Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.7 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north and Slovakia to the east and Italy to the south, the territory of Austria covers 83,879 km2. The terrain is mountainous, lying within the Alps, only 32% of the country is below 500 m. The majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects of German as their native language, other local official languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, and Slovene. The origins of modern-day Austria date back to the time of the Habsburg dynasty, from the time of the Reformation, many northern German princes, resenting the authority of the Emperor, used Protestantism as a flag of rebellion. Following Napoleons defeat, Prussia emerged as Austrias chief competitor for rule of a greater Germany, Austrias defeat by Prussia at the Battle of Königgrätz, during the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, cleared the way for Prussia to assert control over the rest of Germany.
In 1867, the empire was reformed into Austria-Hungary, Austria was thus the first to go to war in the July Crisis, which would ultimately escalate into World War I. The First Austrian Republic was established in 1919, in 1938 Nazi Germany annexed Austria in the Anschluss. This lasted until the end of World War II in 1945, after which Germany was occupied by the Allies, in 1955, the Austrian State Treaty re-established Austria as a sovereign state, ending the occupation. In the same year, the Austrian Parliament created the Declaration of Neutrality which declared that the Second Austrian Republic would become permanently neutral, Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy comprising nine federal states. The capital and largest city, with a population exceeding 1.7 million, is Vienna, other major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz and Innsbruck. Austria is one of the richest countries in the world, with a nominal per capita GDP of $43,724, the country has developed a high standard of living and in 2014 was ranked 21st in the world for its Human Development Index.
Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955, joined the European Union in 1995, Austria signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, and adopted the euro currency in 1999. The German name for Austria, Österreich, meant eastern realm in Old High German, and is cognate with the word Ostarrîchi and this word is probably a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local dialect. Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976, the word Austria is a Latinisation of the German name and was first recorded in the 12th century. Accordingly, Norig would essentially mean the same as Ostarrîchi and Österreich, the Celtic name was eventually Latinised to Noricum after the Romans conquered the area that encloses most of modern-day Austria, around 15 BC. Noricum became a Roman province in the mid-first century AD, heers hypothesis is not accepted by linguists. Settled in ancient times, the Central European land that is now Austria was occupied in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes, the Celtic kingdom of Noricum was claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province
Slovenia, officially the Republic of Slovenia, is a nation state in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes. It is bordered by Italy to the west, Austria to the north, Hungary to the northeast, Croatia to the south and southeast, and it covers 20,273 square kilometers and has a population of 2.06 million. It is a republic and a member of the United Nations, European Union. The capital and largest city is Ljubljana, the Dinaric Alps and the Pannonian Plain meet on the territory of Slovenia. The country, marked by a significant biological diversity, is one of the most water-rich in Europe, with a river network, a rich aquifer system. Over half of the territory is covered by forest, the human settlement of Slovenia is dispersed and uneven. Slovenia has historically been the crossroads of South Slavic, Romance, although the population is not homogeneous, the majority is Slovene. South Slavic language Slovene is the language throughout the country.
Slovenia is a largely secularized country, but its culture and identity have been influenced by Catholicism as well as Lutheranism. The economy of Slovenia is small and export-oriented and has strongly influenced by international conditions. It has been hurt by the Eurozone crisis, started in the late 2000s. The main economic field is services, followed by industry and construction, the current territory of Slovenia was part of many different state formations, including the Roman Empire and the Holy Roman Empire, followed by the Habsburg Monarchy. In October 1918, the Slovenes exercised self-determination for the first time by co-founding the State of Slovenes, Croats, in December 1918, they merged with the Kingdom of Serbia into the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. During World War II, Slovenia was occupied and annexed by Germany and Hungary, with a tiny area transferred to the Independent State of Croatia, in June 1991, after the introduction of multi-party representative democracy, Slovenia split from Yugoslavia and became an independent country.
