Zahra Nemati is an Iranian Paralympic and Olympic archer. She competed in taekwondo before she was paralyzed in a car accident. At the 2012 Summer Paralympics she won an individual gold and team bronze, she has qualified to compete at both the 2016 Summer Paralympics. Nemati was born in Iran. In 2003, she was injured in a car accident, leaving her with spinal injuries and paralysis of both legs. Prior to her injuries, Nemati had been a black belt in taekwondo, she took up archery in 2006 and within six months finished third in the National Championships, competing against able bodied athletes. In para-archery events she competes in the W2 classification. Nemati was selected to compete for Iran at the 2012 Summer Paralympics, held in London, United Kingdom, where she won two medals, becoming the first Iranian woman to win a gold medal at either the Olympic or Paralympic Games. In the women's recurve W1/W2 event she placed first in the ranking round with a score of 613 and received a bye to the round of 16 where she beat Mariangela Perna of Italy 6–0.
In the quarterfinals she defeated Turkey's Gizem Girismen again by a score of 6–0 and advanced to the gold medal match by winning her semifinal against Italy's Veronica Floreno 6–0. Nemati faced Elisabetta Mijno of Italy in the final and secured the gold medal with a 7–3 win, she dedicated her gold medal to "all of the people who prayed for me to achieve this success." In the women's team recurve, Nemati was part of the Iranian team alongside Razieh Shir Mohammadi and Zahra Javanmard. They placed second in the ranking round with 1646 points and defeated the Czech Republic in the quarterfinals. In the semifinals the Iranian team lost to South Korea by a score of 192–186 but went on to defeat Italy 188–184 in the bronze medal match as Nemati claimed her second medal of the Games. At the 2013 World Para-archery Championships held in Bangkok, she won the gold medal in the women's individual recurve W2 and a bronze medal in the women's team recurve. In 2015 Nemati made history by securing qualification for both the 2016 Summer Olympics and the 2016 Summer Paralympics to be held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
She qualified for the Olympics by placing second in the women's recurve at the 2015 Asian Archery Championships in Bangkok before winning gold at the 2015 Asian Para-archery Championships to qualify for the Paralympics. She is the first archer to qualify for both Games in the same year since Italian Paola Fantato in 1996. In January 2016 she was selected to be the flag bearer for the Iranian team during the Parade of Nations at the 2016 Summer Olympics opening ceremony, she competed in the women's individual event at the 2016 Summer Olympics. She placed 49th in the ranking round with a score of 609, she was defeated by Inna Stepanova of Russia in the round of 32. She finished in 33rd place. Zahra Nemati won the 2013 Sport Accord's Spirit of Sport Individual Award. List of athletes who have competed in the Paralympics and Olympics Zahra Nemati at the World Archery Federation
1960 Summer Paralympics
The 9th Annual International Stoke Mandeville Games, retroactively designated as the 1960 Summer Paralympics, were the first international Paralympic Games, following on from the Stoke Mandeville Games of 1948 and 1952. They were organised under the aegis of the International Stoke Mandeville Games Federation; the term "Paralympic Games" was approved by the International Olympic Committee first in 1984, while the International Paralympic Committee was formed in 1989. The Games were held in Rome, Italy from September 18 to 1960, with the 1960 Summer Olympics; the only disability included in these Paralympics was spinal cord injury. There were 209 athletes from 18 countries. Archery Athletics Dartchery Snooker Swimming Table tennis Wheelchair basketball Wheelchair fencing The top 10 NPCs by number of gold medals are listed below; the host nation, Italy, is highlighted. * Host nation The number in parentheses indicates the number of participants from each NPC. The information from the International Paralympic Committee website is based on sources which does not present all information from earlier paralympic games, such as relay and team members.
