Ferdinand III, Grand Duke of Tuscany
Ferdinand III was Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1790 to 1801 and, after a period of disenfranchisement, again from 1814 to 1824. He was the Prince-elector and Grand Duke of Salzburg and Grand Duke of Würzburg, Ferdinand was born in Florence, into the House of Habsburg-Lorraine. He was the son of Leopold, Grand-Duke of Tuscany. When his father was elected Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, Ferdinand succeeded him as Grand Duke of Tuscany, in 1792 during the French Revolution, Ferdinand became the first monarch to recognize the new French First Republic formally, and he attempted to work peacefully with it. As the French Revolutionary Wars commenced, the rulers of Britain, Ferdinand provided his allies with passive support but no enthusiasm, and after he witnessed a year of resounding victories by the French, he became the first member of the coalition to give up. In a proclamation dated 1 March 1795, he abandoned the alliance, on 25 December 1805, Ferdinand had to give up Salzburg as well, which by the Treaty of Pressburg was annexed by his older brother, Emperor Francis II.
Ferdinand was made Duke of Würzburg, a new state created for him from the old Bishopric of Würzburg, with the dissolution of the Empire in 1806, he took the new title of Grand Duke of Würzburg. On 30 May 1814, after Napoleons fall, Ferdinand was restored as Grand Duke of Tuscany, Ferdinand died in 1824 in Florence and was succeeded by his son Leopold. Grand Duchess Luisa died when they were all young, on 19 September 1802. Two decades later, in Florence on 6 May 1821, Ferdinand married again, this time to the much younger Princess Maria Ferdinanda of Saxony. She was the daughter of Maximilian, Prince of Saxony, and his wife Caroline of Bourbon-Parma, she was his first cousin once removed, though Ferdinand was likely hoping to produce another male heir, there were no children born of this second marriage. House of Habsburg, Tuscan Branch, family tree by Ferdinand Schevill in A Political History of Modern Europe
Age of majority
The age of majority is the threshold of adulthood as recognized or declared in law. Most countries set the age of majority at 18, the word majority here refers to having greater years and being of full age as opposed to minority, the state of being a minor. The law in a jurisdiction may not actually use the term age of majority. The term typically refers to a collection of laws bestowing the status of adulthood, the age of majority does not necessarily correspond to the mental or physical maturity of an individual. Age of majority can be confused with the concept of the age of license. As a legal term of art, license means permission, thus, an age of license is an age at which one has legal permission from government to do something. The age of majority, on the hand, is legal recognition that one has grown into an adult. Many ages of license are correlated to the age of majority, one need not have attained the age of majority to have permission to exercise certain rights and responsibilities.
Some ages of license are actually higher than the age of majority, for example, the age of license to purchase alcoholic beverages is 21 in all U. S. states. Another example is the age, which prior to the 1970s was 21. In the Republic of Ireland the age of majority is 18, also, in Portugal the age of majority is 18, but one must be at least 25 years of age to run for public office. A child who is legally emancipated by a court of competent jurisdiction automatically attains to their maturity upon the signing of the court order, only emancipation confers the status of maturity before a person has actually reached the age of majority. In almost all places, minors who are married are automatically emancipated, some places do the same for minors who are in the armed forces or who have a certain degree or diploma. In the United States, all states have some form of emancipation of minors, judaism,13 years of age for males and 12 years of age for females, such persons are considered adults Roman Catholic Church,18 years of age
Pula or Pola is the largest city in Istria County and the eighth largest city in the country, situated at the southern tip of the Istria peninsula, with a population of 57,460 in 2011. Like the rest of the region, it is known for its climate, smooth sea. The city has a tradition of winemaking, shipbuilding. It has been Istrias administrative centre since ancient Roman times, evidence of the presence of Homo erectus 1 million years ago has been found in the cave of Šandalja near Pula/Pola. Pottery from the Neolithic period, indicating human settlement, has found around Pula – Pola. In the Bronze Age, a new type of settlement appeared in Istria, called gradine, many late Bronze Age bone objects, such as tools for smoothing and drilling, sewing needles, as well as spiral bronze pendants, have been found in the area around Pula/Pola. The type of materials found in Bronze Age sites in Istria connects these with sites along the Danube, the inhabitants of Istria in the Bronze Age are known as Proto Illyrians.
Greek pottery and a part of a statue of Apollo have been found, Greek tradition attributed the foundation of Polai to the Colchians, mentioned in the context of the story of Jason and Medea, who had stolen the golden fleece. The Colchians, who had chased Jason into the northern Adriatic, were unable to catch him and ended up settling in a place they called Polai, the town was elevated to colonial rank between 46–45 BC as the tenth region of the late Roman Republic, under Julius Caesar. During that time the town grew and had at its zenith a population of about 30,000 and it became a significant Roman port with a large surrounding area under its jurisdiction. After Octavians victory, the town was demolished and it was soon rebuilt at the request of Octavians daughter Iulia and was called Colonia Pietas Iulia Pola Pollentia Herculanea. The colony was part of Venetia et Histria, a region of Roman Italy, great classical constructions were built of which a few remain. A great amphitheatre, Pula Arena, was constructed between 27 BC –68 AD, much of it still standing to this day, the Romans supplied the city with a water supply and sewage systems.
