Tuolumne County, California
Tuolumne County the County of Tuolumne, is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 54,179; the county seat and only incorporated city is Sonora. Tuolumne County comprises CA Micropolitan Statistical Area; the county is in the Sierra Nevada region. The northern half of Yosemite National Park is located in the eastern part of the county; the name Tuolumne is of Native American origin and has been given different meanings, such as Many Stone Houses, The Land of Mountain Lions and, Straight Up Steep, the latter an interpretation of William Fuller, a native Chief. Mariano Vallejo, in his report to the first California State Legislature, said that the word is "a corruption of the Indian word talmalamne which signifies'cluster of stone wigwams.'" The name may mean "people," i.e. in caves. Tuolumne County is one of the original counties of California, created in 1850 at the time of statehood. Prior to statehood, it had been referred to as Oro County. Parts of the county were given to Stanislaus County in 1854 and to Alpine County in 1864.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 2,274 square miles, of which 2,221 square miles is land and 54 square miles is water. A California Department of Forestry document reports Tuolumne County's 1,030,812 acres include federal lands such as Yosemite National Park, Stanislaus National Forest, Bureau of Land Management lands, Indian reservations. Notable landforms in the county include Table Mountain. Special districts in Tuolumne County include: Belleview Elementary School District Big Oak Flat-Groveland Unified School District Chinese Camp Elementary School District Columbia Fire District Columbia Union Elementary School District Curtis Creek Elementary School District Groveland Community Services District Jamestown Elementary School District Jamestown Fire District Mi-Wuk Sugar Pine Fire Protection District Sonora Elementary School District Sonora Union High School District Soulsbyville Elementary School District Strawberry Fire District Summerville Elementary School District Summerville Union High School District Tuolumne County Air Pollution Control District Tuolumne County Water District No. 1 Tuolumne Fire District Tuolumne Regional Water District Tuolumne Utilities District Twain Harte Fire District Twain Harte-Long Barn Union Elementary School District Yosemite Community College District Alpine County, California - north Calaveras County, California - northwest Stanislaus County, California - southwest Mariposa County, California - south Madera County, California - southeast Mono County, California - east Merced County, California - southwest Stanislaus National Forest Yosemite National Park Red Hills California State Route 49 California State Route 108 California State Route 120 Tuolumne County Transit bus routes radiate from Sonora to serve most of the county.
In Columbia, a connection can be made to Calaveras County Transit. Yosemite Area Regional Transportation System makes a single daily round trip from Sonora into Yosemite Valley during summer months only. YARTS is set to begin a second daily round trip in June 2013. For details visit www.yarts.com or tuolumnecountytransit.com Columbia Airport and Pine Mountain Lake Airport are both general aviation airports located in the Southwest and Northeast corners of the county respectively. The following table includes the number of incidents reported and the rate per 1,000 persons for each type of offense; the 2010 United States Census reported that Tuolumne County had a population of 55,365. The racial makeup of Tuolumne County was 48,274 White, 1,143 African American, 1,039 Native American, 572 Asian, 76 Pacific Islander, 2,238 from other races, 2,023 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5,918 persons; as of the census of 2000, there were 54,501 people, 21,004 households, 14,240 families residing in the county.
The population density was 9/km². There were 28,336 housing units at an average density of 5/km²; the racial makeup of the county was 89.5% White, 2.1% Black or African American, 1.8% Native American, 0.7% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 2.9% from other races, 2.8% from two or more races. 8.2% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 94.7 % spoke 3.5 % Spanish as their first language. There were 21,004 households out of which 26.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.4% were married couples living together, 9.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.2% were non-families. 26.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.82. In the county, the population was spread out with 20.7% under the age of 18, 7.6% from 18 to 24, 25.3% from 25 to 44, 27.9% from 45 to 64, 18.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years.
For every 100 females there were 111.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 112.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $38,725, the median income for a family was $44,327. Males had a median income of $35,373 versus $25,805 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,015. About 8.1% of families and 11.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.2% of those under age 18 and 4.0% of those age 65 or over. The Government of Tuolumne County is established and defined by the California Constitution and is a five member elected Board Of Supervisors who serve four year elected terms; the government provides services such as elections and voter registrat
New Melones Lake
New Melones Lake is a reservoir on the Stanislaus River in the central Sierra Nevada foothills, within Calaveras County and Tuolumne County, California. The New Melones Dam and reservoir are a water collection and transfer unit of the Central Valley Project. New Melones Lake provides irrigation water, hydroelectric power, flood control, wildlife habitat. Recreation uses include fishing and boating within the Glory Hole Recreation Area and Tuttletown Recreation Area; the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment has developed a safe eating advisory for fish caught in New Melones Lake based on levels of mercury or PCBs found in the fish species. The reservoir is impounded by the New Melones Dam, has a 2,400,000 acre⋅ft capacity with a surface area of 12,500 acres; when full, the shoreline is more than 100 miles long. The reservoir and dam are located west of Jamestown and Sonora, south of Angels Camp; the Archie Stevenot Bridge, completed in 1976, carries Hwy 49 across the lake and border between Calaveras and Tuolumne Counties.
