George William Ross
Sir George William Ross was an educator and politician in the Canadian province of Ontario. He was the fifth Premier of Ontario from 1899 to 1905. Born near Nairn, in Middlesex County, Upper Canada, he worked as a school teacher, a school inspector and a newspaper publisher before he got into politics. Ross's parents had emigrated from Tain in the Highlands of Scotland in 1831 and the language of his youth was Scottish Gaelic, he held a lifelong love for the language and his fellow Canadian Gaels and a short biographical account of Ross was printed in Gaelic in Ontario in the year following his death. He was first elected to the House of Commons of Canada as a Liberal in the 1872 election, was re-elected in the 1874 and 1878 elections. During his time as an MP, he defended the Canada Temperance Act, which favoured the "local option" approach for implementing prohibition, he was declared re-elected again in the 1882 election, but his victory was challenged, the next year the vote was declared void.
Rather than run again, Ross moved to provincial politics when he was offered the position of Minister of Education for Ontario in the Liberal government of Sir Oliver Mowat in 1883. He oversaw the transformation of former mechanics' institutes into more than 300 public libraries, the expansion of the kindergarten system, the creation of a provincial School of Pedagogy for the training of school inspectors and masters. Ross increased grants to the education system, expanded the authority of the provincial Department of Education, oversaw the expansion of the university system and the federation of a number of smaller colleges with the University of Toronto, he controversially, established an oligopoly for the supply of textbooks to Ontario schools, in effect from 1885 to 1907. It was Ross who implemented a system of gradated education from kindergarten to university, unifying what had been separately organised systems. During his time as Minister of Education, Ross established both Arbor Day and Empire Day, in order to inculcate in students both the desire to keep the school grounds attractive as well as a sense of patriotism.
With regard to this latter, under his ministry, both Canadian history and military training became part of the curriculum in high schools in Ontario. This mandatory cadet training became controversial with the general public after the two World Wars, was phased out in 1944; the Conservative opposition protested against the possibility of increased support for the Catholic Separate school system, while the Catholic minority agitated for the same high schools and other facilities that the public school system enjoyed. The Protestant Protective Association was formed by Orangemen in the 1890s to oppose the expansion of Catholic rights, to attempt to exclude Catholics from public life in the province. After Mowat's retirement as Premier, a short interregnum triggered by Arthur S. Hardy, Ross became Premier on October 21, 1899. Nicknamed as the "Father of New Ontario", he was present in the development of Northern Ontario: promoting the development of its natural resources through extending manufacturing conditions in effect for pine timber to spruce and other softwood, introducing a bounty on the refining of nickel ore within the province, initiating a survey of Northern Ontario, which promoted the potential of the Great Clay Belt for settlement, establishing the Temiskaming and Northern Ontario Railway.
The Liberal government was tired, after thirty years in office, Ross could do little to revive its fortunes. In the provincial election of 1902, the Liberal majority was cut to one seat, but at a time when parties lacked the discipline over their members they would develop, not enough for a secure government; the Ross administration was rocked by a series of controversies in its second term: a vote-buying scandal based on allegations brought forward by Robert Roswell Gamey engulfed the government, demands for prohibition split the party, support for the insolvent industrial empire of Francis Hector Clergue in Sault Ste. Marie led to charges of favouritism, its reluctance towards the cause of public ownership of electricity generation was criticized by the Opposition under James Pliny Whitney when it was revealed that The Manufacturers Life Insurance Company was a significant investor in the Electrical Development Company. Leading a stagnating and drifting government, Ross called an election for January 25, 1905, in which the Liberals lost 22 seats and the Conservatives under James P. Whitney won 69, making Whitney the new Premier.
