Texas's 13th congressional district
Texas District 13 of the United States House of Representatives is a Congressional District of the U. S. state of Texas that includes most of the Texas Panhandle, parts of Texoma and northeastern parts of North Texas. It winds across the Panhandle into the South Plains runs east across the Red River Valley. Covering over 40,000 square miles, it is the second-largest district geographically in Texas and larger in area than thirteen entire states; the principal cities in the district are Wichita Falls. The current Representative is Republican Mac Thornberry. According to the Cook Partisan Voting Index, it is the most Republican district in the country; this district, has not always been Republican. As late as 1976, Jimmy Carter won 33 of the 44 counties in this district, getting 60-70% in many of them. In 2012, this was President Barack Obama's lowest percentage of the vote in a congressional district, he received 18.5% of the vote. In 2016, this was Hillary Clinton's lowest percentage of the vote in a congressional district.
She received an lower percentage than President Obama in 2012, receiving only 16.9% of the vote compared to Donald Trump's 79.9%. List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
Dimetrodon is an extinct genus of synapsids that lived during the Cisuralian, around 295–272 million years ago. It is a member of the family Sphenacodontidae; the most prominent feature of Dimetrodon is the large neural spine sail on its back formed by elongated spines extending from the vertebrae. It walked on four legs and had a tall, curved skull with large teeth of different sizes set along the jaws. Most fossils have been found in the southwestern United States, the majority coming from a geological deposit called the Red Beds of Texas and Oklahoma. More fossils have been found in Germany. Over a dozen species have been named since the genus was first described in 1878. Dimetrodon is mistaken for a dinosaur or as a contemporary of dinosaurs in popular culture, but it became extinct some 40 million years before the first appearance of dinosaurs. Reptile-like in appearance and physiology, Dimetrodon is more related to mammals than to modern reptiles, though it is not a direct ancestor of mammals.
Dimetrodon is assigned to the "non-mammalian synapsids", a group traditionally called "mammal-like reptiles". This groups Dimetrodon together with mammals in a clade called Synapsida, while placing dinosaurs and birds in a separate clade, Sauropsida. Single openings in the skull behind each eye, known as temporal fenestrae, other skull features distinguish Dimetrodon and mammals from most of the earliest sauropsids. Dimetrodon was one of the apex predators of the Cisuralian ecosystems, feeding on fish and tetrapods, including reptiles and amphibians. Smaller Dimetrodon species may have had different ecological roles; the sail of Dimetrodon may have been used to stabilize its spine or to heat and cool its body as a form of thermoregulation. Some recent studies argue that the sail would have been ineffective at removing heat from the body due to large species being discovered with small sails and small species being discovered with large sails ruling out heat regulation as its main purpose; the sail was most used in courtship display with methods such as threatening rivals or showing off to potential mates.
Dimetrodon was a sail-backed synapsid. Most Dimetrodon species ranged in length from 1.7 to 4.6 metres and are estimated to have weighed between 28 and 250 kilograms. The largest known species of Dimetrodon is D. angelensis at 4.6 metres and the smallest is D. teutonis at 60 centimetres. The larger species of Dimetrodon were among the largest predators of the Early Permian, although the related Tappenosaurus, known from skeletal fragments in younger rocks, may have been larger at an estimated 5.5 metres in total body length. Although some Dimetrodon species could grow large, many juvenile specimens are known. A single large opening on either side of the back of the skull links Dimetrodon with mammals and distinguishes it from most of the earliest sauropsids, which either lack openings or have two openings. Features such as ridges on the inside of the nasal cavity and a ridge at the back of the lower jaw are thought to be part of an evolutionary progression from early tetrapods to mammals; the skull of Dimetrodon is compressed laterally, or side-to-side.
