House of Golitsyn
The Golitsyn family, one of the largest and most princely of the noble houses of Russia, originated in the Duchy of Lithuania. Since the extinction of the Korecki family in the 17th century, notable members include Vasily Vasilyevich Golitsyn, Boris Alexeyevich Golitsyn and Dmitry Mikhaylovich Golitsyn. Alternative transliterations of the include, Galitzin, Golitsin, Golitsyne. The family descends from a Lithuanian prince George, son of Patrikas and he immigrated to the court of Vasily I and married Vasilys sister. His children and grandchildren, Vassian Patrikeyev, were considered premier Russian boyars, one of them, Prince Mikhail Bulgakov-Golitsa, earned the nickname Golitsa for an iron glove he wore in the Battle of Orsha in 1514. His younger brother, another Mikhail Mikhailovich Golitsyn was general admiral of the Russian fleet, and Mikhails son Alexander Mikhailovich was a diplomat and soldier, who likewise rose to be field-marshal and governor of St. Petersburg. Another son of Mikhails, Dmitry Mikhailovich, was the Russian ambassador in Vienna during the reign of Catherine the Great, primarily remembered for the splendid Golitsyn Hospital he opened in Moscow, he should be noted as a great friend and patron of Mozart.
He is currently under investigation for possible Sainthood, his current title is Servant of God, Prince Dmitri Vladimirovich Golitsyn fought bravely during the Napoleonic wars, was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant General and governed Moscow for 25 years. Prince Alexander Nikolayevich Golitsyn was a minister of education in the government of Alexander I. He headed an investigation into masonic involvement in the Decembrist uprising of 1825, Princess Yelizaveta Alexeyevich Golitsyna Roman Catholic nun. Prince Nikolay Borisovich Galitzin was an amateur cellist who commissioned Beethoven to write his last string quartets, Prince Alexei Vasilyevich Golitsyn was a friend of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. Like the composer, Golitsyn was homosexual, but unlike the composer, he lived openly with his lover, Prince Grigory Sergeyevich Golitsin was a general and the Governor of Transcaucasia in 1897-1904. Prince Lev Sergeyevich 24 June 1845–8 January 1916 was one of the founders of winemaking in the Crimea, in his Crimean estate of Novyi Svet he built the first Russian factory of champagne wines.
In 1889 the production of this won the Gold Medal at the Paris exhibition in the nomination for sparkling wines. He became the surveyor of imperial vineyards at Abrau-Dyurso in 1891, Prince Boris Borisovich was a prominent physicist who invented the first electromagnetic seismograph in 1906. Prince Nikolai Dmitriyevich Golitsyn was the last Tsarist prime minister of Russia, Prince Leo Golitsyn escaped from Soviet Russia during World War I and came to settle in Canada by 1929 in Edson, Alberta. He and his wife purchased 420 acres of land, one-quarter section from M. Silva, most of the property bordered the McLeod River. Other than the 110 acres of land, they owned 5 pairs of foxes, horses
Archduke was the title borne from 1358 by the Habsburg rulers of the Archduchy of Austria, and by all senior members of that dynasty. It denotes a rank within the former Holy Roman Empire, which was below that of Emperor and King and above that of a Grand Duke, the territory ruled by an Archduke or Archduchess was called an Archduchy. All remaining Archduchies ceased to exist in 1918, in the Carolingian Empire, the title Archduke was awarded not as rank of nobility, but as a unique honorary title to the Duke of Lotharingia. Lotharingia was eventually absorbed by East Francia, becoming part of the Holy Roman Empire rather than a fully independent Kingdom, the extended fragmentation of both territories created two succeeding Duchies in the Low Countries and Geldre. Both claimed archducal status but were never recognised as such by the Holy Roman Emperor. Archduke of Austria, the archducal title to re-emerge, was invented in the Privilegium Maius in the 14th century by Duke Rudolf IV of Austria.
Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV refused to recognise the title, as did all the ruling dynasties of the member countries of the Empire. But Duke Ernest the Iron and his descendants assumed the title of Archduke. Emperor Frederick III himself simply used the title Duke of Austria, never Archduke, the title was first granted to Fredericks younger brother, Albert VI of Austria, who used it at least from 1458. In 1477, Frederick III granted the title of Archduke to his first cousin, Sigismund of Austria, the title appears first in documents issued under the joint rule of Maximilian and his son Philip in the Low Countries. Archduke was initially borne by those dynasts who ruled a Habsburg territory—i. e, only by males and their consorts, appanages being commonly distributed to cadets. But these junior archdukes did not thereby become sovereign hereditary rulers, occasionally a territory might be combined with a separate gubernatorial mandate ruled by an archducal cadet. From the 16th century onward and its form, Archduchess.