Ross remained Liberal leader until 1907. In 1910, Ross received a knighthood from King George V for his years of public service in both Federal and Provincial politics, he wrote two books about his life in politics, died in 1914. Ross was the father of Duncan Campbell Ross, who sat in the Legislative Assembly of Ontario representing Middlesex West from 1907 to 1908 and Middlesex North from 1908 to 1909, as an MP for Middlesex West from 1909 to 1921. George W. Ross. Patriotic Recitations and Arbor Day Exercises. Toronto: Warwick Bros. and Rutter. Retrieved August 6, 2013. Sir George W. Ross. Getting into Parliament and after. Toronto: William Briggs. Retrieved August 6, 2013. Margaret Ross. Sir George W. Ross: A Biographical Study. Toronto: Ryerson Press. Retrieved July 22, 2012. Works by or about George William Ross at Internet Archive Burley, David G.. "Ross, Sir George William". In Cook, Ramsay.
Robert Nixon (politician)
Robert Fletcher Nixon, is a Canadian retired politician in the province of Ontario, Canada. The son of former Premier of Ontario Harry Nixon, he was first elected to the Legislative Assembly of Ontario in a 1962 by-election following his father's death; the younger Nixon was elected leader of the Ontario Liberal Party in 1967 and led them through three provincial elections, the first two where the Liberals retained their standing as the second-largest party and official opposition in the legislature. Nixon resigned as party leader in 1976, was succeeded by Stuart Smith after a leadership convention. Nixon remained a prominent member of the Liberal caucus after standing down from the party leadership, including two stints as interim opposition leader, served as Provincial Treasurer and Deputy Premier in the government of David Peterson from 1985 to 1990. Nixon is father of former federal MP Jane Stewart; when his father, a member of the legislature since the 1919 provincial election, died on October 22, 1961, Nixon was chosen to run under the Liberal banner as his replacement.
On January 18, 1962, he was elected as the member for the rural, southwestern Ontario riding of Brant. At this time, Ontario was dominated by the Progressive Conservative Party led by John Robarts; the PC party had won 71 of 98 seats in the previous general election, had governed the province since 1943. Nixon was re-elected in the 1963 provincial election; the Liberal Party had chosen Andy Thompson as its leader in September 1964, with the expectation that he would lead the party in the next provincial election. However, Thompson suffered a physical breakdown in late 1966 as a result of his involvement in an automobile accident in which two elderly women were injured, withdrew from the position on the advice of his doctors. Nixon was chosen as the party's interim leader on November 16, 1966, soon declared his candidacy to become the party's full-time leader; when no other candidates came forward, Nixon was acclaimed as party leader and Leader of the Opposition on January 7, 1967. Nixon led the Liberal Party into the 1967 provincial election.
His campaign attempted to draw attention to water pollution and the high cost of housing in the province, though his efforts on the latter front were undercut by the federal Liberal government's decision to increase interest payments on the National Housing Act in mid-campaign. Nixon increased the party's caucus in the Legislative Assembly from 23 to 28 seats. John Robarts stepped down as Tory leader and Premier in 1971, was replaced by William Davis. Davis led the Tories to an increased majority in the 1971 provincial election. Nixon's Liberals were reduced to 20 seats, only one more than the NDP, the party's share of the popular vote sank to its lowest level in nearly fifty years. Nixon had predicted 40 seats for his party, decided to step down as leader after the election', he formally resigned in 1972, remaining as interim leader until a permanent successor could be chosen. The convention was scheduled for October 1973; the Davis government was weakened by a series of corruption scandals. Nixon entered the leadership contest to succeed himself.
He defeated Norman Cafik on the third ballot, resumed his official duties as party leader and leader of the opposition. By the 1975 election, the Tories had been in power for thirty-two years. Nixon and the Liberals, along with Stephen Lewis and the Ontario New Democratic Party, led aggressive campaigns against Davis, with Nixon and Davis trading barbs. Polls taken shortly before the election showed the Liberals with a provincial lead; the Tories were reduced to a minority government for the first time since 1945. While the Liberals increased their caucus from 20 to 35 seats, the NDP caucus increased from 19 to 38 seats, became the Official Opposition for the first time since 1951. Due to the even split between opposition parties and the fact that both the Liberals and the NDP hoped to win the next election, the two opposition parties were unable and unwilling to form a coalition to replace the Conservatives, the Davis government was able to survive. For the next two years, the NDP offered unofficial support to the Davis government on several issues.
