Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. Art Deco influenced the design of buildings, jewelry, cars, movie theatres, ocean liners, everyday objects such as radios and vacuum cleaners, it took its name, short for Arts Décoratifs, from the Exposition internationale des arts décoratifs et industriels modernes held in Paris in 1925. It combined modern styles with rich materials. During its heyday, Art Deco represented luxury, glamour and faith in social and technological progress. Art Deco was a pastiche of many different styles, sometimes contradictory, united by a desire to be modern. From its outset, Art Deco was influenced by the bold geometric forms of Cubism, it featured rare and expensive materials, such as ebony and ivory, exquisite craftsmanship. The Chrysler Building and other skyscrapers of New York built during the 1920s and 1930s are monuments of the Art Deco style. In the 1930s, during the Great Depression, the Art Deco style became more subdued.
New materials arrived, including chrome plating, stainless steel, plastic. A sleeker form of the style, called Streamline Moderne, appeared in the 1930s. Art Deco is one of the first international styles, but its dominance ended with the beginning of World War II and the rise of the functional and unadorned styles of modern architecture and the International Style of architecture that followed. Art Deco took its name, short for Arts Décoratifs, from the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes held in Paris in 1925, though the diverse styles that characterize Art Deco had appeared in Paris and Brussels before World War I; the term arts décoratifs was first used in France in 1858. In 1868, Le Figaro newspaper used the term objets d'art décoratifs with respect to objects for stage scenery created for the Théâtre de l'Opéra. In 1875, furniture designers, textile and glass designers, other craftsmen were given the status of artists by the French government. In response to this, the École royale gratuite de dessin founded in 1766 under King Louis XVI to train artists and artisans in crafts relating to the fine arts, was renamed the National School of Decorative Arts.
It took its present name of ENSAD in 1927. During the 1925 Exposition the architect Le Corbusier wrote a series of articles about the exhibition for his magazine L'Esprit Nouveau under the title, "1925 EXPO. ARTS. DÉCO." which were combined into a book, "L'art décoratif d'aujourd'hui". The book was a spirited attack on the excesses of the lavish objects at the Exposition; the actual phrase "Art déco" did not appear in print until 1966, when it featured in the title of the first modern exhibit on the subject, called Les Années 25: Art déco, Stijl, Esprit nouveau, which covered the variety of major styles in the 1920s and 1930s. The term Art déco was used in a 1966 newspaper article by Hillary Gelson in the Times, describing the different styles at the exhibit. Art Deco gained currency as a broadly applied stylistic label in 1968 when historian Bevis Hillier published the first major academic book on the style: Art Deco of the 20s and 30s. Hillier noted that the term was being used by art dealers and cites The Times and an essay named "Les Arts Déco" in Elle magazine as examples of prior usage.
In 1971, Hillier organized an exhibition at the Minneapolis Institute of Arts, which he details in his book about it, The World of Art Deco. The emergence of Art Deco was connected with the rise in status of decorative artists, who until late in the 19th century had been considered as artisans; the term "arts décoratifs" had been invented in 1875, giving the designers of furniture and other decoration official status. The Société des artistes décorateurs, or SAD, was founded in 1901, decorative artists were given the same rights of authorship as painters and sculptors. A similar movement developed in Italy; the first international exhibition devoted to the decorative arts, the Esposizione international d'Arte decorative moderna, was held in Turin in 1902. Several new magazines devoted to decorative arts were founded in Paris, including Arts et décoration and L'Art décoratif moderne. Decorative arts sections were introduced into the annual salons of the Sociéte des artistes français, in the Salon d'automne.
French nationalism played a part in the resurgence of decorative arts. In 1911, the SAD proposed the holding of a major new international exposition of decorative arts in 1912. No copies of old styles were to be permitted; the exhibit was postponed until 1914 because of the war, postponed until 1925, when it gave its name to the whole family of styles known as Déco. Parisian department stores and fashion designers played an important
Stockholm City Hall
The Stockholm City Hall is the building of the Municipal Council for the City of Stockholm in Sweden. It stands on the eastern tip of Kungsholmen island, next to Riddarfjärden's northern shore and facing the islands of Riddarholmen and Södermalm, it houses offices and conference rooms as well as ceremonial halls, the luxury restaurant Stadshuskällaren. It is one of Stockholm's major tourist attractions. In 1907 the city council decided to build a new city hall at the former site of Eldkvarn. An architectural contest was held which in the first stage resulted in the selection of drafts by Ragnar Östberg, Carl Westman, Ivar Tengbom jointly with Ernst Torulf, Carl Bergsten. After a further competition between Westman and Östberg the latter was assigned to the construction of the City Hall, while the former was asked to construct Stockholm Court House. Östberg modified his original draft using elements of Westman's project, including the tower. During the construction period, Östberg reworked his plans, resulting in the addition of the lantern on top of the tower, the abandonment of the blue glazed tiles for the Blue Hall.