Present-day Slovenia has been inhabited since prehistoric times, and there is evidence of habitation from around 250,000 years ago. A pierced cave bear bone, dating from 43100 ±700 BP, in the 1920s and 1930s, artifacts belonging to the Cro-Magnon such as pierced bones, bone points, and needle were found by archaeologist Srečko Brodar in Potok Cave. It shows that wooden wheels appeared almost simultaneously in Mesopotamia and Europe, in the transition period between the Bronze age to the Iron age, the Urnfield culture flourished. Archaeological remains dating from the Hallstatt period have been found, particularly in southeastern Slovenia, among them a number of situlas in Novo Mesto, in the Iron Age, present-day Slovenia was inhabited by Illyrian and Celtic tribes until the 1st century BC
Charles I of Austria
Charles I was the last ruler of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. He was the last Emperor of Austria, the last King of Hungary, and he spent the remaining years of his life attempting to restore the monarchy until his death in 1922. Following his beatification by the Catholic Church in 2004, he has become known as Blessed Charles of Austria. Charles was born 17 August 1887 in the Castle of Persenbeug in Lower Austria and his parents were Archduke Otto Franz of Austria and Princess Maria Josepha of Saxony. At the time, his granduncle Franz Joseph reigned as Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary, as a child, Archduke Charles was reared a devout Roman Catholic. He spent his early years wherever his fathers regiment happened to be stationed, on he lived in Vienna and he was privately educated, contrary to the custom ruling in the imperial family, he attended a public gymnasium for the sake of demonstrations in scientific subjects. In 1907, he was declared of age and Prince Zdenko Lobkowitz was appointed his chamberlain, in the next few years he carried out his military duties in various Bohemian garrison towns.
In 1911, Charles married Princess Zita of Bourbon-Parma and they had met as children but did not see one another for almost ten years, as each pursued their education. In 1909, his Dragoon regiment was stationed at Brandýs nad Labem in Bohemia and it was during one of these visits that Charles and Zita became reacquainted. Due to Franz Ferdinands morganatic marriage in 1900, his children were excluded from the succession, as a result, the Emperor severely pressured Charles to marry. Zita not only shared Charles devout Catholicism, but a royal lineage. Zita recalled, Charles became heir presumptive after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo in 1914, only at this time did the old Emperor take steps to initiate the heir-presumptive to his crown in affairs of state. But the outbreak of World War I interfered with this political education, Charles spent his time during the first phase of the war at headquarters at Teschen, but exercised no military influence. Charles became a Feldmarschall in the Austro-Hungarian Army, in the spring of 1916, in connection with the offensive against Italy, he was entrusted with the command of the XX.
Corps, whose affections the heir-presumptive to the throne won by his affability, the offensive, after a successful start, soon came to a standstill. Shortly afterwards, Charles went to the front as commander of an army operating against the Russians and Romanians. Charles succeeded to the thrones in November 1916, after the death of his grand-uncle, on 2 December 1916, he assumed the title of Supreme Commander of the whole army from Archduke Friedrich. His coronation as King of Hungary occurred on 30 December, in 1917, Charles secretly entered into peace negotiations with France
Infanta Blanca of Spain
Infanta Blanca of Spain was the eldest child of Carlos, Duke of Madrid, Carlist claimant to the throne of Spain and his wife Princess Margherita of Bourbon-Parma. Blanca was a member of the House of Bourbon and - according to the Carlists - an Infanta of Spain by birth, in 1889 she married Archduke Leopold Salvator of Austria. The family left Austria after the end of the Monarchy and finally settled in Barcelona. When the male line of Blancas family died out at the death of her uncle, Alfonso Carlos, Blancas childhood was marked by the third Carlist War in which her father tried, unsuccessfully, to gain the throne of Spain by force. For a time in 1875, Blanca lived in Elizondo, Navarre at the established by her father. After the war ended the family lived mostly in the Parisian district of Passy, in 1881 they were expelled from France due to Carloss political activities. By Blancas parents drifted apart and her father went to live in his palace in Venice, while her mother retired to her estate in Viareggio, Italy.
Blanca and her siblings divided their time between them and their properties were confiscated and they had to live in exile with meager means. The family could live in France nor in Italy, countries that had been Austrias enemies during the war. Blanca was forced to ask permission to live in Barcelona to her cousin Alphonso XIII of Spain, Alphonso XIII allowed them to come to Spain on condition that they did not support the claims to the Spanish throne of Blancas brother Jaime, Duke of Madrid. In 1922 Blanca was recognized as a Spaniard, the exiled family had to live modestly in a house in Barcelona. The fall of Alphonso XIII and the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic in April 1931 did not affect directly their circumstances, however five months later, Blancas husband died during a trip to Austria while trying to recover some of their lost properties. Blanca was left under strained economical means, living from vineyards at La Tenuata Reale at Viareggio, three of her children were still living with her, Dolores and Karl.