The Stanislaus River and environs experienced dramatic changes beginning with the Gold Rush. The site of the reservoir is at the heart of Gold Country, development began there with the arrival of the miners in the 1840s. Water was diverted, the riverbeds scoured for gold, the banks colonized by miners and the businesses that served them. By 1900 the flowing water was used to create electricity; some of it was diverted into canals for use in San Joaquin Valley agriculture. The original Melones Dam was completed in 1926; the New Melones Project was authorized in 1944 to create a much larger reservoir and to establish a new hydroelectric plant. It would be designed to prevent floods, it was a controversial project. The dam's opponents argued that its presence would inundate the river valley, eliminate the natural whitewater rapids, flood many of the massive unique limestone cave formations characteristic of the area, destroy archaeological resources found along the river; the environmental organization Friends of the River was formed to fight the dam.
Initial archaeological surveys were made by the Smithsonian River Basin Surveys in 1948. Further surveys were done by regional universities; the consensus after the surveys was. Upon the dam's completion, the valley filled with water, covering the old mining town of Melones and the original Melones Dam; the lake was constructed by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers and transferred to the U. S. Bureau of Reclamation shortly after its completion in 1980. Cultural resources affected by the project were transferred to the Department of the Interior with the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Services responsible for the archaeological mitigation program. New Melones is a unit of the Central Valley Project; the New Melones Visitor Center and Museum contains information about local history and natural history. Exhibits focus on the use of the Stanislaus River by prehistoric and historic peoples, including Miwok Indians, the California Gold Rush and the now defunct community of Robinson Ferry, renamed Melones in 1902.
Other exhibits highlight natural history and the New Melones project. List of dams and reservoirs in California List of lakes in California List of largest reservoirs in the United States List of largest reservoirs of California Department of Water Resources. "Station Meta Data: New Melones Reservoir". California Data Exchange Center. State of California. Retrieved 2009-04-16. New Melones Unit Project webpage at the Bureau of Reclamation New Melones Visitor Center and Museum New Melones Lake at recreation.gov Bureau of Reclamation page "Further reading". Archived from the original on 2009-01-09
Calaveras County, California
Calaveras County the County of Calaveras, is a county in the northern portion of the U. S. state, California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 40,171; the county seat is San Andreas. Angels Camp is the only incorporated city in the county. Calaveras is the Spanish word for skulls. Calaveras County is in both the Gold High Sierra regions of California. Calaveras Big Trees State Park, a preserve of Giant Sequoia trees, is in the county several miles east of the town of Arnold on State Highway 4. Credit for the discovery of giant sequoias here is given to Augustus T. Dowd, a trapper who made the discovery in 1852 while tracking a bear; when the bark from the "Discovery Tree" was removed and taken on a tour around the world, the trees became a worldwide sensation and one of the county's first tourist attractions. The uncommon gold telluride mineral calaverite was discovered in the county in 1861 and is named for it. Mark Twain set "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County", in the county.
The county hosts an annual fair and Jumping Frog Jubilee, featuring a frog-jumping contest, to celebrate the association with Twain's story. Each year's winner is commemorated with a brass plaque mounted in the sidewalk of downtown Historic Angels Camp and this feature is known as the Frog Hop of Fame. In 2015, Calaveras County had the highest rate of suicide deaths in the United States, with 49.1 suicides per 100,000 people. The Spanish word calaveras means "skulls." The county takes its name from the Calaveras River. He believed they had either died of famine or been killed in tribal conflicts over hunting and fishing grounds. A more cause was a European epidemic disease, acquired from interacting with other tribes near the Missions on the coast; the Stanislaus River, which forms the southern boundary, is named for Estanislao, a Lakisamni Yokut who escaped from Mission San Jose in the late 1830s. He is reported to have raised a small group of men with crude weapons, hiding in the foothills when the Mexicans attacked.
The natives were decimated by Mexican gunfire. In 1836, John Marsh, Jose Noriega, a party of men, went exploring in Northern California, they made camp along a river bed in the evening, when they woke up the next morning, discovered that they had camped in the midst of a great quantity of skulls and bones. They gave the river the appropriate name: Calaveras; the writer Mark Twain spent 88 seminal days in the county, during which time he heard the story that became The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County in the Angel Hotel in 1865. This short story put Calaveras County on the map. Calaveras County was one of the original counties of the state of California, created in 1850 at the time of admission to the Union. Parts of the county's territory were reassigned to Amador County in 1854 and to Alpine County in 1864; the county's geography includes beautiful landmarks, rolling hills, giant valleys. It is known for its friendly communities, businesses such as agriculture management and construction engineering.