After the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire this usage was retained in the Austrian Empire, thus those members of the Habsburg family who are residents of the Republic of Austria are simply known by their first name and their surname Habsburg-Lothringen. However, members of the family who reside in other countries may or may not use the title, in accordance with laws, for example, Otto Habsburg-Lothringen, the eldest son of the last Habsburg Emperor, was an Austrian and German citizen. Hence, no member of the family other than the King bears the title of Archduke. The insignia of the Archduke of Lower and Upper Austria was the archducal hat, List of rulers of Austria List of Austrian consorts
Brussels, officially the Brussels-Capital Region, is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels which is the capital of Belgium. The Brussels-Capital Region is a part of both the French Community of Belgium and the Flemish Community, but is separate from the region of Flanders or Wallonia. The region has a population of 1.2 million and an area with a population of over 1.8 million. Brussels is the de facto capital of the European Union as it hosts a number of principal EU institutions, the secretariat of the Benelux and the headquarters of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization are located in Brussels. Today, it is considered an Alpha global city, historically a Dutch-speaking city, Brussels has seen a language shift to French from the late 19th century onwards. Today, the majority language is French, and the Brussels-Capital Region is a bilingual enclave within the Flemish Region. All road signs, street names, and many advertisements and services are shown in both languages, Brussels is increasingly becoming multilingual with increasing numbers of migrants and minority groups speaking their own languages.
The most common theory of the origin of Brussels name is that it derives from the Old Dutch Broekzele or Broeksel, meaning marsh, Saint Vindicianus, the bishop of Cambrai made the first recorded reference to the place Brosella in 695 when it was still a hamlet. The origin of the settlement that was to become Brussels lies in Saint Gaugericus construction of a chapel on an island in the river Senne around 580. The official founding of Brussels is usually situated around 979, when Duke Charles of Lower Lotharingia transferred the relics of Saint Gudula from Moorsel to the Saint Gaugericus chapel, Charles would construct the first permanent fortification in the city, doing so on that same island. Lambert I of Leuven, Count of Leuven gained the County of Brussels around 1000 by marrying Charles daughter, as it grew to a population of around 30,000, the surrounding marshes were drained to allow for further expansion. The Counts of Leuven became Dukes of Brabant at about this time, in the 13th century, the city got its first walls.
After the construction of the city walls in the early 13th century, to let the city expand, a second set of walls was erected between 1356 and 1383. Today, traces of it can still be seen, mostly because the small ring, Brabant had lost its independence, but Brussels became the Princely Capital of the prosperous Low Countries, and flourished. In 1516 Charles V, who had been heir of the Low Countries since 1506, was declared King of Spain in St. Michael and St. Gudula Cathedral in Brussels. Upon the death of his grandfather, Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor in 1519 and it was in the Palace complex at Coudenberg that Charles V abdicated in 1555. This impressive palace, famous all over Europe, had expanded since it had first become the seat of the Dukes of Brabant. In 1695, during the Nine Years War, King Louis XIV of France sent troops to bombard Brussels with artillery, together with the resulting fire, it was the most destructive event in the entire history of Brussels
Charles I of Austria
Charles I was the last ruler of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. He was the last Emperor of Austria, the last King of Hungary, and he spent the remaining years of his life attempting to restore the monarchy until his death in 1922. Following his beatification by the Catholic Church in 2004, he has become known as Blessed Charles of Austria. Charles was born 17 August 1887 in the Castle of Persenbeug in Lower Austria and his parents were Archduke Otto Franz of Austria and Princess Maria Josepha of Saxony. At the time, his granduncle Franz Joseph reigned as Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary, as a child, Archduke Charles was reared a devout Roman Catholic. He spent his early years wherever his fathers regiment happened to be stationed, on he lived in Vienna and he was privately educated, contrary to the custom ruling in the imperial family, he attended a public gymnasium for the sake of demonstrations in scientific subjects. In 1907, he was declared of age and Prince Zdenko Lobkowitz was appointed his chamberlain, in the next few years he carried out his military duties in various Bohemian garrison towns.
