A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family, usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system but sometimes appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a house, historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the dynasty may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends. The word dynasty itself is often dropped from such adjectival references, until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty, that is, to increase the territory and power of his family members. The longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. Succession through a daughter when permitted was considered to establish a new dynasty in her husbands ruling house, some states in Africa, determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mothers dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
It is extended to unrelated people such as poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team. The word dynasty derives via Latin dynastia from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to power, dominion and it was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, power or ability, from dýnamai, to be able. A ruler in a dynasty is referred to as a dynast. For example, following his abdication, Edward VIII of the United Kingdom ceased to be a member of the House of Windsor. A dynastic marriage is one that complies with monarchical house law restrictions, the marriage of Willem-Alexander, Prince of Orange, to Máxima Zorreguieta in 2002 was dynastic, for example, and their eldest child is expected to inherit the Dutch crown eventually. But the marriage of his younger brother Prince Friso to Mabel Wisse Smit in 2003 lacked government support, thus Friso forfeited his place in the order of succession, lost his title as a Prince of the Netherlands, and left his children without dynastic rights.
In historical and monarchist references to formerly reigning families, a dynast is a member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchys rules still in force. Even since abolition of the Austrian monarchy and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position. The term dynast is sometimes used only to refer to descendants of a realms monarchs. The term can therefore describe overlapping but distinct sets of people, yet he is not a male-line member of the royal family, and is therefore not a dynast of the House of Windsor. Thus, in 1999 he requested and obtained permission from Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco. Yet a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time and that exclusion, ceased to apply on 26 March 2015, with retroactive effect for those who had been dynasts prior to triggering it by marriage to a Catholic
Archduke Franz Salvator of Austria
He was an Austrian Archduke, a son of Archduke Karl Salvator, Prince of Tuscany and his wife Princess Maria Immaculata of Bourbon-Two-Sicilies. He was a cavalry General in the Imperial and Royal Austro-Hungarian Army and he received an honorary doctorate in medicine from the University of Innsbruck for his work with the Red Cross during World War I and was a Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece. He married first, in Ischl on 31 July 1890, Archduchess Marie Valerie of Austria, daughter of Franz Joseph I of Austria and wife Elisabeth in Bavaria. Their children were, Archduchess Elisabeth Franziska Marie Karoline Ignatia Salvator, married at Niederwallsee on 19 September 1912 Georg Graf von Waldburg zu Zeil und Hohenems, Archduke Franz Carl Salvator Marie Joseph Ignaz, married one issue. Archduke Hubert Salvator Rainer Maria Joseph Ignatius, married at Anholt civilly on 25 November 1926 and religiously on 26 November 1926 Princess Rosemary of Salm-Salm, Archduchess Hedwig Maria Immakulata Michaela Ignatia Salvator, married at Schloss Wallsee on 24 April 1918 Bernhard Graf zu Stolberg-Stolberg, and had issue.
Archduke Theodor Salvator, married at Schloss Zeil on 28 July 1926 Maria Theresa Gräfin von Waldburg zu Zeil und Trauchburg, Archduchess Gertrud Maria Gisela Elisabeth Ignatia, married at Bad Ischl on 29 December 1931 Georg Graf von Waldburg zu Zeil und Trauchburg, and had issue. Archduchess Maria Elisabeth Therese Philomena Ignatia and without issue, Archduchess Mathilde Maria Antonia Ignatia, married in Hall in Tirol on 9 April 1947 Ernst Hefel, without issue. He married second, morganatically in Vienna on 28 April 1934, Melanie Freiin von Riesenfels, Franz Salvator had an illegitimate son by Princess Stephanie von Hohenlohe, Franz Josef Rudolf Hans Weriand Max Stefan Anton von Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst. He was given the surname of his mothers husband at the time of his birth, although Franz Salvator was his father
Third Italian War of Independence
The Third Italian War of Independence was a conflict which paralleled the Austro-Prussian War, and was fought between the Kingdom of Italy and the Austrian Empire. Victor Emmanuel II of Savoy had been crowned King of Italy on March 17,1861, but did not control Venetia and the much reduced Papal States. The situation of the Irredente was a source of tension in the domestic politics of the newly created Kingdom. The first attempt to seize Rome was orchestrated by Giuseppe Garibaldi in 1862, confident in the Kings neutrality, he set sail from Genoa to Palermo. Collecting 1,200 volunteers, he sailed from Catania and landed at Melito, in Calabria, on August 24 to reach Mount Aspromonte, the Piedmontese General Enrico Cialdini, sent a division under Colonel Pallavicino to stop the volunteer army. Garibaldi himself was wounded in the battle, and taken prisoner along with his men. The increasing discord between Austria and Prussia over the German Question turned into war in 1866, offering Italy an occasion to capture Venetia.