Nixon resigned as leader for a second time and was replaced by Stuart Smith in 1976. Nixon remained in the legislature, although he did not have any official parliamentary duties from 1976 to 1982; when Smith resigned as leader following a poor performance in the 1981 provincial election, Nixon returned as interim leader of the opposition from January 25 to February 21, 1982, when David Peterson was chosen as Smith's replacement. There are reports that Nixon wanted to resign from provincial politics in 1984, that he was seeking an appointment to the Canadian Senate, he was talked out of this by Liberal organizer Keith Davey, who emphasized that Peterson needed his experience and argued that the Liberals could win the next provincial election. Nixon remained, surprised some reporters prior to the 1985 provincial election by speculating about a future Liberal-NDP coalition; the election itself produced no clear winner. The Progressive Conservatives, now under Frank Miller, were again reduced to a minority government, winning 52 seats out of 125.
Unlike the situation in 1975, the Liberals emerged as the dominant opposition party with 48 seats and a narrow victory over
Dalton James Patrick McGuinty, Jr. is a Canadian retired politician who served as the 24th Premier of Ontario from 2003 to 2013. He was the first Liberal leader to win two majority governments since Mitchell Hepburn nearly 70 years earlier. In 2011, he became the first Liberal premier to secure a third consecutive term since Oliver Mowat, after his party was re-elected in that year's provincial election. McGuinty was born in Ottawa, he ended up taking a law degree and practised law in Ottawa. His father was a professor and served as a provincial politician from 1987 to 1990. In 1990, his father died. A provincial election was called for that year and McGuinty decided to run in his father's place, he was elected as a Liberal Member of Provincial Parliament in an election in which the Liberal government was defeated unexpectedly by the opposition Ontario New Democratic Party. He served in opposition for the next five years. In 1995 he was re-elected but remained in opposition since the Progressive Conservatives won the election.
The leader of the party, Lyn McLeod, was blamed for the loss. McLeod resigned as leader in 1996 and McGuinty put his name forward for the party's leadership election. Although Gerrard Kennedy was the front-runner in the race, McGuinty who came fourth on the first ballot ended up winning the leadership on the fifth ballot. Critics called McGuinty'Harris-lite', but his supporters argued that a right-leaning leader like McGuinty was necessary to compete against the Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario of Premier Mike Harris. McGuinty lost the 1999 election but won a resounding majority in 2003 when Ontario turned against the governing Tories. From 2003 to 2007, McGuinty's government increased spending for education, he won another majority in 2007 against new PC leader John Tory. Although McGuinty suffered in the polls, his opponent mis-stepped badly by promoting a policy of public funding for private religious schools, a position, not favoured by the voters. McGuinty's second term was affected by the 2008 financial crisis which saw government revenues plummet.
In addition a scandal developed around a new plan to update health care records called eHealth Ontario. Just prior to the 2011 election another controversy developed around the construction of gas powered electrical plants that were opposed by local residents; the gas plants happened to be located in key Liberal ridings and just before the election, McGuinty cancelled the projects. The cost to cancel the projects was close to $1 billion and the move was seen as pandering to the electorate in a few electoral districts; these issues dogged McGuinty through the election campaign. The Liberals were reduced to a minority. In the new government, the PCs under leader Tim Hudak were the opposition party with NDP leader Andrea Horwath holding the balance of power. McGuinty continued as premier for another two years but the continuing gas plant issue refused to go away, he stepped down as premier. He was succeeded as Liberal leader by Kathleen Wynne in February 2013 and he resigned his own seat in June 2013.