Video clip from the 1960 Summer Paralympics on YouTube on ParalympicSport.tv's Official site on YouTube Video clip Australian team at the 1960 Summer Paralympics on YouTube on Australian Paralympic Committee's Official site on YouTube
China at the Paralympics
China first competed at the Paralympic Games in 1984, at the Summer Games in New York City, United States. Since the Athens Games, China has topped the medal table at every Summer Paralympics. Despite having competed at every Winter Games since Salt Lake City in 2002, China did not win a single medal until at the 2018 Winter Paralympics, where China won their first gold medal as well as the first medal in the wheelchair curling competition. Athletes who have won five medals; this is a list of Chinese athletes. Ordered categorically by gold medals earned, sports year; this is a list of Chinese athletes who have won at least two gold medals in a single event at the Summer Paralympics. Ordered categorically by medals earned, sports gold medals earned. Paralympic competitors for China Sports in China Disability in China China at the Olympics
2016 Summer Paralympics
The 2016 Summer Paralympics, the 15th Summer Paralympic Games, were a major international multi-sport event for athletes with disabilities governed by the International Paralympic Committee, held in Rio de Janeiro, from 7 September to 18 September 2016. The Games marked the first time a Latin American and South American city hosted the event, the second Southern Hemisphere city and nation, the first one being the 2000 Summer Paralympics in Sydney, the first time a Lusophone country hosted the event; these Games saw the introduction of two new sports to the Paralympic program: canoeing and the paratriathlon. The lead-up to these Paralympics were met with financial shortcomings attributed to tepid sponsor interest and ticket sales, which resulted in cuts to volunteer staffing and transport, the re-location of events and the partial deconstruction of the Deodoro venue cluster. However, ticket sales began to increase as the Games drew nearer, over 2 million tickets were sold in total—overtaking Beijing 2008 as the second-most-attended Paralympic Games on record.
The Russian doping scandal affected these Paralympics. A team of two refugee athletes participated in Rio, "hosted" by the Greek and American Paralympic Committees. For the fourth consecutive Summer Paralympics, China topped the medal table, winning 107 gold medals, while Georgia, Malaysia and Vietnam won their first Paralympic gold medals. For the first time in Paralympic history, the first time in the Olympics or Paralympics since 1960, an athlete—Iranian cyclist Bahman Golbarnezhad—died during competition; as part of a formal agreement between the International Paralympic Committee and the International Olympic Committee first established in 2001, the winner of the bid for the 2016 Summer Olympics was to host the 2016 Summer Paralympics. Following the third and final round of voting at the 121st IOC Session in Copenhagen on 2 October 2009, the right to host the 2016 Summer Olympics and Paralympics were awarded to Rio de Janeiro; the 2007 Pan American Games and Parapan American Games in Rio de Janeiro marked the first time that the Pan Am Games and Parapan Am Games were hosted as parallel events in the same host city.
Andrew Parsons, president of the Brazilian Paralympic Committee, remarked that the organizing teams responsible for the Olympics and Paralympics were maintaining a good relationship and "speaking the same language" in relation to their organizational duties. Parsons praised how well-organized the 2012 Summer Paralympics were, felt that his team had learned lessons from London that could be applied in Rio; as had been common practice since the Olympics and Paralympics began to formally share host cities, the Paralympics' venues were shared with those of the 2016 Summer Olympics. Barra da Tijuca hosted most of the venues, with the remainder located in Copacabana Beach, Maracanã and Deodoro. Barra da Tijuca housed the athletes' village. Carioca Arena 1 – Wheelchair basketball, wheelchair rugby Carioca Arena 2 – Boccia Carioca Arena 3 – Judo, wheelchair fencing Future Arena – Goalball Olympic Aquatics Stadium – Swimming Olympic Tennis Centre – 5-a-side football, wheelchair tennis Pontal Beach – Road cycling Riocentro – Powerlifting, Sitting volleyball, table tennis Rio Olympic Arena – Wheelchair basketball Rio Olympic Velodrome – Track cycling National Shooting Center – shooting National Equestrian Center – equestrian Deodoro Stadium - 7-a-side football Maracanã Stadium – opening and closing ceremonies Estádio Olímpico João Havelange – athletics Sambadrome Marquês de Sapucaí – archery Fort Copacabana – Athletics and Road Cycling Marina da Glória – sailing Lagoa Rodrigo de Freitas – canoeing and rowing The medal design for the 2016 Olympics and Paralympics were unveiled on 14 June 2016.
The bronze and silver medals contain 30% recycled materials, while the gold medals were produced using gold, mined and extracted using means that met a series of sustainability criteria, such as being extracted without the use of mercury. The obverse of the Paralympic medals feature the Paralympic emblem and an inscription in braille, while each medal contains differing numbers of metal balls to allow the visually impaired to audibly distinguish their color by shaking them, they are accompanied by a wooden carrying box, a plush toy of Paralympic mascot Tom with hair leaves that match the medal's color. The initial financial shortcomings of the 2016 Paralympics were attributed to slow ticket sales, along a poor public interest, despite the cheapest tickets only costing a quarter of those for the Olympics. During the Olympics, organizers stated that only 12% of an original target of 3.3 million tickets had been sold. By early September, only half of the tickets to medal events had been sold. On 23 August 2016, Greg Nugent, head of marketing of the 2012 Summer Olympics and 2012 Summer Paralympics, began a campaign on Twitter known as "#FillTheSeats", encouraging users to donate money to supply local youth and people with disabilities with tickets to the Paralympics.