On April 8,1866 the Italian government signed an alliance with Prussia. Italian armies, led by General Alfonso Ferrero La Marmora, were to engage the Austrians on the southern front, taking advantage of their perceived naval superiority, the Italians planned to threaten the Dalmatian coast and seize Trieste. There were disputes among the chain of command as former enemies were now serving alongside one another, Prussia opened hostilities on 16 June 1866 by attacking several German states allied with Austria. Three days later, Italy declared war on Austria, starting operations on 23 June. La Marmora moved first through Mantua and Peschiera del Garda, but was defeated at the Battle of Custoza on 24 June and retreated disorderly back across the Mincio river. Cialdini, on the hand, did not act offensively for the first part of the war, conducting only several shows of force and failed to besiege the Austrian fortress of Borgoforte. Following the defeat at Custoza, the Italians reorganized in preparation for a presumed Austrian counter-offensive, the Austrians took this opportunity to raid Valtellina and Val Camonica.
The course of the war, was to turn in Italys favour thanks to Prussian victories in Bohemia, the Austrians were compelled to redeploy one of their three army corps from Italy to Vienna. The remaining Austrian forces in the theatre concentrated their defenses around Trentino, the situation was embarrassing for Italy, as its forces had been beaten back in the only battle to date. Garibaldis volunteers, reinforced by a division of infantry, were to advance into Trentino, with the eventual objective of capturing the provinces capital. Cialdini crossed the Po on 8 July, advancing to Udine on 22 July without encountering the Austrian army, in the meantime, Garibaldis volunteers had advanced from Brescia in the direction of Trento in the Invasion of Trentino, winning the battle of Bezzecca on 21 July
Uruguay, officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay, is a country in the southeastern region of South America. It borders Argentina to its west and Brazil to its north and east, with the Río de la Plata to the south and the Atlantic Ocean to the southeast. Uruguay is home to an estimated 3.42 million people, of whom 1.8 million live in the area of its capital and largest city. With an area of approximately 176,000 square kilometres, Uruguay is geographically the second-smallest nation in South America, only larger in size than Suriname. Uruguay was inhabited by the Charrúa people for approximately 4000 years before the Portuguese established Colonia del Sacramento, one of the oldest European settlements in the region, in 1680. Montevideo was founded as a stronghold by the Spanish in the early 18th century. Uruguay won its independence between 1811 and 1828, following a struggle between Spain, Portugal and Brazil. It remained subject to influence and intervention throughout the 19th century. Modern Uruguay is a constitutional republic, with a president who serves as both head of state and head of government.
Uruguay is ranked first in Latin America in democracy, lack of corruption, e-government, on a per-capita basis, Uruguay contributes more troops to United Nations peace-keeping missions than any other country. It ranks second in the region on economic freedom, income equality, per-capita income, Uruguay is the third-best country on the continent in terms of HDI, GDP growth and infrastructure. It is regarded as a country by the UN. Uruguay is the third-best ranked in the world in e-Participation, Uruguay is an important global exporter of combed wool, soybeans, frozen beef and milk. Nearly 95% of Uruguays electricity comes from energy, mostly hydroelectric facilities. The Economist named Uruguay country of the year in 2013, acknowledging the innovative policy of legalizing the production, the name of the namesake river comes from the Spanish pronunciation of the regional Guarani word for it. There are several interpretations, including bird-river, the name could refer to a river snail called uruguá that was plentiful in the water.
