Franz Joseph I of Austria
Franz Joseph I or Francis Joseph I was Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary, and many others from 2 December 1848 until his death on 21 November 1916. From 1 May 1850 to 24 August 1866 he was President of the German Confederation, in December 1848, Emperor Ferdinand abdicated the throne at Olomouc as part of Ministerpräsident Felix zu Schwarzenbergs plan to end the Revolutions of 1848 in Hungary. This allowed Ferdinands nephew Franz Joseph to accede to the throne, largely considered to be a reactionary, Franz Joseph spent his early reign resisting constitutionalism in his domains. Franz Joseph was troubled by nationalism during his entire reign and he concluded the Ausgleich of 1867, which granted greater autonomy to Hungary, hence transforming the Austrian Empire into the Austro-Hungarian Empire under his dual monarchy. After the Austro-Prussian War, Austria-Hungary turned its attention to the Balkans, the Bosnian crisis was a result of Franz Josephs annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1908, which had been occupied by his troops since the Congress of Berlin.
On 28 June 1914, the assassination of his nephew Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo resulted in Austria-Hungarys declaration of war against the Kingdom of Serbia and this activated a system of alliances which resulted in World War I. Franz Joseph died on 21 November 1916, after ruling his domains for almost 68 years and he was succeeded by his grandnephew Charles. His name in German was Franz Joseph I and I and his names in other languages were and Bosnian, Franjo Josip I. Ukrainian, Фра́нц Йо́сиф I, Francisc Iosif Slovene, serbian, Фрања Јосиф Franz Joseph was born in the Schönbrunn Palace in Vienna, the eldest son of Archduke Franz Karl, and his wife Princess Sophie of Bavaria. Franzl came to idolise his grandfather, der Gute Kaiser Franz, at the age of thirteen, Franzl started a career as a colonel in the Austrian army. From that point onward, his fashion was dictated by army style, Franz Joseph was soon joined by three younger brothers, Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian, Archduke Karl Ludwig, and Archduke Ludwig Viktor, and a sister, Maria Anna, who died at the age of four.
Instead, Franz was sent to the front in Italy, joining Field Marshal Radetzky on campaign on 29 April, by all accounts he handled his first military experience calmly and with dignity. Around the same time, the Imperial Family was fleeing revolutionary Vienna for the setting of Innsbruck. Soon, the Archduke was called back from Italy, joining the rest of his family at Innsbruck by mid-June. It was at Innsbruck at this time that Franz Joseph first met his cousin Elisabeth, his bride, a girl of ten. Following victory over the Italians at Custoza in late July, the court felt safe to return to Vienna, but within a few months Vienna again appeared unsafe, and in September the court left again, this time for Olomouc in Moravia. By now, Prince Alfred I of Windisch-Grätz, the military commander in Bohemia, was determined to see the young Archduke soon put on the throne. By the abdication of his uncle Ferdinand and the renunciation of his father, at this time he first became known by his second as well as his first Christian name
Memory of the World Programme
This recorded memory reflects the diversity of languages and cultures. UNESCO, the agency responsible for the protection of the worlds cultural and natural heritage. To this end, the Memory of the World Programme was established with the aim of preserving and digitizing humanitys documentary heritage, the program is administered by the International Advisory Committee, whose 14 members are appointed by the UNESCO Director-General. The IAC is responsible for the formulation of policies, including the technical and financial framework for the program. Technical Sub-Committee, regularly revises and promulgates information guides on the preservation of documentary heritage, the Memory of the World Register is a compendium of documents, oral traditions, audio-visual materials and archival holdings of universal value. The program has the goal of using state-of-the-art technologies to provide wider accessibility, any organization or individual can nominate a documentary item for inscription on the Register.