The eye sockets are positioned far back in the skull. Behind each eye socket is a single hole called an infratemporal fenestra. An additional hole in the skull, the supratemporal fenestra, can be seen; the back of the skull is oriented at a slight upward angle, a feature that it shares with all other early synapsids. The upper margin of the skull slopes downward in a convex arc to the tip of the snout; the tip of the upper jaw, formed by the premaxilla bone, is raised above the part of the jaw formed by the maxilla bone to form a maxillary "step." Within this step is a diastema, or gap in the tooth row. Its skull was more built than a dinosaur's; the size of the teeth varies along the length of the jaws, lending Dimetrodon its name, which means "two measures of tooth" in reference to sets of small and large teeth. One or two pairs of caniniforms extend from the maxilla. Large incisor teeth are present at the tips of the upper and lower jaws, rooted in the premaxillae and dentary bones. Small teeth are present around the maxillary "step" and behind the caniniforms, becoming smaller further back in the jaw.
Many teeth are widest at their midsections and narrow closer to the jaws, giving them the appearance of a teardrop. Teardrop-shaped teeth are unique to Dimetrodon and other related sphenacodontids, help distinguish them from other early synapsids; as in many other early synapsids, the teeth of most Dimetrodon species are serrated at their edges. The serrations of Dimetrodon teeth were so fine; the dinosaur Albertosaurus had crack-like serrations, but, at the base of each serration was a round void, which would have functioned to distribute force over a larger surface area and prevent the stresses of feeding from causing the crack to spread through the tooth. Unlike Albertosaurus, Dimetrodon teeth lacked adaptations that would stop cracks from forming at their serrations; the teeth of D. teutonis lack serrations, but still have sharp edges. A study in 2014 shows; the smaller species, D. milleri, had no serrations. As prey grew larger, several Dimetrodon species started developing serrations on their teeth and increasing in size.
For instance, D. limbatus had enamel serrations that helped it cut through flesh (which were sim
The Permian is a geologic period and system which spans 47 million years from the end of the Carboniferous Period 298.9 million years ago, to the beginning of the Triassic period 251.902 Mya. It is the last period of the Paleozoic era; the concept of the Permian was introduced in 1841 by geologist Sir Roderick Murchison, who named it after the city of Perm. The Permian witnessed the diversification of the early amniotes into the ancestral groups of the mammals, turtles and archosaurs; the world at the time was dominated by two continents known as Pangaea and Siberia, surrounded by a global ocean called Panthalassa. The Carboniferous rainforest collapse left behind vast regions of desert within the continental interior. Amniotes, who could better cope with these drier conditions, rose to dominance in place of their amphibian ancestors; the Permian ended with the Permian–Triassic extinction event, the largest mass extinction in Earth's history, in which nearly 96% of marine species and 70% of terrestrial species died out.
It would take well into the Triassic for life to recover from this catastrophe. Recovery from the Permian–Triassic extinction event was protracted; the term "Permian" was introduced into geology in 1841 by Sir R. I. Murchison, president of the Geological Society of London, who identified typical strata in extensive Russian explorations undertaken with Édouard de Verneuil; the region now lies in the Perm Krai of Russia. Official ICS 2017 subdivisions of the Permian System from most recent to most ancient rock layers are: Lopingian epoch Changhsingian Wuchiapingian Others: Waiitian Makabewan Ochoan Guadalupian epoch Capitanian stage Wordian stage Roadian stage Others: Kazanian or Maokovian Braxtonian stage Cisuralian epoch Kungurian stage Artinskian stage Sakmarian stage Asselian stage Others: Telfordian Mangapirian Sea levels in the Permian remained low, near-shore environments were reduced as all major landmasses collected into a single continent—Pangaea; this could have in part caused the widespread extinctions of marine species at the end of the period by reducing shallow coastal areas preferred by many marine organisms.