Shortly after leaving the legislature he was named a senior fellow at Harvard University's Weatherhead Center for International Affairs. McGuinty was born in Ontario, his parents are full-time nurse Elizabeth McGuinty. Being the son of a Francophone mother and an Anglophone father, McGuinty is bilingual. McGuinty is the second Roman Catholic to hold the premiership, he has Irish, some French, ancestry. He has nine sisters, his younger brother David has represented the riding of Ottawa South in the House of Commons of Canada since 2004. He is an alumnus of St. Patrick's High School in Ottawa, earning a B. Sc. in biology from McMaster University. He earned his LL. B from the University of Ottawa before practising law in Ottawa. Since 1980, he has been married to high school girlfriend Terri McGuinty, an elementary school teacher; the couple have three sons. His father, Dalton Sr. served as Member of Provincial Parliament for Ottawa South until his death in 1990. Dalton Jr. won the Liberal Party's nomination for Ottawa South for the provincial election of 1990 and was elected to the Legislative Assembly of Ontario as the MPP for his father's former riding.
The Liberal government of David Peterson was defeated by the social democratic Ontario New Democratic Party in that election. In opposition, McGuinty served as the Liberal Party's critic for Energy and Colleges and Universities, he was re-elected in Ottawa South in the 1995 provincial election without much difficulty. The Liberals maintained their status as the official opposition amid a provincial swing from the NDP to the Progressive Conservatives. McGuinty's supporters in his 1996 leadership bid included John Manley, Murray Elston, Bob Chiarelli, he was elected leader at the party's convention December in a surprise victory over front-runner Gerard Kennedy. Kennedy, a former head of Toronto's Daily Bread food bank, was popular on the progressive wing of the party, while McGuinty built his core support on its establishment and pro-business right-wing which some nicknamed the "anything-but-Kennedy movement". McGuinty was fourth on the first and second ballots behind Dwight Duncan, he overtook Duncan and Joe Cordiano on the third and fourth ballots receiving the support of their delegates to win a fifth ballot over Kennedy.
Critics called McGuinty'Harris-lite', but his supporters argued that a right-leaning leader like Mc
Canadian Confederation was the process by which the British colonies of Canada, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick were united into one Dominion of Canada on July 1, 1867. Upon confederation, the old province of Canada was divided into Quebec. Over the years since Confederation, Canada has seen numerous territorial changes and expansions, resulting in the current union of ten provinces and three territories. Canada is a federation and not a confederate association of sovereign states, which "confederation" means in contemporary political theory, it is often considered to be among the world's more decentralized federations. The use of the term Confederation arose in the Province of Canada to refer to proposals beginning in the 1850s to federate all of the British North American colonies, as opposed to only Canada West and Canada East. To contemporaries of Confederation the con- prefix indicated a strengthening of the centrist principle compared to the American federation. In this Canadian context, confederation here describes the political process that united the colonies in the 1860s, related events and the subsequent incorporation of other colonies and territories.
The term is now used to describe Canada in an abstract way, such as in "the Fathers of Confederation". Provinces and territories that became part of Canada after 1867 are said to have joined, or entered into, confederation; the term is used to divide Canadian history into pre-Confederation and post-Confederation periods. All the former colonies and territories that became involved in the Canadian Confederation on July 1, 1867, were part of New France, were once ruled by France. Nova Scotia was granted in 1621 to Sir William Alexander under charter by James VI; this claim overlapped the French claims to Acadia, although the Scottish colony of Nova Scotia was short-lived, for political reasons, the conflicting imperial interests of France and the 18th century Great Britain led to a long and bitter struggle for control. The British acquired present-day mainland Nova Scotia by the Treaty of Utrecht of 1713 and the Acadian population was expelled by the British in 1755, they called Acadia Nova Scotia.