During its meetings, the IAC examines the full documentation of the description, world significance. The body uses a set of criteria in examining each of the nominations, Absolute age, of itself, does not make a document significant, but every document is a creature of its time. Some documents are especially evocative of their time, which may have one of crisis. A document may represent new discovery or be the first of its kind, The place of its creation is a key attribute of its importance. It may be descriptive of physical environments, cities or institutions since vanished, The social and cultural context of its creation may reflect significant aspects of human behaviour, or of social, artistic or political development. It may capture the essence of great movements, advances or regression and it may reflect the impact of key individuals or groups. Subject and Theme, The subject matter may represent particular historical or intellectual developments in natural and human sciences, ideology and the arts.
Social/Spiritual/Community Significance, This concept is another way of expressing the significance of a document or set of documents in terms of its spiritual or sacred values. It allows a community to demonstrate its emotional attachment to the document or documents for the way in which these contribute to that communitys identity. Application of this criterion must reflect living significance – the documentary heritage must have a hold on people who are alive today. Other matters that will be taken into account for each nomination are, integrity, Within the natural physical limitations of carrier survival, is it complete or partial. Has it been altered or damaged, threat, Is its survival in danger
Milan is a city in Italy, capital of the Lombardy region, and the most populous metropolitan area and the second most populous comune in Italy. The population of the city proper is 1,351,000, Milan has a population of about 8,500,000 people. It is the industrial and financial centre of Italy and one of global significance. In terms of GDP, it has the largest economy among European non-capital cities, Milan is considered part of the Blue Banana and lies at the heart of one of the Four Motors for Europe. Milan is an Alpha leading global city, with strengths in the arts, design, entertainment, finance, media, services and tourism. Its business district hosts Italys Stock Exchange and the headquarters of the largest national and international banks, the city is a major world fashion and design capital, well known for several international events and fairs, including Milan Fashion Week and the Milan Furniture Fair. The city hosts numerous cultural institutions and universities, with 11% of the national total enrolled students, Milans museums and landmarks attract over 9 million visitors annually.
Milan – after Naples – is the second Italian city with the highest number of accredited stars from the Michelin Guide, the city hosted the Universal Exposition in 1906 and 2015. Milan is home to two of Europes major football teams, A. C. Milan and F. C. Internazionale, the etymology of Milan is uncertain. One theory holds that the Latin name Mediolanum comes from the Latin words medio, some scholars believe lanum comes from the Celtic root lan, meaning an enclosure or demarcated territory in which Celtic communities used to build shrines. Hence, Mediolanum could signify the central town or sanctuary of a Celtic tribe, the name Mediolanum is borne by about sixty Gallo-Roman sites in France, e. g. Saintes and Évreux. Alciato credits Ambrose for his account, around 400 BC, the Celtic Insubres settled Milan and the surrounding region. In 222 BC, the Romans conquered the settlement, renaming it Mediolanum, Milan was eventually declared the capital of the Western Roman Empire by Emperor Diocletian in 286 AD.
Diocletian chose to stay in the Eastern Roman Empire and his colleague Maximianus ruled the Western one, immediately Maximian built several monuments, such as a large circus 470 m ×85 m, the Thermae Herculeae, a large complex of imperial palaces and several other buildings. With the Edict of Milan of 313, Emperor Constantine I guaranteed freedom of religion for Christians, after the city was besieged by the Visigoths in 402, the imperial residence was moved to Ravenna. In 452, the Huns overran the city, in 539, the Ostrogoths conquered and destroyed Milan during the Gothic War against Byzantine Emperor Justinian I. In the summer of 569, a Teutonic tribe, the Lombards, conquered Milan, some Roman structures remained in use in Milan under Lombard rule. Milan surrendered to the Franks in 774 when Charlemagne took the title of King of the Lombards, the Iron Crown of Lombardy dates from this period
Austrian National Library
The Austrian National Library is the largest library in Austria, with 7.4 million items in its various collections. The library is located in the Hofburg Palace in Vienna, since 2005, some of the collections have been relocated within the baroque structure of the Palais Mollard-Clary. Founded by the Habsburgs, the library was called the Hof-Bibliothek. The library complex includes four museums, as well as special collections. The institution has its origin in the library of the Middle Ages. During the Medieval period, the Austrian Duke Albert III shifted the books of the Viennese vaults into a library, Albert organized important works from Latin to be translated into German. In the Hofburg, the treasure of Archduke Albert III had been kept in sacristies inside the tower of the imperial chapel. The Archduke was a connoisseur of art, he supported the University of Vienna, and he founded a royal workshop for illustrating manuscripts. On scenes depicting the lives of the four Evangelists, four coats of arms show the House of Austria, Tirol and Carinthia, frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, had the goal of summarizing the art treasures among the Habsburg possessions.
