to the nature of impurities present and how these impurities affect light absorption: Type I diamonds have nitrogen atoms as the main impurity at a concentration of 0.1%.
If the nitrogen atoms are in pairs they do not affect the diamond's color. If the nitrogen atoms are in large even-numbered aggregates they impart a yellow to brown tint. About 98% of gem diamonds are type Ia, most of these are a mixture of IaA and IaB material: these diamonds belong to the Cape series, named after the diamond-rich region known as Cape Province in North Africa, whose deposits are Type Ia. If the nitrogen atoms are dispersed throughout the crystal in isolated sites, they give the stone an intense yellow or brown tint. Synthetic diamond containing nitrogen is Type Ib. Type I diamonds absorb from 320 nm, they have a characteristic fluorescence and visible absorption spectrum. Type II diamonds have no measurable nitrogen impurities. Type II diamonds absorb in a different region of the infrared, transmit in the ultraviolet below 225 nm, unlike Type I diamonds, they have differing fluorescence characteristics, but no discernible visible absorption spectrum. Type IIa diamond can be colored pink, red, or brown due to structural anomalies arising through plastic deformation during crystal growth—these diamonds are rare, but constitute a large percentage of Australian production.
Type IIb diamonds, which account for 0.1% of gem diamonds, are light blue due to scattered boron within the crystal matrix. However, a blue-grey color may occur in Type Ia diamonds and be unrelated to boron. Not restricted to type are green diamonds, whose color is caused by GR1 color centers in the crystal lattice produced by exposure to varying quantities of radiation. Pink and red are caused by plastic deformation of the crystal lattice from pressure. Black diamonds are caused by microscopic black or gray inclusions of other materials such as graphite or sulfides and/or microscopic fractures. Opaque or opalescent white diamonds are caused by microscopic inclusions. Purple diamonds are caused by a combination of high hydrogen content; the majority of diamonds that are mined are in a range of pale yellow or brown color, termed the normal color range. Diamonds that are of intense yellow or brown, or any other color are called fancy color diamonds. Diamonds that are of the highest purity are colorless, appear a bright white.
The degree to which diamonds exhibit body color is one of the four value factors by which diamonds are assessed. Diamonds have a color grading system; this system goes from D to Z. The more colorless a diamond is, the rarer and more valuable it is because it appears white and brighter to the eye. Color grading of diamonds was performed as a step of sorting rough diamonds for sale by the London Diamond Syndicate; as the diamond trade developed, early diamond grades were introduced by various parties in the diamond trade. Without any co-operative development these early grading systems lacked standard nomenclature, consistency; some early grading scales were. Numerous terms developed to describe diamonds of particular colors: golconda, jagers, blue white, fine white, gem blue, etc. Refers to a grading scale for diamonds in the normal color range used by internationally recognized laboratories; the scale ranges from D, colorless to Z, a pale yellow or brown color. Brown diamonds darker than K color are described using their letter grade, a descriptive phrase, for example M Faint Brown.
Diamonds with more depth of color than Z color fall into the fancy color diamond range. Diamond color is graded by comparing a sample stone to a master stone set of diamonds; each master stone is known to exhibit the least amount of body color that a diamond in that color grade may exhibit. A trained diamond grader compares a diamond of unknown grade against the series of master stones, assessing where in the range of color the diamond resides; this process occurs in a lighting box, fitted with daylight equivalent lamps. Accurate color grading can only be performed with diamond unset, as the comparison with master
Archduke Joseph August of Austria
Archduke Joseph August Viktor Klemens Maria of Austria, Prince of Hungary and Bohemia was a Feldmarschall of the Austro-Hungarian Army and for a short period head of state of Hungary. He was a member of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, the eldest son of Archduke Joseph Karl of Austria and his wife Princess Clotilde of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Joseph August's grandfather had been Palatine Joseph of Hungary and Viceroy of Hungary, a younger son of Emperor Leopold II; the Archduke Joseph Diamond, a 76.02 carat colourless diamond with internal flawless clarity, is named after the Archduke and recorded as his property. August was born at Hungary. On 15 November 1893, in Munich, he married Princess Augusta Maria Louise of Bavaria, daughter of Prince Leopold of Bavaria and his wife Archduchess Gisela of Austria. Archduke Joseph August became thus from 1893 "grandson-in-law" to Emperor Francis Joseph, his wife's mother, Archduchess Gisela, was the eldest surviving daughter of Austrian Emperor Francis Joseph and Empress Elisabeth.