The rest of New France was acquired by the British by the Treaty of Paris, which ended the Seven Years' War. From 1763 to 1791, most of New France became the Province of Quebec. However, in 1769 the present-day Prince Edward Island, part of Acadia, was renamed "St John's Island" and organized as a separate colony, it was renamed "Prince Edward Island" in 1798 in honour of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn. The first English attempt at settlement had been in Newfoundland, which would not join Confederation until 1949; the Society of Merchant Venturers of Bristol began to settle Newfoundland and Labrador at Cuper's Cove as far back as 1610, Newfoundland had been the subject of a French colonial enterprise. In the wake of the American Revolution, an estimated 50,000 United Empire Loyalists fled to British North America; the British created the separate colony of New Brunswick in 1784 for the Loyalists who settled in the western part of Nova Scotia. While Nova Scotia received more than half of this influx, many Loyalists settled in the Province of Quebec, which by the Constitutional Act of 1791 was separated into a predominantly English Upper Canada and a predominantly French Lower Canada.
The War of 1812 and Treaty of 1818 established the 49th parallel as the border with the United States from the Great Lakes to the Rocky Mountains in Western Canada. Following the Rebellions of 1837, Lord Durham in his Durham Report, recommended Upper and Lower Canada be joined as the Province of Canada and the new province should have a responsible government; as a result of Durham's report, the British Parliament passed the Act of Union 1840, the Province of Canada was formed in 1841. The new province was divided into two parts: Canada East. Governor General Lord Elgin granted ministerial responsibility in 1848, first to Nova Scotia and to Canada. In the following years, the British would extend responsible government to Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Newfoundland; the area which constitutes modern-day British Columbia is the remnants of the Hudson's Bay Company's Columbia District and New Caledonia District following the Oregon Treaty. Before joining Canada in 1871, British Columbia consisted of the separate Colony of British Columbia, the Colony of Vancouver Island constituting a separate crown colony until it was united with the colony of British Columbia in 1866.
The remainder of modern-day Canada was made up of Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory and the Arctic Islands, which were under direct British control and became a part of Canada in 1880. The idea of unification was presented in 1839 by Lord Durham in his Report on the Affairs of British North America, which resulted in the Union of Upper and Lower Canada. Beginning in 1857, Joseph-Charles Taché proposed a federation in a series of 33 articles published in the Courrier du Canada. In 1859, Alexander Tilloch Galt, George-Étienne Cartier and John Ross travelled to Great Britain to present the British Parliament with a project for confederation of the British colonies; the proposal was received by the Lond
The Province of Upper Canada was a part of British Canada established in 1791 by the Kingdom of Great Britain, to govern the central third of the lands in British North America part of the Province of Quebec since 1763. Upper Canada included all of modern-day Southern Ontario and all those areas of Northern Ontario in the Pays d'en Haut which had formed part of New France the watersheds of the Ottawa River or Lakes Huron and Superior, excluding any lands within the watershed of Hudson Bay; the "upper" prefix in the name reflects its geographic position along the Great Lakes above the headwaters of the Saint Lawrence River, contrasted with Lower Canada to the northeast. It was the primary destination of Loyalist refugees and settlers from the United States after the American Revolution, who were granted land to settle in Upper Canada; the province was characterized by its British way of life, including bicameral parliament and civil and criminal law not mixed like in Lower Canada or elsewhere in the British Empire.
The division was created to ensure the exercise of the same rights and privileges enjoyed by loyal subjects elsewhere in the North American colonies. In 1812, war broke out between Great Britain and the United States, leading to several battles in Upper Canada; the US had hoped to capture Upper Canada. The government of the colony came to be dominated by a small group of persons, known as the "Family Compact", who held most of the top positions in the Legislative Council and appointed officials. In 1837, an unsuccessful rebellion attempted to overthrow the undemocratic system. Representative government would be established in the 1840s. Upper Canada existed from its establishment on 26 December 1791 to 10 February 1841 when it was united with adjacent Lower Canada to form the Province of Canada; as part of the 1763 Treaty of Paris which ended the Seven Years' War global conflict and the French and Indian War in North America, Great Britain retained control over the former New France, defeated in the French and Indian War.