Among other things, he brought some valuable books into the Vienna, among them the Prager Wenzelsbibel and the document of the golden bull. Through his marriage with Mary of Burgundy, Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor came into the possession of important books from Burgundy and north France, with a value at that time estimated at 100,000 guldens, these books represented about an eighth of Marys dowry. Also Maximilians second wife, Bianca Maria Sforza, brought into the marriage as dowry, among other things, the books of the library, at that time, were kept partially in Wiener Neustadt, partially in Vienna, and partially in Innsbruck. After the death of Maximilian, the books were sent into the palace at Innsbruck, besides the valuable books from the public treasury, the Bibliotheca Regia during the 16th century, which collected and categorized scientific works, developed in Vienna. Besides books, that contained globes and atlases. The library had expanded, in the course of the time, as the first head librarian, Hugo Blotius was appointed in 1575 by Emperor Maximilian II.
His most important task was drawing up the inventory of the library, as a consequence, new works were added systematically, and other libraries were incorporated. For the first time on 26 August 1624, the delivery was regulated by obligation copies to the library, the Imperial Library grew by purchases. Particularly, the library of Philipp Eduard Fugger led to a major expansion, from the Fugger library, the library currently has about 17,000 sheets of one of the first periodic printing elements, the Fugger newspapers
Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor
Amalie Theresa was born on 6 April 1807 at the Hofburg Imperial Palace in Hofburg and died the next day. Her mother fell ill after giving birth to her and died less than a week afterwards, as a daughter of the Holy Roman Emperor, she was born with the title Archduchess of Austria and the style Imperial and Royal Highness
The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867. Austria-Hungary consisted of two monarchies, and one region, the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia under the Hungarian crown. It was ruled by the House of Habsburg, and constituted the last phase in the evolution of the Habsburg Monarchy. Following the 1867 reforms, the Austrian and the Hungarian states were co-equal, Foreign affairs and the military came under joint oversight, but all other governmental faculties were divided between respective states. Austria-Hungary was a state and one of the worlds great powers at the time. Austria-Hungary was geographically the second-largest country in Europe after the Russian Empire, at 621,538 km2, the Empire built up the fourth-largest machine building industry of the world, after the United States and the United Kingdom. After 1878, Bosnia and Herzegovina was under Austro-Hungarian military and civilian rule until it was annexed in 1908. The annexation of Bosnia led to Islam being recognized as a state religion due to Bosnias Muslim population.
Austria-Hungary was one of the Central Powers in World War I and it was already effectively dissolved by the time the military authorities signed the armistice of Villa Giusti on 3 November 1918. The realms full, official name was The Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, each enjoyed considerable sovereignty with only a few joint affairs. Certain regions, such as Polish Galicia within Cisleithania and Croatia within Transleithania, enjoyed autonomous status, the division between Austria and Hungary was so marked that there was no common citizenship, one was either an Austrian citizen or a Hungarian citizen, never both. This meant that there were always separate Austrian and Hungarian passports, neither Austrian nor Hungarian passports were used in the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia-Dalmatia. Instead, the Kingdom issued its own passports which were written in Croatian and French and it is not known what kind of passports were used in Bosnia-Herzegovina, which was under the control of both Austria and Hungary.