Nugent began the campaign after noticing the large number of empty seats at competition venues during the 2016 Summer Olympics. Following endorsements of the campaign by prominent figures, such as British band Coldplay, it raised over US$15,000 by 30 August. On 31 August 2016, the IPC an
Summer Paralympic Games
The Summer Paralympic Games or the Games of the Paralympiad, are an international multi-sport event where athletes with physical disabilities compete. This includes athletes with mobility disabilities, amputations and cerebral palsy; the Paralympic Games are held every four years, organized by the International Paralympic Committee. Medals are awarded in each event, with gold medals for first place, silver for second and bronze for third, a tradition that the Olympic Games started in 1904; the United States and the United Kingdom have each hosted two Summer Paralympic Games, more than any other nation. Other countries that have hosted the summer Paralympics are Australia, China, Israel, Japan, the Netherlands, South Korea and West Germany. In the 2016 Summer Paralympics, Brazil will host the first Summer Games in South America in Rio de Janeiro. Tokyo will be the first city to host the Summer Paralympics more than once: 1964 and 2020. Twelve countries — Argentina, Austria, France, Great Britain, Israel, Netherlands, United States — have been represented at all Summer Paralympic Games.
Seven of those countries have won at least one gold medal at every Summer Paralympic Games: Australia, France, Great Britain, the Netherlands, the United States. The United States have been the top-ranking nation for eight of the Paralympic Summer Games: 1964, 1968, 1976, 1980, 1984, 1988, 1992 and 1996. China have been the top-ranking nation for the four most recent Games, 2004, 2008, 2012 and 2016. Italy, West Germany and Australia have been the top-ranking nation one time each. Qualification rules for each of the Paralympic sports are set by the International Federation that governs that sport's international competition; the first official Paralympic Games, was held in Rome, Italy, in 1960. 400 athletes from 23 countries competed at the 1960 Games though only athletes in wheelchairs competed. At the 1976 Summer Games athletes with different disabilities were included for the first time at a summer Paralympics. With the inclusion of more disability classifications, the 1976 Summer Games expanded to 1,600 athletes from 40 countries.
The 1988 Summer Paralympics were the first to be hosted in the same venues as the Olympics of that year. Since all Paralympic Games are now held in the same city that hosted the Olympics, with a two-week gap between each. Rio de Janeiro held the 2016 Summer Paralympics, becoming the first Latin American and South American city to host either the Summer or Winter Games. Tokyo will host the 2020 Summer Paralympics becoming the first city to host the games twice; every participant at the Paralympics has their disability grouped into one of ten disability categories. Each Paralympic sport has its own classifications, dependent upon the specific physical demands of competition. Events are given a code, made of numbers and letters, describing the type of event and classification of the athletes competing; some sports, such as athletics, divide athletes by both the category and severity of their disabilities, other sports, for example swimming, group competitors from different categories together, the only separation being based on the severity of the disability.
Within the ten disability categories the athletes still need to be divided according to their level of impairment. The classification systems differ from sport to sport, is intended to the playing field so as to allow as many athletes to participate as possible. Classifications vary in accordance with the different skills required to perform the sport. Archery: Archery is open to athletes with a physical disability. Classifications are broken up into three divisions: W1, spinal cord injured and cerebral palsy athletes with impairment in all four limbs. W2, wheelchair users with full arm function. W3, standing amputee, Les Autres and cerebral palsy standing athletes; some athletes in the standing group will sit on a high stool for support but will still have their feet touching the ground. Athletics: Athletics are open to all disability groups and uses a functional classification system. A brief classification guide is as follows: T for track athletes. F or T 11–13 are visually impaired, F or T 20 are learning disabled, F or T 32–38 are cerebral palsy, F or T 40–46 amputee and Les Autres, T 51–54 wheelchair track athletes and F 51–58 wheelchair field athletes.