The convulsed political situation in Spain made them returned to Austria, the family was able to rent three rooms at their former residence in Vienna, the Palais Toskana. In March 1938 Hitler annexed Austria and Blanca with her children Dolores, in years and her youngest sons Karl Pius and Franz Josef became involved in various Carlist disputes and claims. She died, aged 81, in Viareggio, Italy, Lost Waltz A Story Of Exile by Bertita Harding Balansó, Juan. Plaza & Janés Editores SA,1997, ISBN 84-01-53023-7 McIntosh, rosvall Royal Books,2000, ISBN 91-973978-0-6 Lost Waltz A Story Of Exile by Bertita Harding
Croatia, officially the Republic of Croatia, is a sovereign state between Central Europe, Southeast Europe, and the Mediterranean. Its capital city is Zagreb, which one of the countrys primary subdivisions. Croatia covers 56,594 square kilometres and has diverse, mostly continental, Croatias Adriatic Sea coast contains more than a thousand islands. The countrys population is 4.28 million, most of whom are Croats, the Croats arrived in the area of present-day Croatia during the early part of the 7th century AD. They organised the state into two duchies by the 9th century, tomislav became the first king by 925, elevating Croatia to the status of a kingdom. The Kingdom of Croatia retained its sovereignty for nearly two centuries, reaching its peak during the rule of Kings Petar Krešimir IV and Dmitar Zvonimir, Croatia entered a personal union with Hungary in 1102. In 1527, faced with Ottoman conquest, the Croatian Parliament elected Ferdinand I of the House of Habsburg to the Croatian throne. In 1918, after World War I, Croatia was included in the unrecognized State of Slovenes and Serbs which seceded from Austria-Hungary, a fascist Croatian puppet state backed by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany existed during World War II.
After the war, Croatia became a member and a federal constituent of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. On 25 June 1991 Croatia declared independence, which came wholly into effect on 8 October of the same year, the Croatian War of Independence was fought successfully during the four years following the declaration. A unitary state, Croatia is a republic governed under a parliamentary system, the International Monetary Fund classified Croatia as an emerging and developing economy, and the World Bank identified it as a high-income economy. Croatia is a member of the European Union, United Nations, the Council of Europe, NATO, the World Trade Organization, the service sector dominates Croatias economy, followed by the industrial sector and agriculture. Tourism is a significant source of revenue during the summer, with Croatia ranked the 18th most popular tourist destination in the world, the state controls a part of the economy, with substantial government expenditure. The European Union is Croatias most important trading partner, since 2000, the Croatian government constantly invests in infrastructure, especially transport routes and facilities along the Pan-European corridors.
Internal sources produce a significant portion of energy in Croatia, the rest is imported, the origin of the name is uncertain, but is thought to be a Gothic or Indo-Aryan term assigned to a Slavic tribe. The oldest preserved record of the Croatian ethnonym *xъrvatъ is of variable stem, the first attestation of the Latin term is attributed to a charter of Duke Trpimir from the year 852. The original is lost, and just a 1568 copy is preserved—leading to doubts over the authenticity of the claim, the oldest preserved stone inscription is the 9th-century Branimir Inscription, where Duke Branimir is styled as Dux Cruatorvm. The inscription is not believed to be dated accurately, but is likely to be from during the period of 879–892, the area known as Croatia today was inhabited throughout the prehistoric period
House of Lorraine
The House of Lorraine originated as a cadet branch of the House of Metz. It inherited the Duchy of Lorraine in 1473 after the death of duke Nicholas I without a male heir, his sons Joseph II and Leopold II, and grandson Francis II were the last four Holy Roman Emperors from 1745 to the dissolution of the empire in 1806. Habsburg-Lorraine inherited the Habsburg Empire, ruling the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary until the dissolution of the monarchy in 1918, the house claims descent from Gerard I of Paris whose immediate descendants are known as the Girardides. The Matfridings of the 10th century are thought to have been a branch of the family, at the turn of the 10th century they were Counts of Metz and ruled a set of lordships in Alsace and Lorraine. Mary of Guise, mother of Mary, Queen of Scots, louis XIVs imperialist ambitions forced the dukes into a permanent alliance with his archenemies, the Holy Roman Emperors from the House of Habsburg. Following the failure of both Emperor Joseph I and Emperor Charles VI to produce a son and heir, the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 left the throne to the yet unborn daughter.