During the Permian, all the Earth's major landmasses were collected into a single supercontinent known as Pangaea. Pangaea straddled the equator and extended toward the poles, with a corresponding effect on ocean currents in the single great ocean, the Paleo-Tethys Ocean, a large ocean that existed between Asia and Gondwana; the Cimmeria continent rifted away from Gondwana and drifted north to Laurasia, causing the Paleo-Tethys Ocean to shrink. A new ocean was growing on its southern end, the Tethys Ocean, an ocean that would dominate much of the Mesozoic era. Large continental landmass interiors experience climates with extreme variations of heat and cold and monsoon conditions with seasonal rainfall patterns. Deserts seem to have been widespread on Pangaea; such dry conditions favored gymnosperms, plants with seeds enclosed in a protective cover, over plants such as ferns that disperse spores in a wetter environment. The first modern trees appeared in the Permian. Three general areas are noted for their extensive Permian deposits—the Ural Mountains and the southwest of North America, including the Texas red beds.
The Permian Basin in the U. S. states of Texas and New Mexico is so named because it has one of the thickest deposits of Permian rocks in the world. The climate in the Permian was quite varied. At the start of the Permian, the Earth was still in an ice age. Glaciers receded around the mid-Permian period as the climate warmed, drying the continent's interiors. In the late Permian period, the drying continued although the temperature cycled between warm and cool cycles. Permian marine deposits are rich in fossil mollusks and brachiopods. Fossilized shells of two kinds of invertebrates are used to identify Permian strata and correlate them between sites: fusulinids, a kind of shelled amoeba-like protist, one of the foraminiferans, ammonoids, shelled cephalopods that are distant relatives of the modern nautilus. By the close of the Permian, trilobites and a host of other marine groups became extinct. Terrestrial life in the Permian included diverse plants, fungi and various types of tetrapods; the period saw a massive desert covering the interior of Pangaea.
The warm zone spread in the northern hemisphere. The rocks formed at that time were stained red by iron oxides, the result of intense heating by the sun of a surface devoid of vegetation cover. A number of older types of plants and animals became marginal elements; the Permian began with the Carboniferous flora still flourishing. About the middle of the Permian a major transition in vegetation began; the swamp-loving
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Wilbarger County, Texas
Wilbarger County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 13,535; the county seat is Vernon. The county was created in 1858 and organized in 1881. Wilbarger is named for two early settlers. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 978 square miles, of which 971 square miles is land and 7.0 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 70 U. S. Highway 183 U. S. Highway 283 U. S. Highway 287 Tillman County, Oklahoma Wichita County Baylor County Foard County Hardeman County Jackson County, Oklahoma As of the census of 2000, there were 14,676 people, 5,537 households, 3,748 families residing in the county; the population density was 15 people per square mile. There were 6,371 housing units at an average density of 7 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 78.17% White, 8.86% Black or African American, 0.66% Native American, 0.63% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 9.73% from other races, 1.91% from two or more races. 20.54% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 5,537 households out of which 32.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.10% were married couples living together, 10.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.30% were non-families. In 2000, there were 136 unmarried partner households: 129 heterosexual, 3 same-sex male, 2 same-sex female. 29.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.07. In the county, the population was spread out with 27.90% under the age of 18, 9.50% from 18 to 24, 24.80% from 25 to 44, 21.60% from 45 to 64, 16.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $29,500, the median income for a family was $38,685. Males had a median income of $26,001 versus $19,620 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $16,520. About 9.00% of families and 13.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.00% of those under age 18 and 13.30% of those age 65 or over. Vernon Harrold Hoot and Holler Crossing Odell Oklaunion Clyde Gates, wide receiver for the New York Jets Jack English Hightower, Texas, native. S. Representative Roy Orbison, singer/songwriter born in Wilbarger County Daryl Richardson, running back for the St. Louis Rams Bernard Scott, running back for the Cincinnati Bengals Jack Teagarden and trombonist John Clay Wolfe, American radio personality who began his career in Wilbarger County on KSEY List of museums in North Texas National Register of Historic Places listings in Wilbarger County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Wilbarger County Vernon Daily Record - Wilbarger County News Wilbarger County, Texas Official Website Wilbarger County from the Handbook of Texas Online Josiah Wilbarger's entry in the Biographical Encyclopedia of Texas hosted by the Portal to Texas History.