The British had won control after Fort Niagara had surrendered in 1759 and Montreal capitulated in 1760, the British under Robert Rogers took formal control of the Great Lakes region in 1760. Fort Michilimackinac was occupied by Roger's forces in 1761; the territories of contemporary southern Ontario and southern Quebec were maintained as the single Province of Quebec, as it had been under the French. From 1763 to 1791, the Province of Quebec maintained its French language, cultural behavioural expectations and laws; the British passed the Quebec Act in 1774, which expanded the Quebec colony's authority to include part of the Indian Reserve to the west, other western territories south of the Great Lakes including much of what would become the United States' Northwest Territory, including the modern states of Illinois, Michigan, Ohio and parts of Minnesota. After the American War of Independence ended in 1783, Britain retained control of the area north of the Ohio River; the official boundaries remained undefined until the Jay Treaty.
The British authorities encouraged the movement of people to this area from the United States, offering free land to encourage population growth. For settlers, the head of the family received 100 acres and 50 acres per family member, soldiers received larger grants; these settlers are known as United Empire Loyalists and were English-speaking Protestants. The first townships along the St. Lawrence and eastern Lake Ontario were laid out in 1784, populated with decommissioned soldiers and their families."Upper Canada" became a political entity on 26 December 1791 with the Parliament of Great Britain's passage of the Constitutional Act of 1791. The act divided the Province of Quebec into Upper and Lower Canada, but did not yet specify official borders for Upper Canada; the division was effected so that Loyalist American settlers and British immigrants in Upper Canada could have English laws and institutions, the French-speaking population of Lower Canada could maintain French civil law and the Catholic religion.
The first lieutenant-governor was John Graves Simcoe. The 1795 Jay Treaty set the borders between British North America and the United States north to the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River. On 1 February 1796, the capital of Upper Canada was moved from Newark to York, judged to be less vulnerable to attack by the Americans; the Act of Union 1840, passed 23 July 1840 by the British Parliament and proclaimed by the Crown on 10 February 1841, merged Upper Canada with Lower Canada to form the short-lived United Province of Canada. Upper Canada's constitution was said to be "the image and transcript" of the British constitution, based on the principle of "mixed monarchy" – a balance of monarchy and democracy; the Executive arm of government in the colony consisted of a lieutenant-governor, his executive council, the Officers of the Crown: the Adjutant General of the Militia, the Attorney General, the Auditor General of Land Patents for Upper Canada, the Auditor General, Crown Lands Office, Indian Office, Inspector General, Kings' Printer, Provincial Secretary & Registrar's Office, Receiver General of Upper Canada, Solicitor General, & Surveyor General.
Armstrong, pp. 8–12 The Executive Council of Upper Canada had a similar function to the Cabinet in England but was not responsible to the Legislative Assembly. They held a consultative position, ho
Jim Bradley (politician)
James J. Bradley is a politician in Ontario, Canada, he was a long-serving Liberal member of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario, sitting as an MPP from 1977 until 2018. He represented the riding of St. Catharines and served in the provincial cabinets of David Peterson, Dalton McGuinty and Kathleen Wynne, he was elected as a regional councillor in the St. Catharines municipal election of 2018, he is the Chair of the Regional Municipality of Niagara. His 41 year term as an MPP is the second longest tenure behind only Harry Nixon. Before entering politics, Bradley was a teacher with the Lincoln County Board of Education, he was elected as a city councillor to the St. Catharines city council in 1970, but remained in the classroom until 1977. After failed bids in the elections of 1967 and 1971, Bradley was elected to the Ontario legislature in the 1977 election in the riding of St. Catharines, served as MPP for that riding until the 2018 election, he fended off strong challenges from the New Democratic Party in the 1990 election and the Progressive Conservative Party in 1995 election.