The only documented inhabitants of Uruguay before European colonization of the area were the Charrúa, the Portuguese discovered the region of present-day Uruguay in 1512. The Spanish arrived in present-day Uruguay in 1516, the indigenous peoples fierce resistance to conquest, combined with the absence of gold and silver, limited their settlement in the region during the 16th and 17th centuries
Princess Maria Antonietta of Bourbon-Two Sicilies
Maria Antonietta was the eldest daughter of Prince Francis, Count of Trapani and his wife Archduchess Maria Isabella of Austria, Princess of Tuscany. She was a sister of Maria Carolina, Countess Andrzej Zamoyski. Maria Antonietta married her first cousin Prince Alfonso, Count of Caserta, son of Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies and his wife Maria Theresa of Austria, on 8 June 1868 in Rome. Antonietta and Alfonso had twelve children, Prince Ferdinand Pius of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, Duke of Calabria ∞ Princess Maria Ludwiga Theresia of Bavaria, Prince Carlos of Bourbon-Two Sicilies ∞ Mercedes, Princess of Asturias, daughter of Alfonso XII of Spain. ∞ Princess Louise of Orléans, daughter of Prince Philippe, Count of Paris, Prince Francesco di Paola of the Two Sicilies Princess Maria Immaculata of Bourbon-Two Sicilies ∞ Prince Johann Georg of Saxony, son of George of Saxony. Princess Maria Cristina of Bourbon-Two Sicilies ∞ Archduke Peter Ferdinand of Austria, Prince of Tuscany, son of Ferdinand IV, Princess Maria di Grazia of the Two Sicilies ∞ Prince Luiz of Orléans-Braganza, son of Prince Gaston, Count of Eu.
Princess Maria Giuseppina of the Two Sicilies Prince Gennaro of the Two Sicilies ∞ Beatrice Bordessa, Prince Ranieri of the Two Sicilies, Duke of Castro ∞ Countess Maria Carolina Zamoyska, daughter of Count Andrzej Przemysław Zamoyski. Prince Filippo of the Two Sicilies ∞ Princess Marie Louise dOrléans, daughter of Prince Emmanuel, Prince Francesco dAssisi of the Two Sicilies Prince Gabriele of the Two Sicilies ∞ Princess Malgorzata Izabella Czartoryska, daughter of Prince Adam Ludwik Czartoryski. ∞ Princess Cecylia Lubomirska, daughter of Prince Kasimierz Lubomirski, Spain, 697th Dame of the Order of Queen Maria Luisa -. Media related to Princess Antonietta of Bourbon-Two Sicilies at Wikimedia Commons
Lausanne is a city in the French-speaking part of Switzerland, and the capital and biggest city of the canton of Vaud. The city is situated on the shores of Lake Geneva and it faces the French town of Évian-les-Bains, with the Jura Mountains to its north-west. Lausanne is located 62 kilometres northeast of Geneva, Lausanne has a population of 146,372, making it the fourth largest city in Switzerland, with the entire agglomeration area having 420,000 inhabitants. The metropolitan area of Lausanne-Geneva was over 1.2 million inhabitants in 2000, Lausanne is a focus of international sport, hosting the International Olympic Committee, the Court of Arbitration for Sport and some 55 international sport associations. It lies in a noted wine-growing region, the city has a 28-station metro system, making it the smallest city in the world to have a rapid transit system. Lausanne will host the 2020 Winter Youth Olympics, by the 2nd century AD it was known as vikanor Lousonnensium and in 280 as lacu Lausonio.
By 400 it was civitas Lausanna and in 990 it was mentioned as Losanna, after the fall of the Roman Empire, insecurity forced the transfer of Lausanne to its current centre, a hilly site that is easier to defend. The city which emerged from the camp was ruled by the Dukes of Savoy, it came under Bern from 1536 to 1798 and a number of its cultural treasures, including the hanging tapestries in the Cathedral, were permanently removed. Lausanne has made a number of requests to recover them, after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, Lausanne became a place of refuge for French Huguenots. In 1729 a seminary was opened by Antoine Court and Benjamin Duplan, by 1750 ninety pastors had been sent back to France to work clandestinely, this number would rise to four hundred. Official persecution ended in 1787, a faculty of Protestant theology was established at Montauban in 1808, during the Napoleonic Wars, the citys status changed. In 1803, it became the capital of a newly formed Swiss canton, in 1964 the city hosted the Swiss National Exhibition, displaying its newly found confidence to host major international events.