In 1736 Emperor Charles arranged her marriage to Francis of Lorraine who agreed to exchange his hereditary lands for the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, at Charless death in 1740 the Habsburg lands passed to Maria Theresa and Francis, who was elected Holy Roman Emperor as Francis I. The Habsburg-Lorraine nuptials and dynastic union precipitated, and survived, the War of the Austrian Succession, another member of the house, Archduke Maximilian of Austria, was Emperor of Mexico. In 1900, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria contracted a marriage with Countess Sophie Chotek. Their descendants, known as the House of Hohenberg, have been excluded from succession to the Austro-Hungarian crown, but not that of Lorraine, where morganatic marriage has never been outlawed. Nevertheless, Otto von Habsburg, the eldest grandson of Franz Ferdinands younger brother, was regarded as the head of the house until his death in 2011. It was at Nancy, the capital of the House of Vaudemont. House of Metz Adalbert, Duke of Upper Lorraine r, 1047/8 Gérard, Duke of Lorraine, r.
1390–1431 Charles II died without heir, the duchy passing to Isabella, Duchess of Lorraine. The duchy passed to their son John II, whose son Nicholas I died without male heir, the title now went to Nicholas aunt Yolande. René inherited the title of Duke of Lorraine upon his marriage in 1473, René II, Duke of Lorraine, r. 1608–1624 Nicole Claude Francis II, Charles IV, Duke of Lorraine r, 1624–1675 Nicholas Francis Charles V, r. 1690–1729 Francis Stephen, Duke of Lorraine, r, 1745–1765 House of Habsburg-Lorraine Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor, r
Infante Alfonso Carlos, Duke of San Jaime
Alfonso Carlos was the second son of Infante Juan of Spain, Count of Montizón and Archduchess Maria Beatrix of Austria-Este. Since his parents separated when he was young, he and his brother were raised in Modena under the tutelage of his maternal uncle Duke Francis V of Modena. In 1868 Alfonso Carlos joined the Papal Zouaves which had formed to defend the Papal States from the army of the Kingdom of Italy. In 1869 he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant, in September 1870 he fought for the pope during the Capture of Rome where he defended the Porta Pia. When he was ordered to surrender, he refused to give up his sword which had belonged to his grandfather Carlos V and he escaped to Toulon in a French naval ship. In 1872 Alfonso Carlos joined the armies of his older brother Carlos, Duke of Madrid and he was appointed commanding general of the Royal Army of Catalonia and distinguished himself at the Battle of Alpens in July 1873 and the siege of Cuenca in July 1874. In spite of successes, the Carlists eventually lost the war which was over by February 1876.
Alfonso Carlos spent most of the rest of his life in Austria where he owned castles at Puchheim and at Ebenzweier near Altmünster, and he devoted himself to the abolition of duelling. In order to gain support, he wrote a book on the topic in French. He used his social contacts to encourage the establishment of anti-duelling leagues in the German Empire, Austria, Hungary, Belgium. On October 2,1931, at the age of 82, Alfonso Carlos succeeded his nephew Jaime, Duke of Madrid as Carlist claimant to the throne of Spain and he issued several manifestos to his Spanish followers including one in August 1932 and another in June 1934. He affirmed that he would be succeeded by whoever follows me according to the Salic law, when the Spanish Civil War broke out, Alfonso Carlos instructed his Carlist followers to cooperate with the Nationalists under the command of General Francisco Franco. On September 28,1936, Alfonso Carlos was hit by a truck as he crossed a street in Vienna. His body was buried in the chapel of his castle at Puchheim, the obituary for Alfonso Carlos in The Times described him as a great gentleman.
Alfonso Carlos was the last male descendant of Infante Carlos. With his death the position of senior male descendant of King Charles IV of Spain passed to the deposed King Alfonso XIII of Spain, Maria das Neves accompanied Alfonso Carlos on many of his military campaigns in Spain. The Effort to Abolish the Duel, The North American Review 175, the Fight Against Duelling in Europe, The Fortnightly Review 90, 169-184. Resumé de lhistoire de la création et du développement des ligues contre le duel et pour la protection de lhonneur dans les pays de lEurope de fin novembre 1900 à fin octobre 1908
Francis I of the Two Sicilies
Francis I of the Two Sicilies was King of the Two Sicilies from 1825 to 1830. Francis was born the son of Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies and he was the nephew of Marie Antoinette and Louis XVI, the last King and Queen of France before the first French Republic. At the death of his older brother Carlo, Duke of Calabria, Francis became the heir to the throne and Duke of Calabria, in 1796 Francis married his double first cousin Archduchess Maria Clementina of Austria, daughter of Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor. When she died, he married his first cousin María Isabel, while still heir apparent he professed liberal ideas, and on the outbreak of the revolution of 1820 he accepted the regency, apparently in a friendly spirit towards the new constitution. On succeeding to the throne in 1825, however, he pursued a conservative course and he took little part in the government, which he left in the hands of favourites and police officials, and lived with his mistresses, surrounded by soldiers, ever in dread of assassination.