The Kingdom of Hungary had always maintained a separate parliament, the Diet of Hungary, the administration and government of the Kingdom of Hungary remained largely untouched by the government structure of the overarching Austrian Empire. Hungarys central government structures remained well separated from the Austrian imperial government, the country was governed by the Council of Lieutenancy of Hungary – located in Pressburg and in Pest – and by the Hungarian Royal Court Chancellery in Vienna. The Hungarian government and Hungarian parliament were suspended after the Hungarian revolution of 1848, despite Austria and Hungary sharing a common currency, they were fiscally sovereign and independent entities. Since the beginnings of the union, the government of the Kingdom of Hungary could preserve its separated. After the revolution of 1848–1849, the Hungarian budget was amalgamated with the Austrian, from 1527 to 1851, the Kingdom of Hungary maintained its own customs controls, which separated her from the other parts of the Habsburg-ruled territories
University of Vienna
The University of Vienna is a public university located in Vienna, Austria. It was founded by Duke Rudolph IV in 1365 and is one of the oldest universities in the German-speaking world. With its long and rich history, the University of Vienna has developed one of the biggest universities in Europe. It is associated with 15 Nobel prize winners and has been the home of a large number of figures both of historical and academic importance. The University was founded on 12 March 1365 by Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria, the University of Vienna was modelled after the University of Paris. However, Pope Urban V did not ratify the deed of foundation that had been sanctioned by Rudolf IV and this was presumably due to pressure exerted by Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor, who wished to avoid competition for the Charles University in Prague. Approval was finally received from the Pope in 1384 and the University of Vienna was granted the status of a full university, the first university building opened in 1385.
It grew into the biggest university of the Holy Roman Empire, in its early years, the university had a partly hierarchical, partly cooperative structure, in which the Rector was at the top, while the students had little say and were settled at the bottom. The Magister and Doctors constituted the four faculties and elected the academic officials from amidst their ranks, the students, but all other Supposita, were divided into four Academic Nations. Their elected board members, mostly graduates themselves, had the right to elect the Rector and he presided over the Consistory which included procurators of each of the nations and the faculty deans, as well as over the University Assembly, in which all university teachers participated. Complaints or appeals against decisions of faculty by the students had to be brought forward by a Magister or Doctor, being considered a Papal Institution, the university suffered quite a setback during the Reformation. In addition, the first Siege of Vienna by Ottoman forces had devastating effects on the city, leading to a sharp decline, with only 30 students enrolled at the lowest point.
For King Ferdinand I, this meant that the university should be tied to the church to a stronger degree. It was only in the Mid-18th century that Empress Maria Theresa forced the university back under control of the monarchy. Her successor Joseph II helped in the reform of the university. Big changes were instituted in the wake of the Revolution in 1848, with the Philosophical Faculty being upgraded into equal status as Theology and Medicine. Led by the reforms of Leopold, Count von Thun und Hohenstein, the current main building on the Ringstraße was built between 1877 and 1884 by Heinrich von Ferstel. The previous main building was located close to the Stuben Gate on Iganz Seipel Square, current home of the old University Church, women were admitted as full students from 1897, although their studies were limited to Philosophy
Elisabeth Farnese was Queen of Spain by marriage to King Philip V. She exerted great influence over Spains foreign policy and was the de facto ruler of Spain from 1714 until 1746, from 1759 until 1760, she governed as regent. Elisabeth was born at the Palazzo della Pilotta in Parma, daughter of Odoardo Farnese, Elisabeth would become the heiress of her fathers dominions after her uncle Francesco Farnese, Duke of Parma and his younger brother both remained childless. Elisabeth was raised in seclusion in an apartment in the Palace in Parma and she had a difficult relationship with her mother, but was reportedly deeply devoted to her uncle-stepfather. She was a student within dance, studied painting under Pierantonio Avanzini and enjoyed music. She survived a virulent attack of smallpox shortly after the War of the Spanish Succession and she was therefore made many marriage proposals. Victor Amadeus, Prince of Piedmont and Francesco dEste, Hereditary Prince of Modena both asked for her hand but negotiations failed, as well as Prince Pio della Mirandola.