Wilbarger County Profile from the Texas Association of Counties
Clay County, Texas
Clay County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 10,752; the county seat is Henrietta. The county was founded in 1857 and organized in 1860, it is named in honor of Henry Clay, famous American statesman, Kentucky Senator and United States Secretary of State. Clay County is part of Metropolitan Statistical Area in North Texas. Several railroads once served Clay County, including the Wichita Falls Railway, one of the properties of Joseph A. Kemp and his brother-in-law Frank Kell, along with twenty-nine other stockholders; the Wichita Falls Railway linked Henrietta with Wichita Falls. Built in 1894-1895, it was sold in 1911 to the Missouri-Kansas-Texas Railroad known as the Katy; the original eighteen miles of track was abandoned in 1970. The Wichita Falls rancher and philanthropist Joseph Sterling Bridwell owned a ranch in Clay County, among his multiple holdings. Clay County is represented in the Texas House of Representatives by the Republican James Frank, a businessman from Wichita Falls.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,117 square miles, of which 1,089 square miles is land and 28 square miles is water. Lake Arrowhead State Park, a 524-acre development on Lake Arrowhead in Clay County, encompasses 14,390-acre acres; the lakeshore extends 106 miles. Jefferson County, Oklahoma Montague County Jack County Wichita County Archer County Cotton County, Oklahoma As of the census of 2000, there were 11,006 people, 4,323 households, 3,181 families residing in the county; the population density was 10 people per square mile. There were 4,992 housing units at an average density of 4 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 95.35% White, 0.42% Black or African American, 1.03% Native American, 0.10% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 1.68% from other races, 1.42% from two or more races. 3.67% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 4,323 households out of which 30.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.20% were married couples living together, 7.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.40% were non-families.
23.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 2.98. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.90% under the age of 18, 6.80% from 18 to 24, 26.40% from 25 to 44, 25.90% from 45 to 64, 16.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,738, the median income for a family was $41,514. Males had a median income of $28,914 versus $20,975 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,361. About 8.10% of families and 10.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.70% of those under age 18 and 11.00% of those age 65 or over. U. S. Highway 82 U. S. Highway 287 State Highway 79 State Highway 148 Bellevue Byers Dean Henrietta Jolly Petrolia Windthorst Prior to 1996, Clay County was Democratic in presidential elections.
The only Republican Party candidates who managed to win the county from 1912 to 1992 were Herbert Hoover thanks to anti-Catholic sentiment towards Al Smith as well as Richard Nixon & Ronald Reagan in their 49-state landslides of 1972 & 1984, respectively. Since 1996, the county has swung hard to the supporting Republican Party similar to all white-majority rural counties in the Solid South, with its presidential candidates winning by increasing margins in each passing election; as a testament to how Republican the county has swung, Donald Trump defeated Hillary Clinton by a margin of over 75 percent in 2016, compared to an only 7.4 percent margin Bob Dole won the county by 20 years prior at the start of its Republican trend. List of museums in North Texas National Register of Historic Places listings in Clay County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Clay County Media related to Clay County, Texas at Wikimedia Commons Clay County Official Website See historic photos of Clay County from the Clay County Historical Society, hosted by the Portal to Texas History Clay County from the Handbook of Texas Online Clay County 1890 Jail Museum-Heritage Center
Texas State Highway 114
State Highway 114 is a state highway that runs from the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex westward across Texas to the state border with New Mexico, where it becomes New Mexico State Road 114, which ends at Elida, New Mexico at US 70 / NM 330. The route was designated on April 14, 1926 as connector between Dallas and Rhome. In June 1932, SH 114 extended to Bridgeport. On February 12, 1935, an extension northward from Chico to Sunset was added. On July 15, 1935, the section from Chico to Sunset was cancelled; this section was restored on August 1, 1938. On October 6, 1943, the section of SH 114 from US 77 in Dallas to US 67 was cancelled. On January 7, 1971, SH 114 was relocated in Bridgeport; this route remained little changed until November 3, 1972, when it was extended northward from Sunset to Bowie. Major rerouting was made on November 24, 1975, when the route was redirected west over U. S. Highway 380, U. S. Highway 281, former SH 199, U. S. Highway 82 from Bridgeport to Lubbock, with the stretch from Bridgeport to Bowie renumbered as SH 101.