During his reign the only revolutionary movement was the outbreak on the Cilento, repressed by the Marquis Delcarretto and he was, successful in having the Austrian occupation force withdrawn, thereby relieving a large financial burden on the treasury. During his reign, the Royal Order of Francis I was founded to reward civil merit, with Isabella of Spain, Luisa Carlotta, who married her mothers younger brother Infante Francisco de Paula of Spain. María Cristina, who married firstly her uncle Ferdinand VII of Spain, Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies, who became Francis Is successor and married twice. Carlo, Prince of Capua, who morganatically wed Penelope Smyth and had issue, Count of Syracuse, who married Princess Maria of Savoy-Carignan. Maria Antonia who married Leopold II, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Maria Amalia, who married Infante Sebastian of Portugal and Spain. Maria Carolina, who married Don Carlos de Bourbon, Count of Montemolin, teresa Cristina, who married Emperor Pedro II of Brazil.
Luigi, Count of Aquila, who married Januária, Princess Imperial of Brazil, Count of Trapani, who married Archduchess Maria Isabella of Austria, Princess of Tuscany, and had issue. He had children by mistresses. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh
Charles II, Duke of Parma
Charles Louis was King of Etruria, Duke of Lucca, and Duke of Parma. He was the son of Louis, Prince of Piacenza. Born at the Royal Palace of Madrid at the court of his maternal grandfather King Charles IV of Spain, in 1801, by the Treaty of Aranjuez, Charles became Crown Prince of Etruria, a newly created kingdom formed from territories of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. Charles moved to Italy with his parents and in 1803, not yet four years old and his mother Infanta Maria Luisa assumed the regency while Charles Louis minority lasted. In 1807 Napoleon Bonaparte dissolved the kingdom of Etruria and Charles Louis and his mother took refuge in Spain, in May 1808 they were forced to leave Spain by Napoleon who arrested Charles Louis mother in a convent in Rome. Between 1811 and 1814 Charles Louis was placed under the care of his grandfather, after Napoleons fall, in 1817, Infanta Maria Luisa became Duchess of Lucca in her own right and Charles Louis, age sixteen, became hereditary Prince of Lucca.
In 1820 he married Princess Maria Teresa of Savoy and they were a mismatched couple and had only one surviving son. At his mothers death in 1824, Charles Louis became the reigning Duke of Lucca as Charles I and he had little interest in ruling. He left the duchy in the hands of his ministers and spent most of his time traveling around Europe. A liberal movement led him to abdicate Lucca in favor of the Grand Duke of Tuscany in October 1847 in exchange for financial compensation, as he wanted to retire to private life. Two months later, in December 1847, at the death of the former Empress Marie Louise and his reign in Parma as Duke Charles II was brief. He was ill received by his new subjects and within a few months he was ousted by a revolution and he regained control of Parma under the protection of Austrian troops, but finally abdicated in favor of his son Charles III on 14 March 1849. His son was assassinated in 1854 and his grandson Robert I, in exile Charles Louis assumed the title of count of Villafranca.
He spent the last years of his life mostly in France, Charles Louis was born at the Royal Palace of Madrid. His father, a member of the house of Bourbon-Parma, was Louis, Prince of Piacenza and heir of Ferdinand and his mother, Infanta Maria Louisa of Spain, was a daughter of King Charles IV of Spain. They had married in 1795 when the Hereditary Prince of Parma came to Madrid in search of a wife, the couple remained in Spain for the first years of their married life. Charles Louiss early life was over-shadowed by the actions of Napoleon Bonaparte who was interested in conquering the Italian states, French troops invaded the Duchy of Parma in 1796. On 21 April 1801 Charles Louis left Spain with his parents, after a short visit to Napoleon in Paris, they moved to Florence taking residence in the Pitti palace, the former home of the Medici family
Galicia (Eastern Europe)
Galicia is a historical and geographic region in Central-Eastern Europe, once a small Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria that straddled the modern-day border between Poland and Ukraine. The area, which is named after the city of Halych, was first mentioned in Hungarian historical chronicles in the year 1206 as Galiciæ. The nucleus of historic Galicia lies within the regions of western Ukraine, Ternopil. In the 18th century, territories that became part of the modern Polish regions of Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Subcarpathian Voivodeship. There is considerable overlap between Galicia and south-west Ruthenia, especially a cross-border region that is inhabited by various nationalities, Halych-Volhynia cut a swathe as a mighty principality under the reign of Roman the Great in 1170–1205. After the expulsion of the Hungarians in 1221, Ruthenians took back rule of the area, Romans son Daniel of Galicia was crowned king of Halych-Volhynia. He founded Lviv, named in honour of his son Leo I, the Ukrainian name Halych comes from the Khwalis or Kaliz who occupied the area from the time of the Magyars.