The Duchy of Parma would be inherited by her first son, after his accession to the Spanish throne, the title passed on to her third son, Infante Felipe. It was he who founded the modern day House of Bourbon-Parma, on 16 September 1714 she was married by proxy at Parma to Philip V of Spain. The marriage was arranged by the ambassador of Parma, Cardinal Alberoni, with the concurrence of the Princesse des Ursins, Elisabeth was a natural choice for Philip V because of the traditional Spanish interests in Italian provinces, as she was the heir of the Parmesan throne. Elisabeth left Parma in September and traveled to Spain by land in a retinue led by Marquis Schotta, originally intended to travel by sea, she became ill in Genova, and the plans were therefore altered. On her way to Spain, she met the Prince of Monaco and the French ambassador, Elisabeth spent several days in Bayonne in November as guest of her maternal aunt, the Queen Dowager Maria Anna of Spain. At the Franco-Spanish border, she was met by Alberoni, who spent several days warning her against des Ursins, upon entrance to Spain, she refused to part with her Italian retinue in exchange with a Spanish one, as had originally been planned.
On 23 December at Jadraque, Elisabeth met the Princesse des Ursins, the princess had sent out spies who reported that Elisabeth was in fact not at all a timid person who would be easy to control. Elisabeth received des Ursins and asked to speak with her privately, shortly after, the party could hear the sounds of a violent argument, after which des Ursins was arrested and immediately escorted over the border to France. There have been different versions of this incident, and different suggestions as to how it occurred. Her chief adviser was Alberoni, who guided her as how to protect the interests of herself and Parma, while he himself, Queen Elisabeth quickly obtained complete influence over Philip, who himself wished to be dominated. Reportedly she had physical charm and purposefulness, she was intelligent and could converse, be gay and charming, the king did not live in his own apartments but in the queens, where he spent the whole night
Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor
Leopold II was Holy Roman Emperor and King of Hungary and Bohemia from 1790 to 1792, Archduke of Austria and Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1765 to 1790. He was a son of Emperor Francis I and his wife, Empress Maria Theresa, Leopold was a moderate proponent of enlightened absolutism. In 1753, he was engaged to Maria Beatrice dEste, heiress to the Duchy of Modena, the marriage never materialised, Maria Beatrice instead married Leopolds brother, Archduke Ferdinand. On the death of his brother, Charles, in 1761, it was decided that he should succeed to his fathers grand duchy of Tuscany. This settlement was the condition of his marriage on 5 August 1764 with Infanta Maria Luisa of Spain, daughter of Charles III of Spain, on the death of his father, Francis I, he succeeded to the grand duchy. Leopold was famous in Florence for his numerous extra-marital affairs, among his lovers was Countess Cowper, wife of the 3rd Earl Cowper, who in compensation for being cuckolded was given honours by Leopolds brother, Joseph II.
For five years, he exercised little more than nominal authority, in 1770, he made a journey to Vienna to secure the removal of this vexatious guardianship and returned to Florence with a free hand. During the twenty years which elapsed between his return to Florence and the death of his eldest brother Joseph II in 1790, he was employed in reforming the administration of his small state. As he had no army to maintain, and as he suppressed the small naval force kept up by the Medici, Leopold was never popular with his Italian subjects. His disposition was cold and retiring, but his steady and intelligent administration, which advanced step by step, brought the grand duchy to a high level of material prosperity. His ecclesiastical policy, which disturbed the deeply rooted convictions of his people and he was unable to secularize the property of the religious houses or to put the clergy entirely under the control of the lay power. However, his abolition of capital punishment was the first permanent abolition in modern times, Leopolds concept of this was based on respect for the political rights of citizens and on a harmony of power between the executive and the legislative.