In 1911, Charles married Princess Zita of Bourbon-Parma and they had met as children but did not see one another for almost ten years, as each pursued their education. In 1909, his Dragoon regiment was stationed at Brandýs nad Labem in Bohemia and it was during one of these visits that Charles and Zita became reacquainted. Due to Franz Ferdinands morganatic marriage in 1900, his children were excluded from the succession, as a result, the Emperor severely pressured Charles to marry. Zita not only shared Charles devout Catholicism, but a royal lineage. Zita recalled, Charles became heir presumptive after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo in 1914, only at this time did the old Emperor take steps to initiate the heir-presumptive to his crown in affairs of state. But the outbreak of World War I interfered with this political education, Charles spent his time during the first phase of the war at headquarters at Teschen, but exercised no military influence. Charles became a Feldmarschall in the Austro-Hungarian Army, in the spring of 1916, in connection with the offensive against Italy, he was entrusted with the command of the XX.
Corps, whose affections the heir-presumptive to the throne won by his affability, the offensive, after a successful start, soon came to a standstill. Shortly afterwards, Charles went to the front as commander of an army operating against the Russians and Romanians. Charles succeeded to the thrones in November 1916, after the death of his grand-uncle, on 2 December 1916, he assumed the title of Supreme Commander of the whole army from Archduke Friedrich. His coronation as King of Hungary occurred on 30 December, in 1917, Charles secretly entered into peace negotiations with France
House of Habsburg
The House of Habsburg, called House of Hapsburg, or House of Austria, was one of the most influential royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs between 1438 and 1740, from the sixteenth century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they maintained close relations. The House takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the name as his own. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, by 1276, Count Radbots seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg had moved the familys power base from Habsburg Castle to the Duchy of Austria. Rudolph had become King of Germany in 1273, and the dynasty of the House of Habsburg was truly entrenched in 1276 when Rudolph became ruler of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918.
A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to expand its domains to include Burgundy and its colonial empire, Hungary. In the 16th century, the separated into the senior Habsburg Spain and the junior Habsburg Monarchy branches. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the 18th century, the senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. It was succeeded by the Vaudemont branch of the House of Lorraine, the new successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, although it was often referred to as simply the House of Habsburg. His grandson Radbot, Count of Habsburg founded the Habsburg Castle, the origins of the castles name, located in what is now the Swiss canton of Aargau, are uncertain. There is disagreement on whether the name is derived from the High German Habichtsburg, or from the Middle High German word hab/hap meaning ford, the first documented use of the name by the dynasty itself has been traced to the year 1108.
The Habsburg Castle was the seat in the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries. The Habsburgs expanded their influence through arranged marriages and by gaining political privileges, in the 13th century, the house aimed its marriage policy at families in Upper Alsace and Swabia. They were able to high positions in the church hierarchy for their members. Territorially, they often profited from the extinction of other families such as the House of Kyburg. By the second half of the 13th century, count Rudolph IV had become one of the most influential territorial lords in the area between the Vosges Mountains and Lake Constance
Otto von Habsburg
He became the pretender to the former thrones, Head of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, and Sovereign of the Order of the Golden Fleece in 1922, upon the death of his father. He resigned as Sovereign of the Golden Fleece in 2000 and as head of the Imperial House in 2007, with his fathers accession to the thrones in 1916, he was likely to become the Emperor. As his father never abdicated, Otto was considered by himself, his family and he has been described as one of the leaders of the Austrian Resistance. Otto von Habsburg played a role in the revolutions of 1989. Later he was a supporter of the EU membership of central. A noted intellectual, he published books on historical and political affairs. Otto has been described as one of the architects of the European idea and of European integration together with Robert Schuman, Konrad Adenauer, Otto was exiled in 1918 and grew up mostly in Spain. His devout Catholic mother raised him according to the old curriculum of Austria-Hungary, preparing him to become a Catholic monarch.
During his life in exile, he lived in Switzerland, Spain, France, the United States, and from 1954 until his death, finally in Bavaria, in the residence Villa Austria. His funeral took place at St. Stephens Cathedral in Vienna on 16 July 2011, he was entombed in the Imperial Crypt in Vienna, Otto was born at Villa Wartholz in Reichenau an der Rax, Austria-Hungary. His godfather was the Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria, his godmother was his grandmother Infanta Maria Antonia of Portugal, in November 1916, Otto became Crown Prince of Austria, Hungary and Croatia when his father, Archduke Charles, acceded to the throne. However, in 1918, at the end of the First World War, the monarchies were abolished, the Republics of Austria and Hungary founded instead, Hungary did become a kingdom again, but Charles was never to regain the throne. Instead, Miklós Horthy ruled as regent until 1944, in a kingdom without a king, Otto spoke German, Croatian, Spanish and Latin fluently. In life, he would write some 40 books in German, Hungarian and his mother made him learn many languages because she believed he one day might rule over many lands.