The young couple's children were born in their great-grandfather's lifetime. They had six children: Archduke Joseph Francis of Austria, born on 28 March 1895, he was soon promoted to Oberleutnant and was transferred to 72nd Infantry Regiment in 1893. He was transferred to Dragoon Regiment #6 in 1894 and transferred to the 1st Honvéd Hussars by the Kaiser and promoted to the rank of Major, he took command of this regiment in 1904 and went on to command 79th Honvéd infantry brigade in 1908 finally the 31st infantry division at Budapest in 1911. August was decorated before World War I broke out; some of his awards include The Bronze Military Merit Medal, Grand Cross of the Order of Saint Joseph, The Marianer Cross of the Deutscher Ritterorden, The Order of the Black Eagle, The 1st Class of the Order of the Red Eagle, The Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order, the Grand Cross of the Order of Charles III, the Grand Cross of the Order of Saints Cyril and Methodius. In 1914 he was involved in combat in the Galician theatre and took command of the VII Corps and was involved in fighting in the Carpathian Mountains.
After Italy became involved in the war he was transferred to the Carinthian border and involved in fighting the Isonzo army. August remained on this front until the 9th battle of the Isonzo in 1916 a period in which once again he was decorated. August was liked by his troops those of Hungarian nationality. In November 1916, August was put in command of the Heeresfront fighting against Russian and Romanian forces. In January 1918 he was put in command of the 6th Army in the Southern theatre and that July took over the South Tyrolean Army Group, the 10th and 11th Armies. On 26 October 1918, he was sent to the Balkan theatre to take command of the Heeresgruppe Kövess, which had lost Serbia and Montenegro by then, he was the last person to be appointed a Feldmarschall of the Austro-Hungarian Army on 24 October 1918, as an attempt by Kaiser Karl to calm Hungarian nationalists. On 27 October 1918 Emperor Karl made August the "Homo Regius" of Hungary, but August asked to be released from his oath of allegiance from the Kaiser.
He began negotiations and appointed Graf János Hadik to build a new national government. However the Aster Revolution broke out on 31 October 1918. In November, the socialist Hungarian Democratic Republic was proclaimed, only to be replaced a few months by the communist Hungarian Soviet Republic; this revolution was to fail: the popular August survived unharmed and once again became the head of state as "Reichsverweser" and appointed a Prime Minister. Since the Allied forces declined to accept Archduke Joseph, a Habsburg, as Hungary's head of state, he was forced to resign on 23 August 1919. In 1920 the Archduke became the first knight of the Hungarian Order of Vitéz, in 1927 he became a member of the newly established House of Lords, he became an honorary member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and was its president from 1936-1944. He fled Hungary for the United States in 1944 but returned to Germany, he died in 1962 at Rain near Straubing. His eldest son Archduke Joseph Francis of Austria had predeceased him, dying in 1957.
Thus Joseph August's main heir was his eldest grandson Archduke Joseph Árpád of Austria, the eldest son of Joseph Francis and his wife Princess Anna of Saxony. Joseph Árpád married Princess Maria of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg, had children in Joseph August's lifetime, his surviving eldest son is Archduke Joseph Karl. Joseph August's granddaughter Archduchess Ilona of Austria married George Alexander, Duke of Mecklenburg, her son George Borwin, Duke of Mecklenburg is the current head of the House of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. Cunliffe-Owen, Marguerite. Keystone of Empire: Francis Joseph of Austria. New York: Harper, 1903. Gerő, András. Emperor Francis Joseph: King of the Hungarians. B
The Koh-i-Noor spelt Kohinoor and Koh-i-Nur, is one of the largest cut diamonds in the world, weighing 105.6 carats, part of the British Crown Jewels. Mined in Golconda, there is no record of its original weight, but the earliest well-attested weight is 186 old carats. Koh-i-Noor is Hindi-Urdu and Persian for "Mountain of Light", it changed hands between various factions in south and west Asia, until being ceded to Queen Victoria after the British conquest of the Punjab in 1849. The stone was of a similar cut to other Mughal era diamonds like Darya-i-Noor which are now in the Iranian Crown Jewels. In 1851, it went on display at the Great Exhibition in London, but the lacklustre cut failed to impress viewers. Prince Albert, husband of Queen Victoria, ordered it to be re-cut as an oval brilliant by Coster Diamonds. By modern standards, the culet is unusually broad, giving the impression of a black hole when the stone is viewed head-on; because its history involves a great deal of fighting between men, the Koh-i-Noor acquired a reputation within the British royal family for bringing bad luck to any man who wears it.