However, Leopold developed and supported social and economic reforms. Smallpox inoculation was made available, and an early institution for the rehabilitation of juvenile delinquents was founded. Leopold introduced reforms to the system of neglect and inhumane treatment of those deemed mentally ill. On 23 January 1774, the legge sui pazzi was established, a few years Leopold undertook the project of building a new hospital, the Bonifacio Hospital. He used his skill at choosing collaborators to put a young physician, Vincenzo Chiarugi and he and Joseph II were tenderly attached to one another and met frequently both before and after the death of their mother. The portrait by Pompeo Batoni in which appear together shows that they bore a strong personal resemblance to one another
Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor
Francis I was Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife effectively executed the real powers of those positions. With his wife, Maria Theresa, he was the founder of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty, from 1728 until 1737 he was Duke of Lorraine. In 1737, Lorraine became managed by France under terms resulting from the War of the Polish Succession and the House of Lorraine received the Grand Duchy of Tuscany in the peace treaty that ended that war. Francis was born in Nancy, the oldest surviving son of Leopold, Duke of Lorraine and he was connected with the Habsburgs through his grandmother Eleonor, daughter of Emperor Ferdinand III. He was very close to his brother and sister Anne Charlotte, Emperor Charles VI favored the family, besides being his cousins, had served the house of Austria with distinction. He had designed to marry his daughter Maria Theresa to Francis older brother Leopold Clement, on Leopold Clements death, Charles adopted the younger brother as his future son-in-law.
Francis was brought up in Vienna with Maria Theresa with the understanding that they were to be married, and a real affection arose between them. At the age of 15, when he was brought to Vienna, he was established in the Silesian Duchy of Teschen, Francis succeeded his father as Duke of Lorraine in 1729. In 1731 he was initiated into freemasonry by John Theophilus Desaguliers at a specially convened lodge in The Hague at the house of the British Ambassador, Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield. During a subsequent visit to England, Francis was made a Master Mason at another specially convened lodge at Houghton Hall, Maria Theresa arranged for Francis to become Lord Lieutenant of Hungary in 1732. He was not excited about this position, but Maria Theresa wanted him closer to her, in June 1732 he agreed to go to Pressburg. A preliminary peace was concluded in October 1735 and ratified in the Treaty of Vienna in November 1738, in March 1736 the Emperor persuaded Francis, his future son-in-law, to secretly exchange Lorraine for the Grand Duchy of Tuscany.
France had demanded that Maria Theresas fiancé surrender his ancestral Duchy of Lorraine to accommodate the deposed King of Poland, the Emperor considered other possibilities before announcing the engagement of the couple. If something were to go wrong, Francis would become governor of the Austrian Netherlands, as a result, Elisabeth sons could claim by right of being a descendant of Margherita. On January 31,1736 Francis had agreed to marry Maria Theresa, especially his mother Élisabeth Charlotte dOrléans and his brother Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine were against the loss of Lorraine. On February 1, Maria Theresa sent Francis a letter, she would withdraw from her future reign and they married on 12 February in the Augustinian Church, Vienna. The wedding was held on February 14,1736, the treaty between the Emperor and Francis was signed on 4 May 1736. In January 1737, the Spanish troops withdrew from Tuscany, and were replaced by 6,000 Austrians, on 24 January 1737 Francis received Tuscany from his father-in-law
Imperial Council (Austria)
The Imperial Council was the legislature of the Austrian Empire from 1861, and from 1867 the legislature of Cisleithania within Austria-Hungary. It was a body, the upper house was the House of Lords. To become law, bills had to be passed by both houses, signed by the government minister responsible, and granted royal assent by the Emperor, after having been passed, laws were published in the Reichsgesetzblatt. In addition to the Imperial Council, the fifteen individual crown lands of Cisleithania had their own diets, the seat of the Imperial Council from 4 December 1883 was in the Parliament Building on Ringstraße in Vienna. The Imperial Council was dissolved on 12 November 1918, following Austria-Hungarys defeat in the First World War, in the course of the Revolutions of 1848, representatives from those crown lands of the Austrian Empire incorporated in the German Confederation met in a Imperial Diet at Vienna. The convention was inaugurated by Archduke John on 22 July 1848 and it was nevertheless only a sidestep, as Schwarzenberg three days forcefully disbanded the Kremsier Parliament and finally had the constitution annulled with the New Years Eve Patent of 1851.