On December 14, 1977, the route was extended to the New Mexico border, replacing SH 116. The connecting NM 116 was renumbered to NM 114. On August 2, 1985, Delta Air Lines Flight 191 crossed this route shortly before crashing on approach to Dallas/Fort Worth Airport. One of the aircraft's engines struck a car on the roadway killing its occupant. Highway 114 starts at the New Mexico border about 17 miles west of Texas; the route passes through Whiteface and Smyer as Levelland Highway before joining 19th Street in Lubbock. SH 114 crosses over Loop 289 and while crossing over US 82 joins with US 62, forming the southern edge of the Texas Tech University campus. After crossing US 84, the highway veers northeast, joining US 82 before crossing over Loop 289 and leaving Lubbock as Idalou Road. Past Lubbock, SH 114 passes through the rural towns of Idalou, Ralls, Dickens, Benjamin, Red Springs, Seymour, where US 82 splits north off of SH 114. From there, the highway passes through Megargal, Olney and Jermyn before entering Jacksboro with US 281.
In Jacksboro, SH 114 joins US US 281 splits off to the south as SH 114 continues east. Past Jacksboro, SH 114 passes through Runaway Bay, where SH 114 splits off of US 380, Boyd, Rhome running concurrent with US 81 and US 287 before entering Fort Worth and passing the Texas Motor Speedway and crossing I-35W. In the DFW Metroplex, SH 114 goes through Roanoke, crossing US 377 and becoming a freeway, the Northwest Parkway; the highway passes through Westlake and Grapevine. There, SH 114 forms the northern edge of the Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport with SH 121; the highway becomes the John W. Carpenter Highway as it travels southeast to its eastern terminus at SH 183. A road was designated on February 21, 1938, from SH 114 to SH 121; this was renumbered as Loop 10 on September 26, 1939. SH 114 has four current business routes. Business State Highway 114-B is a Business Loop that runs from SH 114 on the west side of Levelland south along West Street east through the downtown area on Houston Street to an intersection with US 385.
The road turns left, concurrent with US 385, until intersecting once again at SH 114. The road was designated as Loop 44 on September 26, 1939 as a renumbering of SH 24 Spur, but was changed to Business SH 114-B on January 26, 1993, is 1.594 miles long. Business State Highway 114-J is a Business Spur that goes east into Rhome from the intersection of US 81/US 287 and SH 114 west; the route runs along Rhome Avenue to an intersection with Business US 81-E. It is part of a previous route of SH 114; the Business route was designated on May 31, 1972 as Texas State Highway Spur 440, but was changed to its current designation on June 21, 1990 and is 0.329 miles long. Note that an earlier Spur 440 was designated on October 3, 1966 as a spur of SH 34 in Ennis; this was cancelled on or before the day the Spur 440 was designated. Business State Highway 114-K is a business loop; this route runs on Byron Nelson Boulevard, along a previous route of SH 114. The business route was created in 2001 when SH 114 was rerouted further east around town.
The route is 1.787 miles long. Business State Highway 114-L is a business loop; this route runs east on Northwest Highway to an intersection with Texan Trail turns right to go southbound there. The road continues until it reaches SH 114/SH 121; the portion of the business route along Texan Trail is concurrent with SH 26. The route was designate on April 18, 1963, as Texas State Highway Loop 382, until June 21, 1990, when the road's designation as Loop 382 was discontinued; the route is 2.074 miles long. There is one former Business Route along SH 114. Business State Highway 114-H was located in Bridgeport between June 21, 1990 and March 29, 2007 and was 1.3 miles long. The route went east along Halsell Avenue from an intersection with SH 114, to an intersection with 13th Street turned right until another intersection with SH 114; this route had been designated Loop 373 on November 1, 1962.