Since arriving in the UK, it has only been worn by female members of the family. Victoria wore the stone in a circlet. After she died in 1901, it was set in the Crown of Queen Alexandra, wife of Edward VII, it was transferred to the Crown of Queen Mary in 1911, to the crown of Queen Elizabeth in 1937 for her coronation as Queen consort. Today, the diamond is on public display in the Jewel House at the Tower of London, where it is seen by millions of visitors each year; the governments of India and Pakistan have both claimed ownership of the Koh-i-Noor and demanded its return since the two countries gained independence from the UK in 1947. The British government insists the gem was obtained under the terms of the Last Treaty of Lahore and has rejected the claims; the diamond is believed to have come from Kollur Mine, a series of 4-metre deep gravel-clay pits on the banks of Krishna River in the Golconda, India. It is impossible to know when or where it was found, many unverifiable theories exist as to its original owner.
Babur, the Turco-Mongol founder of the Mughal Empire, wrote about a "famous" diamond that weighed just over 187 old carats – the size of the 186-carat Koh-i-Noor. Some historians think. According to his diary, it was acquired by Alauddin Khalji, second ruler of the Khalji dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate, when he invaded the kingdoms of southern India at the beginning of the 14th century and was in the possession of Kakatiya dynasty, it passed to succeeding dynasties of the Sultanate, Babur received the diamond in 1526 as a tribute for his conquest of Delhi and Agra at the Battle of Panipat. Shah Jahan, the fifth Mughal emperor, had the stone placed into his ornate Peacock Throne. In 1658, his son and successor, confined the ailing emperor to Agra Fort. While in the possession of Aurangzeb, it was cut by Hortenso Borgia, a Venetian lapidary, reducing the weight of the large stone to 186 carats. For this carelessness, Borgia was fined 10,000 rupees. According to recent research, the story of Borgia cutting the diamond is not correct, most mixed up with the Orlov, part of Catherine the Great's imperial Russian sceptre in the Kremlin.
Following the 1739 invasion of Delhi by Nader Shah, the Afsharid Shah of Persia, the treasury of the Mughal Empire was looted by his army in an organised and thorough acquisition of the Mughal nobility's wealth. Along with millions of rupees and an assortment of historic jewels, the Shah carried away the Koh-i-Noor, he exclaimed Koh-i-Noor!, Persian for "Mountain of Light", when he obtained the famous stone. One of his consorts said, "If a strong man were to throw four stones – one north, one south, one east, one west, a fifth stone up into the air – and if the space between them were to be filled with gold, all would not equal the value of the Koh-i-Noor". After Nader Shah was killed and his empire collapsed in 1747, the Koh-i-Noor fell to his grandson, who in 1751 gave it to Ahmad Shah Durrani, founder of the Afghan Empire, in return for his support. One of Ahmed's descendants, Shuja Shah Durrani, wore a bracelet containing the Koh-i-Noor on the occasion of Mountstuart Elphinstone's visit to Peshawar in 1808.
A year Shujah formed an alliance with the United Kingdom to help defend against a possible invasion of Afghanistan by Russia. He was overthrown, but fled with the diamond to Lahore, where Ranjit Singh, founder of the Sikh Empire, in return for his hospitality, insisted upon the gem being given to him, he took possession of it in 1813, its new owner, Ranjit Singh, willed the diamond to the East India Company-administered Hindu Jagannath Temple in Puri, in modern-day Odisha, India. However, after his death in 1839, his will was not executed. On 29 March 1849, following the conclusion of the Second Anglo-Sikh War, the Kingdom of Punjab was formally annexed to Company rule, the Last Treaty of Lahore was signed ceding the Koh-i-Noor to Queen Victoria and the Maharaja's other assets to the company. Article III of the treaty read: "The gem called the Koh-i-Noor, taken from Shah Sooja-ool-moolk by Maharajah Ranjeet Singh, shall be surrendered by the Maharajah of Lahore to the Queen of England"; the Governor-General in charge of the ratification of this treaty was the Marquess of Dalhousie.