Ottos family spent the subsequent years in Switzerland, and on the Portuguese island of Madeira, on his fathers deathbed, his mother, Empress Dowager Zita, told the 9-year-old, your father is now sleeping the eternal sleep—you are now Emperor and King. The family eventually relocated to the Basque town of Lekeitio, where 40 Spanish grandees bought them a villa, the Austrian parliament had officially expelled the Habsburg dynasty and confiscated all the official property. In 1935, he graduated with a PhD degree in Political and Social Sciences from the University of Louvain in Belgium and his thesis was on the right, born of usage and of the peasant law of inheritance, of the indivisibility of rural land ownership in Austria. From his fathers death throughout the remainder of his time in exile, Otto considered himself the emperor of Austria
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in western-Central Europe, and is bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning an area of 41,285 km2. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation, it has not been in a state of war internationally since 1815, nevertheless, it pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to international organisations.
On the European level, it is a member of the European Free Trade Association. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties, spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions, French and Romansh. Due to its diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names, Suisse, Svizzera. On coins and stamps, Latin is used instead of the four living languages, Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Zürich and Geneva have each been ranked among the top cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the former ranked second globally, according to Mercer. The English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, a term for the Swiss. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse, in use since the 16th century.
The name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, the Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for Confederates, used since the 14th century. The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes, ultimately related to swedan ‘to burn’
Zita of Bourbon-Parma
Zita of Bourbon-Parma was the wife of Emperor Charles of Austria. As such, she was the last Empress of Austria and Queen of Hungary, born as the seventeenth child of the dispossessed Robert I, Duke of Parma and his second wife Infanta Maria Antonia of Portugal, Zita married the Archduke Charles of Austria in 1911. Charles and Zita left for exile in Switzerland and Madeira, after her husbands death and her son Otto served as symbols of unity for the exiled dynasty. A devout Roman Catholic, she raised a family after being widowed at the age of 29. Asteroid 689 Zita is named in her honour, Princess Zita of Bourbon-Parma was born at the Villa Pianore in the Italian Province of Lucca,9 May 1892. The unusual name Zita was given her after a popular Italian Saint who had lived in Tuscany in the 13th century, Zitas father had lost his throne as a result of the movement for Italian unification in 1859 when he was still a child. He fathered twelve children during his first marriage to Princess Maria Pia of the Two Sicilies, Duke Robert became a widower in 1882, and two years he married Infanta Maria Antonia of Portugal, Zitas mother.
The second marriage produced a further twelve children, Zita was the 17th child among Duke Roberts 24 children. Robert moved his family between Villa Pianore and his castle in Schwarzau in lower Austria. It was mainly in two residences that Zita spent her formative years. The family spent most of the year in Austria moving to Pianore in the Winter, to move between them, they took a special train with sixteen coaches to accommodate the family and their belongings. Zita and her siblings were raised to speak Italian, German, Spanish and English She recalled, We grew up internationally. My father thought of himself first and foremost as a Frenchman, I once asked him how we should describe ourselves. He replied, We are French princes who reigned in Italy, in fact, of the twenty-four children only three including me, were actually born in Italy. At the age of ten, Zita was sent to a school at Zanberg in Upper Bavaria. She was summoned home in the autumn of 1907 at the death of her father and her maternal grandmother sent Zita and her sister Franziska to a convent on the Isle of Wight to complete her education.
Brought up as devout Catholics, the Parma children regularly undertook good works for the poor, in Schwarzau the family turned surplus cloth into clothes. Zita and Franziska personally distributed food and medicines to the needy in Pianore, three of Zitas sisters became nuns and, for a time, she considered following the same path
Ellingen is a town in the Weißenburg-Gunzenhausen district, in Bavaria, Germany. It was first mentioned in 899, from 1216 -1806 it was capital of the Franconian branch of the Teutonic Order and at least for some years residence of the orders grandmaster at the end of 18th century. At the end of WW II Ellingen was bombed by US Airforce although it had no military or industrial importance, the town has a baroque palace, Ellingen Residence, and several other baroque and rococo buildings. The Swabian Rezat flows through Ellingen, Ellingen has a railway station at the Nuremberg - Treuchtlingen - Augsburg line. By the Bundesstraße 2 and 13 it is connected to Nuremberg, Ingolstadt. All sections are sorted according to the year of birth. The list does not claim to be complete