Basketball: Basketball is open to wheelchair athletes. Wheelchair athletes are classified according to their physical ability and are given a points rating between 0.5 – 4.5. The individuals who rate at 0.5 are the most disabled and those at 4.5 are the least disabled. A team on the court comprises five players and may not exceed a total of 14 points at any given time. Boccia: Boccia is open to athletes with cerebral palsy or related neurological conditions who compete from a wheelchair. Classifications are split into four groups. Athletes may compete with an assistant BC2: For throwing players. Players may not have an assistant BC3: Athletes who use an assistive device and may be assisted by a person, but this assistant must keep their back to the court. BC4: For throwing players. Players may not have an assistant. Cycling: Cycling is open to amputee, Les Autre, cerebral palsy and visually impaired athletes who compete in the individual road race and track events. Classifications are broken up into divisions 2, 3
Archery is the art, practice, or skill of using a bow to shoot arrows. The word comes from the Latin arcus. Archery has been used for hunting and combat. In modern times, it is a competitive sport and recreational activity. A person who participates in archery is called an archer or a bowman, a person, fond of or an expert at archery is sometimes called a toxophilite; the bow and arrow seems to have been invented in the Paleolithic or early Mesolithic periods. The oldest signs of its use in Europe come from the Stellmoor in the Ahrensburg valley north of Hamburg and dates from the late Paleolithic, about 10,000–9000 BC; the arrows were made of pine and consisted of a main shaft and a 15–20 centimetres long fore shaft with a flint point. There are no definite earlier bows; the oldest bows known so far comes from the Holmegård swamp in Denmark. Bows replaced the spear-thrower as the predominant means for launching shafted projectiles, on every continent except Australasia, though spear-throwers persisted alongside the bow in parts of the Americas, notably Mexico and among the Inuit.
Bows and arrows have been present in Egyptian & neighboring Nubian culture since its respective predynastic & Pre-Kerma origins. In the Levant, artifacts that could be arrow-shaft straighteners are known from the Natufian culture, onwards; the Khiamian and PPN A shouldered. Classical civilizations, notably the Assyrians, Armenians, Parthians, Koreans and Japanese fielded large numbers of archers in their armies. Akkadians were the first to use composite bows in war according to the victory stele of Naram-Sin of Akkad. Egyptians referred to Nubia as "Ta-Seti," or "The Land of the Bow," since the Nubians were known to be expert archers, by the 16th Century BC Egyptians were using the composite bow in warfare; the Bronze Age Aegean Cultures were able to deploy a number of state-owned specialized bow makers for warfare and hunting purposes from the 15th century BC. The Welsh longbow proved its worth for the first time in Continental warfare at the Battle of Crécy. In the Americas archery was widespread at European contact.
Archery was developed in Asia. The Sanskrit term for archery, came to refer to martial arts in general. In East Asia, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea was well known for its regiments of exceptionally skilled archers. Central tribesmen of Asia and American Plains Indians became adept at archery on horseback. Armored, but mobile archers were excellently suited to warfare in the Central Asian steppes, they formed a large part of armies that conquered large areas of Eurasia. Shorter bows are more suited to use on horseback, the composite bow enabled mounted archers to use powerful weapons. Empires throughout the Eurasian landmass strongly associated their respective "barbarian" counterparts with the usage of the bow and arrow, to the point where powerful states like the Han Dynasty referred to their neighbors, the Xiong-nu, as "Those Who Draw the Bow". For example, Xiong-nu mounted bowmen made them more than a match for the Han military, their threat was at least responsible for Chinese expansion into the Ordos region, to create a stronger, more powerful buffer zone against them.
It is possible that "barbarian" peoples were responsible for introducing archery or certain types of bows to their "civilized" counterparts—the Xiong-nu and the Han being one example. Short bows seem to have been introduced to Japan by northeast Asian groups; the development of firearms rendered bows obsolete in warfare, although efforts were sometimes made to preserve archery practice. In England and Wales, for example, the government tried to enforce practice with the longbow until the end of the 16th century; this was because it was recognized that the bow had been instrumental to military success during the Hundred Years' War. Despite the high social status, ongoing utility, widespread pleasure of archery in Armenia, Egypt and Wales, India, Korea and elsewhere every culture that gained access to early firearms used them to the neglect of archery. Early firearms were inferior in rate-of-fire, were sensitive to wet weather. However, they had longer effective range and were tactically superior in the common situation of soldiers shooting at each other from behind obstructions.