The manner of his aidi
Golkonda known as Golconda, Gol konda, or Golla konda, is a citadel and fort in Southern India and was the capital of the medieval sultanate of the Qutb Shahi dynasty, is situated 11 km west of Hyderabad. It is a tehsil of Hyderabad district, India; the region is known for the mines that have produced some of the world's most famous gems, including the Koh-i-Noor, the Hope Diamond, Nassak Diamond and the Noor-ul-Ain. Golkonda was known as Mankal. Golkonda Fort was first built by the Kakatiyas as part of their western defenses along the lines of the Kondapalli Fort; the city and the fortress were built on a granite hill, 120 meters high, surrounded by massive battlements. The fort was strengthened by Rani Rudrama Devi and her successor Prataparudra; the fort came under the control of the Musunuri Nayaks, who defeated the Tughlaqi army occupying Warangal. It was ceded by the Musunuri Kapaya Bhupathi to the Bahmani Sultanate as part of a treaty in 1364. Under the Bahmani Sultanate, Golkonda rose to prominence.
Sultan Quli Qutb-ul-Mulk, sent as a governor of Telangana, established it as the seat of his government around 1501. Bahmani rule weakened during this period, Sultan Quli formally became independent in 1538, establishing the Qutb Shahi dynasty based in Golkonda. Over a period of 62 years, the mud fort was expanded by the first three Qutb Shahi sultans into the present structure, a massive fortification of granite extending around 5 km in circumference, it remained the capital of the Qutb Shahi dynasty until 1590 when the capital was shifted to Hyderabad. The Qutb Shahis expanded the fort; the fort fell into ruin in 1687, after an eight-month-long siege led to its fall at the hands of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb. The Golkonda Fort used to have a vault where the famous Koh-i-Noor and Hope diamonds were once stored along with other diamonds. Golkonda is renowned for the diamonds found on the south-east at Kollur Mine near Kollur, Guntur district and Atkur in Krishna district and cut in the city during the Kakatiya reign.
At that time, India had the only known diamond mines in the world. Golkonda's mines yielded many diamonds. Golkonda was the market city of the diamond trade, gems sold there came from a number of mines; the fortress-city within the walls was famous for diamond trade. However, Europeans believed. Magnificent diamonds were taken from the mines in the region surrounding Golkonda, including the Daria-i-Noor or "Sea of Light", at 185 carats, the largest and finest diamond of the crown jewels of Iran, its name has come to be associated with great wealth. Gemologists use this classification to denote a diamond with a complete lack of nitrogen. Many famed diamonds are believed to have been excavated from the mines of Golkonda, such as: Daria-i-Noor Noor-ul-Ain Koh-i-Noor Hope Diamond Princie Diamond Regent Diamond Wittelsbach-Graff Diamond By the 1880s, "Golkonda" was being used generically by English speakers to refer to any rich mine, to any source of great wealth. During the Renaissance and the early modern eras, the name "Golkonda" acquired a legendary aura and became synonymous for vast wealth.
The mines brought riches to the Qutb Shahis of Hyderabad State, who ruled Golkonda up to 1687 to the Nizam of Hyderabad, who ruled after the independence from the Mughal Empire in 1724 until 1948, when the Indian integration of Hyderabad occurred. The Golkonda fort is listed as an archaeological treasure on the official "List of Monuments" prepared by the Archaeological Survey of India under The Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act. Golkonda consists of four distinct forts with a 10 km long outer wall with 87 semicircular bastions, eight gateways, four drawbridges, with a number of royal apartments and halls, mosques, stables, etc. inside. The lowest of these is the outermost enclosure into which we enter by the "Fateh Darwaza" studded with giant iron spikes near the south-eastern corner. An acoustic effect can be experienced at Fateh Darwazaan, characteristic of the engineering marvels at Golkonda. A hand clap at a certain point below the dome at the entrance reverberates and can be heard at the'Bala Hisar' pavilion, the highest point a kilometer away.
This worked. The whole of the Golkonda Fort complex and its surrounding spreads across 11 km of total area and discovering its every nook is an arduous task. A visit to the fort reveals the architectural beauty in many of the pavilions, gates and domes. Divided into four district forts, the architectural valour still gleams in each of the apartments, temples and stables; the graceful gardens of the fort may have lost their fragrance, for which they were known 400 years ago, yet a walk in these former gardens should be in your schedule when exploring the past glories of Golkonda Fort. Bala Hissar Gate is the main entrance to the fort located on the eastern side, it has a pointed arch bordered by rows of scroll work. The spandrels have yalis and decorated roundels; the area above the door has peacocks with ornate tails flanking an ornamental arched niche. The granite block lintel below has sculpted yalis flanking a disc; the design of peacocks and lions is t