On all other occasions until 2018, he was re-elected. When the Liberals came to power under David Peterson following the 1985 election, Bradley became Minister of the Environment and held that position until the Liberals were defeated in the 1990 election, he is regarded as Ontario's most effective Environment Minister, although some believe that his ambitions for the portfolio were undermined by Peterson and Finance Minister Robert Nixon. As Environment Minister, Bradley expanded Blue Box Recycling, making it a province-wide initiative, as well as instituting tough new penalties for polluters, enforced by a strengthened investigation and enforcement branch. Bradley was a vocal opponent of Peterson's plans to call an election in 1990, preferring that the party wait until 1992 before going to the polls. While the Liberals were defeated, Bradley was re-elected and had a prominent position in the Opposition benches; when Nixon, the interim leader of the Liberals, left Queen's Park to accept an appointment, he was replaced by Murray Elston.
Elston resigned as interim leader to run in the 1992 leadership convention, Bradley became interim leader of the party and interim Leader of the Opposition from November 1991 until the election of Lyn McLeod in February 1992. He remained an opposition stalwart. There was some speculation that Bradley would be re-appointed Minister of the Environment in McGuinty's government, but this did not occur. Instead, he was named Minister of Tourism and Recreation on October 23, 2003, he was given ministerial responsibility for Seniors on June 29, 2005. On October 11, 2005, Bradley was appointed to replace Dwight Duncan as Government House Leader, following Duncan's appointment as Minister of Finance. Bradley is the province's wine secretary, as well as the minister responsible for the Greenbelt. On October 30, 2007, Bradley was sworn in as Minister of Transportation in McGuinty's new cabinet; as Transportation Minister, Bradley supervised the introduction of an Ontario Enhanced driver's licenses to be used at Canada/US border crossings.
He introduced legislation to merge GO Metrolinx. Enacted tougher penalties for drivers who have a BAC of.05 or higher. Mandated that all commercial trucks that operate in Ontario be equipped with speed limiters to ensure heavy trucks don't exceed 105 km/h, and in April 2009, it was announced that GO Transit would be expanded to the Niagara region, with bus service to Burlington in September and with weekend rail service to Toronto starting at the end of June. On January 18, 2010, Bradley moved to the position of Minister of Municipal Affairs and Housing. In August he was moved to the Ministry of Community Correctional Services. On October 20, 2011, Bradley moved to become Minister of Environment once again in the wake of the 2011 election that saw the previous Minister of Environment, John Wilkinson, defeated. Bradley continued as Environment Minister in Kathleen Wynne's first cabinet after she won the leadership of the Liberal Party. Following the 2014 provincial election, the 69-year-old Bradley became a minister without portfolio with the title of Chair of Cabinet and was appointed Deputy Government House Leader.
He left cabinet in June 2016 as part of a cabinet shuffle, served as Chief Government Whip and Deputy Government House Leader. In the 2018 election, Bradley lost his seat as the Liberal Party was defeated, losing official party status and suffering the greatest loss for any governing party in provincial history, he had served as St. Catharines MPP for 41 years. On July 27 2018, the last day registration was open, Bradley registered to run for Niagara Regional Council.. Bradley was elected on October 2018, finishing first out of 23 candidates with 18,954 votes. On December 6, 2018, Bradley was selected as the Niagara Regional Chair, being elected on the first ballot receiving 19 out of 31 votes against two other candidates. Source: The 1999, 2003 and 2007 expenditure entries are taken from official candidate reports as listed by Elections Ontario; the figures cited are the Total Candidate's Campaign Expenses Subject to Limitation, include transfers from constituency associations. The 1995 expenditures are taken from an official listing of election expenses published by Elections Ontario.
Ontario Legislative Assembly parliamentary history
Upper Canada Rebellion
The Upper Canada Rebellion was an insurrection against the perceived oligarchic government of the British colony of Upper Canada in December 1837. While public grievances had existed for years, it was the rebellion in Lower Canada that emboldened rebels in Upper Canada to revolt soon after; the Upper Canada Rebellion was defeated shortly after it began, although resistance lingered until 1838 - through the support of the Hunters' Lodges, a secret anti-British, US-based militia that emerged around the Great Lakes, launched the Patriot War in 1838-39. Some historians suggest that although they were not as directly successful or as large, that the rebellions in 1837 should be viewed in the wider context of the late 18th and early 19th century Atlantic revolutions including the American Revolutionary War in 1776, the French Revolution of 1789–1799, the Haitian Revolution of 1791-1804, the Irish Rebellion of 1798, the independence struggles of Spanish America. While these rebellions differed in that they struggled for republicanism, they were inspired by similar social problems stemming from poorly regulated oligarchies, sought the same democratic ideals, which were shared by the United Kingdom's Chartists.