Emperor Franz Joseph went on to rule with absolute power, in place of the Imperial Diet, he installed an Imperial Council, whose members were appointed on his authority. In the 1850s, chronic fiscal malaise became acute, the dire nature of the situation was revealed to the Emperor after the Second Italian War of Independence and the bloody defeat of Austrian forces at the 1859 Battle of Solferino. To calm the domestic front and to gain the support of wealthy Bourgeoisie, an Imperial Diet, still meant as a conciliatory body, was supposed to have 100 delegates elected by provincial diets that were to be established for each Austrian crown land. This electoral system, satisfied neither the bourgeois liberals nor the Hungarian nobility, for this reason, the Diploma was discarded and replaced by the February Patent of 1861, which was drafted by liberal minister-president Anton von Schmerling. This established a bicameral Imperial Council, the house was the House of Lords. Upon establishment of the Imperial Council by the February Patent, elections to the House of Deputies were conducted through a system of curiae, in this system, there were 343 deputies elected by the diets of the crown lands.
The diets themselves were elected by four curiae, the curiae were essentially assemblies of certain social classes. There was one curia for the class, one curia for the towns and cities, one curia for the chambers of commerce. Each curia would elect a number of deputies to the diets. To be part of the curia of the cities and the curia of the rural communities and this system was rejected by Hungary, as with the October Diploma, and Hungary never sent any delegates to the Council. The February Patent was suspended in 1865, with the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, Hungary would no longer send deputies to the Imperial Council. Instead, the Empire was reorganised into two parts and Transleithania
Augustus III of Poland
The only legitimate son of Augustus II of Poland, he followed his father’s example by joining the Roman Catholic Church in 1712. In 1719 he married Maria Josepha, daughter of the Holy Roman emperor Joseph I, chosen king by a small minority of electors on 5 October 1733, he drove his rival, the former Polish king Stanisław I, into exile. He was crowned in Kraków on 17 January 1734, and was recognised as king in Warsaw in June 1736. Augustus gave Saxon support to Austria against Prussia in the War of the Austrian Succession and his last years were marked by the increasing influence of the Czartoryski and Poniatowski families, and by the intervention of Catherine the Great in Polish affairs. His rule deepened the anarchy in Poland and increased the dependence on its neighbours. The reign of Augustus witnessed one of the greatest periods of disorder in Polish history, Augustus was the only legitimate son of Augustus II the Strong, Prince-Elector of Saxony and king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth who belonged to the Albertine line of the House of Wettin.
His mother was Christiane Eberhardine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, groomed to succeed his father as king of Poland, Augustus converted to Catholicism in 1712, when publicly announced, this caused discontent among the Protestant Saxon aristocracy. Upon the death of Augustus II in 1733, Augustus inherited the Saxon electorate and was elected to the Polish throne, with the support of the Russian Empire and the Holy Roman Empire. He was opposed by the forces of Stanisław I Leszczyński, who had usurped the throne with Swedish support during the Great Northern War, reigning from 1706 until 1709, Stanisław was overthrown after the Swedish defeat at Poltava. As King, Augustus was uninterested in the affairs of his Polish–Lithuanian dominion, focusing instead on hunting, the opera, Augustus delegated most of his powers and responsibilities in the Commonwealth to Heinrich von Brühl, who served in effect as the viceroy of Poland. Augustuss eldest surviving son, Frederick Christian of Saxony, succeeded his father as Elector, a Russian-supported coup détat in Poland, instigated by the Czartoryskis, resulted in the election of Stanisław August Poniatowski as king of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania on 7 September 1764.
August was portrayed by Ernst Dernburg in the 1941 film Friedemann Bach, in Dresden on 20 August 1719, Augustus married Archduchess Maria Josepha of Austria, the eldest child of Joseph I, the Holy Roman Emperor. Bachs title of Koeniglicher Pohlnischer Hoff Compositeur is engraved on the page of Bachs famous Goldberg Variations. History of Saxony History of Poland Rulers of Saxony List of Lithuanian rulers Dresden Castle – Residence of Augustus III Bach, Johann Sebastian, Mass in B Minor, Cue points, Oregon Bach festival