It has numerous caverns, such as Mercer Caverns, California Cavern and Moaning Cavern that are national destinations for tourists from across the country. Other attractions include a thriving wine making industry, including the largest of the Calaveras wineries: Ironstone Vineyards, mountain sports recreation and the performing arts. Gold prospecting in Calaveras County began in late 1848 with a camp founded by Henry and George Angel; the brothers first arrived in California as soldiers, serving under Colonel Frémont during the Mexican War. After the war's end, the brothers found themselves in Monterey where they heard of the fabulous finds in the gold fields, they set out for the mines. The company parted ways upon reaching what became known as Angels Creek; the brothers soon opened a trading post. By the end of the year, over one hundred tents were scattered about the creek and the settlement was referred to as Angels Trading Post shortened to Angels Camp. Placer mining soon gave out around the camp, but an extensive gold-bearing quartz vein of the area's Mother Lode was located by the Winter brothers during the mid-1850s, this brought in the foundations of a permanent town.
This vein followed Main Street from Angels Creek up to the southern edge of Altaville. Five major mines worked the rich vein: the Stickle, the Utica, the Lightner, the Angels, the Sultana; these mines reached their peaks during the 1880s and 1890s, when over 200 stamp mills crushed quartz ore brought in by hand cars on track from the mines. By the time hard rock mining was done, the five mines had producing a total of over $20 million in gold; the telluride mineral calaverite was first recognized and obtained in 1861 from the Stanislaus Mine, Carson Hill, Angels Camp, in Calaveras Co. California, it was named for the County of origin by chemist and mineralogist Frederick Augustus Genth who differentiated it from the known gold telluride mineral sylvanite, formally reported it as a new gold mineral in 1868. George J. Clarke Alexander Hunter According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,037 square miles, of which 1,020 square miles is land and 17 square miles is water. A California Department of Forestry report lists the county's area in acres as 663,000, although the exact figure would
California Department of Transportation
The California Department of Transportation is an executive department of the US state of California. The department is part of the cabinet-level California State Transportation Agency. Caltrans is headquartered in Sacramento. Caltrans manages the state's highway system, which includes the California Freeway and Expressway System, is involved with public transportation systems throughout the state, it supports Amtrak's Capitol Corridor. In 2015, Caltrans released a new mission statement: "Provide a safe, sustainable and efficient transportation system to enhance California’s economy and livability." The earliest predecessor of Caltrans was the Bureau of Highways, created by the California Legislature and signed into law by Governor James Budd in 1895. This agency consisted of three commissioners who were charged with analyzing the state road system and making recommendations. At the time, there was no state highway system. California's roads consisted of crude dirt roads maintained by county governments, as well as some paved roads within city boundaries, this ad hoc system was no longer adequate for the needs of the state's growing population.
After the commissioners submitted their report to the governor on November 25, 1896, the legislature replaced the Bureau with the Department of Highways. Due to the state's weak fiscal condition and corrupt politics, little progress was made until 1907, when the legislature replaced the Department of Highways with the Department of Engineering, within which there was a Division of Highways. California voters approved an US$18 million bond issue for the construction of a state highway system in 1910, the first California Highway Commission was convened in 1911. On August 7, 1912, the department broke ground on its first construction project, the section of El Camino Real between South San Francisco and Burlingame, which became part of California State Route 82; the year 1912 saw the founding of the Transportation Laboratory and the creation of seven administrative divisions, which are the predecessors of the 12 district offices in use as of 2018. The original seven division headquarters were located in: Willits Mercantile Building for Del Norte, Humboldt and Mendocino counties Redding C.
R. Briggs Building for Lassen, Shasta, Siskiyou and Trinity counties Sacramento Forum Building for Alpine, Butte, Colusa, El Dorado, Nevada, Plumas, San Joaquin, Solano, Sutter, Tuolumne and Yuba counties San Francisco Rialto Building for Alameda, Contra Costa, Napa, San Francisco, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, San Mateo, Sonoma counties San Luis Obispo Union National Bank Building for Monterey, San Benito, Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo counties Fresno Forsythe Building for Fresno, Kern, Madera, Merced and Tulare counties Los Angeles Union Oil Building for Imperial, Los Angeles, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, Ventura countiesIn 1913, the California State Legislature began requiring vehicle registration and allocated the resulting funds to support regular highway maintenance. In 1921, the state legislature turned the Department of Engineering into the Department of Public Works; the history of Caltrans and its predecessor agencies during the 20th century was marked by many firsts. It was one of the first agencies in the United States to paint centerlines on highways statewide.
In late 1972, the legislature approved a reorganization, suggested by a study initiated by then-Governor Ronald Reagan, in which the Department of Public Works was merged with the Department of Aeronautics to become the modern California Department of Transportation. For administrative purposes, Caltrans divides the State of California into 12 districts, supervised by district offices. Most districts cover multiple counties; the largest districts by population are District 4 and District 7. Like most state agencies, Caltrans maintains its headquarters in Sacramento, covered by District 3. Transportation in California State highways in California United States Department of Transportation List of roads and highways Official website Named Highways, Freeways and Other Appurtenances in California
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a