They fortified the city with a wall with ten gates, a few of these gates still remain, the triumphal Arch of the Sergii, the Gate of Hercules and the Twin Gates. During the reign of emperor Septimius Severus the name of the town was changed into Res Publica Polensis, the town was the site of Crispus Caesars execution in 326 AD and Gallus Caesars execution in 354 AD. In 425 AD the town became the centre of a bishopric, when their rule ended, Pola came under the rule of the Exarchate of Ravenna. During this period Pola prospered and became the port of the Byzantine fleet. The Basilica of Saint Mary Formosa was built in the 6th century, from 788 on Pola was ruled by the Frankish Empire under Charlemagne, with the introduction of the feudal system
House of Lorraine
The House of Lorraine originated as a cadet branch of the House of Metz. It inherited the Duchy of Lorraine in 1473 after the death of duke Nicholas I without a male heir, his sons Joseph II and Leopold II, and grandson Francis II were the last four Holy Roman Emperors from 1745 to the dissolution of the empire in 1806. Habsburg-Lorraine inherited the Habsburg Empire, ruling the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary until the dissolution of the monarchy in 1918, the house claims descent from Gerard I of Paris whose immediate descendants are known as the Girardides. The Matfridings of the 10th century are thought to have been a branch of the family, at the turn of the 10th century they were Counts of Metz and ruled a set of lordships in Alsace and Lorraine. Mary of Guise, mother of Mary, Queen of Scots, louis XIVs imperialist ambitions forced the dukes into a permanent alliance with his archenemies, the Holy Roman Emperors from the House of Habsburg. Following the failure of both Emperor Joseph I and Emperor Charles VI to produce a son and heir, the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 left the throne to the yet unborn daughter.
In 1736 Emperor Charles arranged her marriage to Francis of Lorraine who agreed to exchange his hereditary lands for the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, at Charless death in 1740 the Habsburg lands passed to Maria Theresa and Francis, who was elected Holy Roman Emperor as Francis I. The Habsburg-Lorraine nuptials and dynastic union precipitated, and survived, the War of the Austrian Succession, another member of the house, Archduke Maximilian of Austria, was Emperor of Mexico. In 1900, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria contracted a marriage with Countess Sophie Chotek. Their descendants, known as the House of Hohenberg, have been excluded from succession to the Austro-Hungarian crown, but not that of Lorraine, where morganatic marriage has never been outlawed. Nevertheless, Otto von Habsburg, the eldest grandson of Franz Ferdinands younger brother, was regarded as the head of the house until his death in 2011. It was at Nancy, the capital of the House of Vaudemont. House of Metz Adalbert, Duke of Upper Lorraine r, 1047/8 Gérard, Duke of Lorraine, r.
1390–1431 Charles II died without heir, the duchy passing to Isabella, Duchess of Lorraine. The duchy passed to their son John II, whose son Nicholas I died without male heir, the title now went to Nicholas aunt Yolande. René inherited the title of Duke of Lorraine upon his marriage in 1473, René II, Duke of Lorraine, r. 1608–1624 Nicole Claude Francis II, Charles IV, Duke of Lorraine r, 1624–1675 Nicholas Francis Charles V, r. 1690–1729 Francis Stephen, Duke of Lorraine, r, 1745–1765 House of Habsburg-Lorraine Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor, r
Archduke Charles Stephen of Austria
Archduke Charles Stephen of Austria was a member of the House of Habsburg, a Grand Admiral in the Austro-Hungarian Navy and candidate for the Polish crown. He was born at Židlochovice Castle, near Brno in Moravia, at his baptism he was given the names Karl Stephan Eugen Viktor Felix Maria. Among his siblings were Queen Maria Theresia of Bavaria, Archduke Friedrich of Austria, Queen Maria Cristina of Spain, on 28 February 1886 at Vienna Charles Stephen married Archduchess Maria Theresia, Princess of Tuscany. She was the daughter of Archduke Karl Salvator of Austria, Prince of Tuscany, the ceremony took place in the Hofburg and was witnessed by Cardinal Ganglbauer. Charles Stephen and Maria Theresia had six children, Archduchess Eleonora of Austria married morganatically Alfons von Kloss, Archduchess Renata of Austria married Prince Hieronymus Radziwill. Archduke Karl Albrecht of Austria married Alice Elisabeth Ankarcrona, Archduchess Mechthildis of Austria married Prince Olgierd Czartoryski.