From the 1950s to 1970s a large number of Italians and Portuguese immigrated, settling mostly in the district of Renens. The city has served as a refuge for European artists, while under the care of a psychiatrist at Lausanne, T. S. Eliot composed most of his 1922 poem The Wasteland. Hemingway visited from Paris with his wife during the 1920s, in fact, many creative people - such as Edward Gibbon, an historian, and Romantic era poets Shelley and Byron - have sojourned and worked in Lausanne or nearby. The city has been quiet, but in the late 1960s. Later demonstrations took place to protest against the high cinema prices, the most important geographical feature of the area surrounding Lausanne is Lake Geneva. Lausanne boasts a dramatic panorama over the lake and the Alps, in addition to its generally southward-sloping layout, the centre of the city is the site of an ancient river, the Flon, which has been covered since the 19th century
The Austrian Empire was an empire in Central Europe created out of the realms of the Habsburgs by proclamation in 1804. It was an empire and one of Europes great powers. Geographically it was the second largest country in Europe after the Russian Empire and it was the third most populous after Russia and France, as well as the largest and strongest country in the German Confederation. Proclaimed in response to the First French Empire, it overlapped with the Holy Roman Empire until the dissolution in 1806. The Ausgleich of 1867 elevated Hungarys status and it became a separate entity from the Empire entirely, joining with it in the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary. Changes shaping the nature of the Holy Roman Empire took place during conferences in Rastatt, on 24 March 1803, the Imperial Recess was declared, which reduced the number of ecclesiastical states from 81 to only 3 and the free imperial cities from 51 to 6. This measure was aimed at replacing the old constitution of the Holy Roman Empire, taking this significant change into consideration, the German Emperor Francis II created the title Emperor of Austria, for himself and his successors.
In 1804 the Holy Roman Emperor Francis II, who was ruler of the lands of the Habsburg Monarchy, founded the Empire of Austria. In doing so he created a formal overarching structure for the Habsburg Monarchy, to safeguard his dynastys imperial status he adopted the additional hereditary title of Emperor of Austria. Hungarys affairs remained administered by its own institutions as they had been beforehand, thus under the new arrangements no Imperial institutions were involved in its internal government. The fall and dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire was accelerated by French intervention in the Empire in September 1805, on 20 October 1805, an Austrian army led by general Karl Mack von Leiberich was defeated by French armies near the town of Ulm. The French victory resulted in the capture of 20,000 Austrian soldiers, Napoleons army won another victory at Austerlitz on 2 December 1805. Francis was forced into negotiations with the French from 4 to 6 December 1805, the French victories encouraged rulers of certain imperial territories to assert their formal independence from the Empire.
On 10 December 1805, the prince-elector Duke of Bavaria proclaimed himself King, finally, on 12 December, the Margrave of Baden was given the title of Grand Duke. In addition, each of these new countries signed a treaty with France, the Treaty of Pressburg between France and Austria, signed in Pressburg on 26 December, enlarged the territory of Napoleons German allies at the expense of defeated Austria. Certain Austrian holdings in Germany were passed to French allies—the King of Bavaria, the King of Württemberg, Austrian claims on those German states were renounced without exception. On 12 July 1806, the Confederation of the Rhine was established, comprising 16 sovereigns and this confederation, under French influence, put an end to the Holy Roman Empire. On 6 August 1806, even Francis recognized the new state of things and proclaimed the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire, as he did not want Napoleon to succeed him
Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall
Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall, GCVO, CSM, PC, is the second wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, who is the eldest child and heir apparent of Queen Elizabeth II. Instead of using the title of Princess of Wales, she uses the title Duchess of Cornwall, in Scotland, she is known as the Duchess of Rothesay. Camilla was born into a family as the eldest child of Major Bruce Shand and his wife, the Honourable Rosalind Cubitt. She was raised in East Sussex and South Kensington, and was educated in England, subsequently, she worked for different firms based in central London, most notably the decorating firm Sibyl Colefax & John Fowler. In 1973, Camilla married British Army officer Andrew Parker Bowles, for many years, Camilla was in a relationship with the Prince of Wales before and after their former marriages. The relationship became highly publicised in the media and attracted worldwide scrutiny, as the Duchess of Cornwall, Camilla assists the Prince of Wales on his official duties. She is the patron, president and a member of numerous charities, since 1994, she has taken action on osteoporosis, which has earned her honours and awards.