They were called Khalisioi in Greek, and Khvalis in Ukrainian, the Lypytsia culture supposedly replaced the existing Thracian Hallstatt and Vysotske cultures. Others assert that the name has Slavic origins – from halytsa, meaning a naked hill, the jackdaw was used as a charge in the citys coat of arms and also in the coat of arms of Galicia. The name, predates the coat of arms, which may represent canting or simply folk etymology, although the Hungarians were driven out from Halych-Volhynia by 1221, Hungarian kings continued to add Galicia et Lodomeria to their official titles. In 1527, the Habsburgs inherited those titles, together with the Hungarian crown, in 1772, Empress Maria Theresa, Archduchess of Austria and Queen of Hungary, decided to use those historical claims to justify her participation in the first partition of Poland. In fact, the territories acquired by Austria did not correspond exactly to those of former Halych-Volhynia, including the city of Volodymyr-Volynskyi – after which Lodomeria was named – was taken by Russia, not Austria.
On the other hand, much of Lesser Poland – Nowy Sącz and Przemyśl, Zamość, the full official name of the new Austrian province was Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria with the Duchies of Auschwitz and Zator. After the incorporation of the Free City of Kraków in 1846, it was extended to Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, each of those entities was formally separate, they were listed as such in the Austrian emperors titles, each had its distinct coat-of-arms and flag. For administrative purposes, they formed a single province, the duchies of Auschwitz and Zator were small historical principalities west of Kraków, on the border with Prussian Silesia. Lodomeria, under the name Volhynia, was not ruled by Austria, dale Dwellers, Mazury, Grębowiacy, Głuchoniemcy, Bełżanie, Bużanie, Opolanie, Wołyniacy, Pobereżcy or Nistrowianie. During the Great Migration period of Europe, a variety of nomadic groups invaded the area, Slavs came to dominate the Celtic-German population. In the 12th century, a Rurikid Principality of Halych formed there and Volhynia had originally been two separate Rurikid principalities, assigned on a rotating basis to younger members of the Kievan dynasty
World War I
World War I, known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history and it was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, and paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. The war drew in all the worlds great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances, the Allies versus the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. These alliances were reorganised and expanded as more nations entered the war, Japan, the trigger for the war was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. This set off a crisis when Austria-Hungary delivered an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia. Within weeks, the powers were at war and the conflict soon spread around the world.
On 25 July Russia began mobilisation and on 28 July, the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia, Germany presented an ultimatum to Russia to demobilise, and when this was refused, declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France, after the German march on Paris was halted, what became known as the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, with a trench line that changed little until 1917. On the Eastern Front, the Russian army was successful against the Austro-Hungarians, in November 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai. In 1915, Italy joined the Allies and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers, Romania joined the Allies in 1916, after a stunning German offensive along the Western Front in the spring of 1918, the Allies rallied and drove back the Germans in a series of successful offensives. By the end of the war or soon after, the German Empire, Russian Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, national borders were redrawn, with several independent nations restored or created, and Germanys colonies were parceled out among the victors.
During the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties, the League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such a conflict. This effort failed, and economic depression, renewed nationalism, weakened successor states, and feelings of humiliation eventually contributed to World War II. From the time of its start until the approach of World War II, at the time, it was sometimes called the war to end war or the war to end all wars due to its then-unparalleled scale and devastation. In Canada, Macleans magazine in October 1914 wrote, Some wars name themselves, during the interwar period, the war was most often called the World War and the Great War in English-speaking countries. Will become the first world war in the sense of the word. These began in 1815, with the Holy Alliance between Prussia and Austria, when Germany was united in 1871, Prussia became part of the new German nation. Soon after, in October 1873, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck negotiated the League of the Three Emperors between the monarchs of Austria-Hungary and Germany