Archduke Leo Karl of Austria married Maria-Klothilde von Thuillières Gräfin von Montjoye-Vaufrey et de la Roche, had issue, in 1879 Charles Stephen was commissioned as a Seefähnrich in the Austro-Hungarian Navy. Appointed his naval governor in 1879 was Fregattenkapitän Hermann von Spaun, in 1896 he retired from active duty. He continued, however, to be advanced in rank, attaining the rank of admiral in 1901 and he was named Marineinspekteur, making him the titular ranking officer of the navy. Others, had control of operations in 1914–1918, Anton Haus, Maximilian Njegovan. In 1918 the Emperor Charles I put him in charge of the enquiry into the mutiny of the navy at Cattaro, Charles Stephen recommended a sweeping re-organisation of the navy and the appointment of Miklós Horthy as commander-in-chief. Charles Stephen was an officer à la suite of the Imperial German Navy, Charles Stephen was considered as a candidate to be regent and eventually king. At the time Charles Stephen was living at the Castle of Saysbusch and his chances were enhanced by the fact that he spoke fluent Polish.
Two of his daughters were married to Polish princes belonging to the houses of Radziwill. Moreover, the Radziwill and Czartoryski families urged the cause of Russia, adding to the political muddle was the support of Ukrainian nationalism by Charles Stephens son, Archduke Wilhelm. In the end, the proclamation was so vague and tentative that it failed to inspire enthusiasm among its supposed beneficiaries or even among the Germans and Austro-Hungarians themselves, in addition to his professional career as a naval officer, Charles Stephen took an active interest in yachting. He was an officer of the Imperial and Royal Yacht Squadron. His interest in yachting brought him to England on several occasions including in 1879 for the Royal Yacht Squadron Regatta, in 1900, in 1892 he was made a member of the Yacht Racing Association
The Monarchy was a composite state composed of territories within and outside the Holy Roman Empire, united only in the person of the monarch. The dynastic capital was Vienna, except from 1583 to 1611, from 1804 to 1867 the Habsburg Monarchy was formally unified as the Austrian Empire, and from 1867 to 1918 as the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The two entities were never coterminous, as the Habsburg Monarchy covered many lands beyond the Holy Roman Empire, the monarchy had no official name. The entity had no official name, Austrian Empire, This was the official name. Note that the German version is Kaisertum Österreich, i. e. the English translation empire refers to a territory ruled by an emperor, Austria-Hungary, This was the official name. An unofficial popular name was the Danubian Monarchy often used was the term Doppel-Monarchie meaning two states under one crowned ruler, Crownlands or crown lands, This is the name of all the individual parts of the Austrian Empire, and of Austria-Hungary from 1867 on.
The Hungarian parts of the Empire were called Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of Saint Stephen or Lands of Holy Stephens Crown, the Bohemian Lands were called Lands of the St. Wenceslaus Crown. Burgenland came to Austria in 1921 from Hungary, Salzburg finally became Austrian in 1816 after the Napoleonic wars. Vienna, Austrias capital became a state January 1,1922, after being residence and Lower Austria, were split into Austria above the Enns and Austria below the Enns. Upper Austria was enlarged after the Treaty of Teschen following the War of the Bavarian Succession by the so-called Innviertel, formerly part of Bavaria. Hereditary Lands or German Hereditary Lands or Austrian Hereditary Lands, In a narrower sense these were the original Habsburg Austrian territories, i. e. basically the Austrian lands, in a wider sense the Lands of the Bohemian Crown were included in the Hereditary lands. The term was replaced by the term Crownlands in the 1849 March Constitution, within the Habsburg Monarchy, each province was governed according to its own particular customs.
Until the mid 17th century, not all of the provinces were even necessarily ruled by the same members of the family often ruled portions of the Hereditary Lands as private apanages. An even greater attempt at centralization began in 1849 following the suppression of the revolutions of 1848. For the first time, ministers tried to transform the monarchy into a bureaucratic state ruled from Vienna. The Kingdom of Hungary, in particular, ceased to exist as a separate entity, in this system, the Kingdom of Hungary was given sovereignty and a parliament, with only a personal union and a joint foreign and military policy connecting it to the other Habsburg lands. When Bosnia and Herzegovina was annexed, it was not incorporated into either half of the monarchy, instead, it was governed by the joint Ministry of Finance. Austria-Hungary collapsed under the weight of the various unsolved ethnic problems that came to a head with its defeat in World War I, to these were added in 1779 the Inn Quarter of Bavaria, and in 1803 the Bishoprics of Trent and Brixen
Bestwina is a village in Bielsko County, Silesian Voivodeship, in southern Poland. It is the seat of the gmina called Gmina Bestwina and it lies approximately 8 kilometres north of Bielsko-Biała and 40 km south of the regional capital Katowice. The village has in 2012 a population of 4,618, the village was first mentioned in 1273. It became a seat of a Catholic parish as it was mentioned in the register of Peters Pence payment among Catholic parishes of Oświęcim deaconry of the Diocese of Kraków as Bestwina, in 1327 the duchy became a fee of the Kingdom of Bohemia. In 1457 Jan IV of Oświęcim agreed to sell the duchy to the Polish Crown, the territory of the Duchy of Oświęcim was eventually incorporated into Poland in 1564 and formed Silesian County of Kraków Voivodeship. Upon the First Partition of Poland in 1772 it became part of the Austrian Kingdom of Galicia, after World War I and fall of Austria-Hungary it became part of Poland. It was annexed by Nazi Germany at the beginning of World War II, and afterwards it was restored to Poland