The rebellion led directly to Lord Durham's Report on the Affairs of British North America, to The British North America Act, 1840, which reformed the British provinces into a unitary system, leading to the formation of Canada as a nation in 1867. Because it was put down easily, was not a sophisticated or sustained military campaign, the Upper Canada Rebellion is sometimes dismissed as a "farmers' revolt, but the rebellion was led by Members of Parliament and the Mayor of Toronto, had widespread support, was part of a global revolutionary movement that used the organizational strategies of the British reform movement, which had achieved the Great Reform Bill of 1832 to broaden the electoral franchise and reduce political corruption; the rebellion led to substantive reforms in the British North America Act. The Upper Canada Central Political Union was organized in 1832-3 by Dr Thomas David Morrison while William Lyon Mackenzie was in England; this union collected 19,930 signatures on a petition protesting Mackenzie's unjust expulsion from the House of Assembly by the Family Compact.
The Reformers won a majority in the elections held in 1834 for the Legislative Assembly of the 12th Parliament of Upper Canada and Mackenzie was again elected as member for York, but the Family Compact held the majority in the Legislative Council, the two Houses of government were at loggerheads. This union was reorganized as the Canadian Alliance Society in 1835, it shared a large meeting space in the market buildings with the Mechanics Institute and the Children of Peace. The Canadian Alliance Society adopted much of the platform of the Owenite National Union of the Working Classes in London, that were to be integrated into the Chartist movement in England. In pursuit of this democratic goal, the Chartists staged a similar armed rebellion, the Newport Rising, in Wales in 1839; the Canadian Alliance Society was reborn as the Constitutional Reform Society in 1836, when it was led by the more moderate reformer, Dr William W. Baldwin; the Reformers experienced a disaster at the 1836 elections for the 13th Parliament of Upper Canada, the Society took its final form as the Toronto Political Union in 1837.
It was this group of the disenfranchised that began organizing local "Vigilance Committees" to elect delegates to a so-called Constitutional Convention in July 1837. This became the organizational structure for the Rebellion; the first of those meetings to select delegates to the constitutional convention were held at Doel's Brewery in Toronto on July 28 and 31. The second meeting was called to order by Samuel Hughes, a member of the Children of Peace, three days on August 3 in Newmarket; the meeting appointed Hughes, Samuel Lount, Nelson Gorham, Silas Fletcher, Jeremiah Graham and John McIntosh, M. P. P. as delegates to the convention. A further eight public meetings across the Home District were scheduled over the next three weeks. Preceding the Mackenzie rebellion John Doel's house and brewery were prominent gathering places for the Reformers; the large meetings were held in the brewery while smaller meetings of the leaders were held in the home. Mackenzie planned to take foundry-men and axe-makers and seize arms and the artillery from the garrison.
They would arouse the citizens of the town and country to proclaim a provincial government. Mr. Doel objected to the plan and there was a fight between Mackenzie and Morrison; the meeting was broken up and Mackenzie left the house forever. From this point forward John Doel, his brewery, his home were not longer part of the rebellion; the meetings in the Home District met with an increasing amount of Orange Order violence, so that the reformers began to protect themselves and resort to arms to do so. Mackenzie was accompanied by 50 young farmers from the Lloydtown meeting, for example, after they heard that an Orange riot was planned for Albion; as the violence continued, peaceable reform meetings tapered off in October, to be replaced by instances of men drilling for battle. There is no single cause for the Rebellion, only