They required less training to use properly, in particular penetrating steel armor without any need to develop special musculature. Armies equipped with guns could thus provide superior firepower, trained archers became obsolete on the battlefield. However, the bow and arrow is still an effective weapon, archers have seen action in the 21st century. Traditional archery remains in use for sport, for hunting in many areas. Early recreational archery societies included the Finsbury Archers and the Ancient Society of Kilwinning Archers; the latter's annual Papingo event was first recorded in 1483. The Royal Company of Archers was formed in 1676 and is one of the oldest sporting bodies in the world. Archery remained a small and scattered pastime, until the late 18th century when it experienced a fashionable revival among the aristocracy. Sir Ashton Lever, an antiquarian and collector, formed the Toxophilite Society in London in 1781, wit
Australia at the Paralympics
Australia has participated in every Summer Paralympics Games since its inauguration in 1960 and in the Winter Paralympics Games since 1980. The Paralympic Games are held every four years, following the Olympic Games and are governed by the International Paralympic Committee; the Paralympic Games have been contractually tied to the Olympic Games since 2001, they have taken place at the same venues since the 1988 Seoul Summer Games and the 1992 Albertville Winter Games. In order to compete at the Paralympics, athletes must have an eligible impairment that leads to a permanent activity limitation, athletes will compete in the classification appropriate to their impairment; these impairments are physical and intellectual impairments. The Australian Paralympic Committee, established in 1990, is responsible for selecting and preparing the Australian Paralympic Teams for both the Summer and Winter Paralympic Games; this committee assists with funding the athletes and competition in addition to talent identification.
Many of Australia's gold medals have come from Athletics, a sport, popular amongst Australian Paralympic athletes, such as Tim Sullivan and Louise Sauvage. The other sport from which many medals have come is Swimming. Australia has hosted the Paralympic Games on one occasion in 2000. Sydney, the capital city of New South Wales hosted the Summer Paralympics from 23 to 31 October 2000. There were 3879 participants from 123 countries across 550 events. Australia was the country to win the most medals with 149 medals overall. Host country Since Australia began competing in the Winter Paralympic Games in 1980, it has only sent competitors in Alpine Skiing and hence all medals won at the Winter Paralympics are in Alpine Skiing. Athlete, Daphne Hilton was Australia's first swimmer who competed at the Rome 1960 Games; this games were the only Paralympic Games. With the games in Tokyo, Australia was able to send a large contingent of athletes as a result of the shorter than typical journey. Australia placed fourth with a total of 31 overall medals.
Australia placed fourth again, with 38 overall medals. Lorraine Dodd was an outstanding athlete at these games, setting three Swimming records for her class, all on the same day. Australian won 25 medals - 9 silver and 10 bronze medals in six sports. Australia finished 11th on 9th on the total medal table. Elizabeth "Libby" Kosmala competed in her first Paralympics, won a bronze medal in swimming in the Women's 3x50 m Medley Relay 2–4 event, participated in other swimming and athletics events; the Olympic and Paralympic Games both aim to be apolitical. Apartheid practices in South Africa brought controversy with the country's invitation to and inclusion in the games. Australian athlete, Eric Russell took a stance against politics at the Paralympic Games when he refused his gold medal in the class 3 discus event as a protest, he accepted the medal from Dr Guttman after a press conference, explaining his position. For the first time, television coverage of the Paralympics was broadcast daily to more than 600,000 viewers around the world.
This Paralympic Games were the first Winter Paralympic Games. Australia was represented by Ron Finneran; this is the first Winter Paralympics that Australia competed in, but did not medal. Australia had two competitors, Kyrra Grunnsund and Peter Rickards, who participated in Slalom and Middle Distance Alpine Skiing respectively, it was the 6th Summer Paralympic game. Australia won 55 medals -- 21 silver and 22 bronze medals. Australia won medals in 6 sports, it finished 14th on 9th on the total medal table. Australia did not win a medal, but was represented by Rodney Mills in cross-country and Kyrra Grunnsund and Andrew Temple in the alpine events of slalom, giant slalom and downhill. In 1984, Australia more than doubled its previous highest medal count with a tally of 143 medals. For the first time, four Cerebral Palsy athletes and one "Les Autres" athlete participated in the Games; each won medals: Robert Walden won four gold medals, Terry Biggs won a gold medal, Lyn Coleman won silver medal and Malcom Chalmers won a gold and two bronze medals.
Australia sent five athletes. These athletes were Michael Collins, Kyrra Grunnsund, Evan Hodge, Michael Milton and David Munk, who all competed in both men's downhill, men's giant slalom and men's slalom, except Munk who only competed in the latter two events. Australia competed in 16 events, achieving 23 gold medals in three sports, Athletics and Lawn Bowls. Overall, Australia received 23 gold, 34 silver and 38 bronze. Australian athletes broke eight records during the Games. Australia's first gold medal at an Olympic or Paralympic Winter Games was won by Michael Milton when he won the LW2 Slalom event. There are no accurate results for the Australian Paralympic team performances at Winter Games previous to 1992; the Australian men's swimming team was dominant in the pool, with Joseph Walker being the undoubted star winning nine gold medals from nine events and setting two world records. Australia's most successful Winter Paralympic Games remain the 1994 Winter Paralympic Games, when five athletes took the