She has raised awareness in areas including rape and sexual abuse and poverty, Camilla Rosemary Shand was born at Kings College Hospital, London, on 17 July 1947 at 7,00 am. She grew up in the Laines, a house located in Plumpton, East Sussex. Her parents were British Army officer turned businessman Major Bruce Shand and his wife, the Hon. Rosalind and she has one younger sister, Annabel Elliot, and had a younger brother, Mark Shand. Her maternal great-grandmother, Alice Keppel, was a mistress of King Edward VII from 1898 to 1910, on 1 November 1947, Camilla was baptised at Firle Church, Sussex. Her godparents were Hon. Henry Cubitt, Major Neil Speke, Mrs Heathcoat-Amory, Mrs Lombard Hobson, Camillas mother worked for an adoption agency, while her father had different business interests after retiring from the army. He was most notably a partner in Block and Block, during her childhood years, Camilla became an avid reader due to the influence of her father, who read to her frequently. She grew up with dogs and cats, and, at a young age, according to her, childhood was perfect in every way.
Biographer Gyles Brandreth describes her background and childhood, Camilla is often described as having had an Enid Blyton sort of Childhood, in fact, it was much grander than that. The Shands had position and they had help—help in the house, help in the garden and they opened their garden for the local Conservative Party Association summer fête. At the age of five, Camilla was sent to Dumbrells and she left Dumbrells aged ten to attend Queens Gate School in Queens Gate, South Kensington. Her classmates at Queens Gate knew her as Milla, her pupils included the singer Twinkle
House of Lorraine
The House of Lorraine originated as a cadet branch of the House of Metz. It inherited the Duchy of Lorraine in 1473 after the death of duke Nicholas I without a male heir, his sons Joseph II and Leopold II, and grandson Francis II were the last four Holy Roman Emperors from 1745 to the dissolution of the empire in 1806. Habsburg-Lorraine inherited the Habsburg Empire, ruling the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary until the dissolution of the monarchy in 1918, the house claims descent from Gerard I of Paris whose immediate descendants are known as the Girardides. The Matfridings of the 10th century are thought to have been a branch of the family, at the turn of the 10th century they were Counts of Metz and ruled a set of lordships in Alsace and Lorraine. Mary of Guise, mother of Mary, Queen of Scots, louis XIVs imperialist ambitions forced the dukes into a permanent alliance with his archenemies, the Holy Roman Emperors from the House of Habsburg. Following the failure of both Emperor Joseph I and Emperor Charles VI to produce a son and heir, the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 left the throne to the yet unborn daughter.
In 1736 Emperor Charles arranged her marriage to Francis of Lorraine who agreed to exchange his hereditary lands for the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, at Charless death in 1740 the Habsburg lands passed to Maria Theresa and Francis, who was elected Holy Roman Emperor as Francis I. The Habsburg-Lorraine nuptials and dynastic union precipitated, and survived, the War of the Austrian Succession, another member of the house, Archduke Maximilian of Austria, was Emperor of Mexico. In 1900, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria contracted a marriage with Countess Sophie Chotek. Their descendants, known as the House of Hohenberg, have been excluded from succession to the Austro-Hungarian crown, but not that of Lorraine, where morganatic marriage has never been outlawed. Nevertheless, Otto von Habsburg, the eldest grandson of Franz Ferdinands younger brother, was regarded as the head of the house until his death in 2011. It was at Nancy, the capital of the House of Vaudemont. House of Metz Adalbert, Duke of Upper Lorraine r, 1047/8 Gérard, Duke of Lorraine, r.
1390–1431 Charles II died without heir, the duchy passing to Isabella, Duchess of Lorraine. The duchy passed to their son John II, whose son Nicholas I died without male heir, the title now went to Nicholas aunt Yolande. René inherited the title of Duke of Lorraine upon his marriage in 1473, René II, Duke of Lorraine, r. 1608–1624 Nicole Claude Francis II, Charles IV, Duke of Lorraine r, 1624–1675 Nicholas Francis Charles V, r. 1690–1729 Francis Stephen, Duke of Lorraine, r, 1745–1765 House of Habsburg-Lorraine Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor, r