Oskar Asker was employed as construction leader and Paul Toll, of the construction company Kreuger & Toll, designed the foundations. Georg Greve assisted in preparing the plans; the construction took twelve years, from 1911 to 1923. Nearly eight million red bricks were used; the dark red bricks, called "munktegel" because of their traditional use in the construction of monasteries and churches, were provided by Lina brick factory near Södertälje. Construction was carried out by craftsmen using traditional techniques; the building was inaugurated on 23 June 1923 400 years after Gustav Vasa's arrival in Stockholm. Verner von Heidenstam and Hjalmar Branting delivered the inaugurational speeches; the site, adjacent to Stadshusbron, being bordered by the streets of Hantverkargatan and Norr Mälarstrand to the north and west, the shore of Riddarfjärden to the south and east, allowed for a spacious layout. The building follows a rectangular ground plan, it is built around two open spaces, a piazza called Borgargården on the eastern side, the Blue Hall to the west.
The Blue Hall, with its straight walls and arcades, incorporates elements of a representative courtyard. Its walls are in fact without blue decorations, but it has kept its name after Östberg's original design, it is known as the dining hall used for the banquet held after the annual Nobel Prize award ceremony. The organ in the Blue Hall is with its 10,270 pipes the largest in Scandinavia. Above the Blue Hall lies the Golden Hall, named after the decorative mosaics made of more than 18 million tiles; the mosaics make use of motifs from Swedish history. They were executed by the Berlin, firm of Puhl & Wagner, after nine years of negotiations by Gottfried Heinersdorff for the commission; the southeast corner of the building adjacent to the shore, is marked by a monumental tower crowned by the Three Crowns, an old national symbol for Sweden. The tower is accessible by an elevator or by a stair of 365 steps; the eastern side of its base is decorated with a gold-plated cenotaph of Birger Jarl. Stadshuset is considered one of Sweden's foremost examples of national romanticism in architecture.
The unique site, overlooking Riddarfjärden, inspired a central motif of the construction, namely the juxtaposition of city architecture and water that represents a central feature of Stockholm's cityscape as a whole. The architectural style is one of refined eclecticism, blending massive, North European brick construction and playful elements reminiscent of oriental and venetian architecture, such as turrets adorned with golden starlets, decorated balconies, wooden masts, statues; the small park between the building and Lake Mälaren's shore is adorned with several sculptures, among them Carl Eldh's ensemble representing the three artists August Strindberg, Gustaf Fröding and Ernst Josephson, as well as Eldh's bronze sculptures "Sången" and "Dansen". To the south-east of the City Hall, facing Riddarholmen, is a pillar 20 meters tall with a statue of Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson on top. Geography of Stockholm Stockholm Court House Media related to Stockholm City Hall at Wikimedia Commons Stockholm City: Official city hall pages CityMayors.com: Stockholm City Hall Stockholm360.net: Virtual Tour of Stockholm City Hall — with 360 x 180 degree panoramas
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries. The city stretches across fourteen islands. Just outside the city and along the coast is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago; the area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is the capital of Stockholm County. Stockholm is the cultural, media and economic centre of Sweden; the Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the country's GDP, is among the top 10 regions in Europe by GDP per capita. It is an important global city, the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region; the city is home to some of Europe's top ranking universities, such as the Stockholm School of Economics, Karolinska Institute and Royal Institute of Technology. It hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall. One of the city's most prized museums, the Vasa Museum, is the most visited non-art museum in Scandinavia.
The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is well known for the decor of its stations. Sweden's national football arena is located north of the city centre, in Solna. Ericsson Globe, the national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city; the city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics, hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne, Australia. Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies, including the highest courts in the judiciary, the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister; the government has its seat in the Rosenbad building, the Riksdag is seated in the Parliament House, the Prime Minister's residence is adjacent at Sager House. Stockholm Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the Swedish monarch, while Drottningholm Palace, a World Heritage Site on the outskirts of Stockholm, serves as the Royal Family's private residence. After the Ice Age, around 8,000 BC, there were many people living in what is today the Stockholm area, but as temperatures dropped, inhabitants moved south.
Thousands of years as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable and the lands became fertile, people began to migrate back to the North. At the intersection of the Baltic Sea and lake Mälaren is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings, they had a positive trade impact on the area because of the trade routes they created. Stockholm's location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne; the earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade. The first part of the name means log in Swedish, although it may be connected to an old German word meaning fortification; the second part of the name means islet, is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. According to Eric Chronicles the city is said to have been founded by Birger Jarl to protect Sweden from sea invasions made by Karelians after the pillage of Sigtuna on Lake Mälaren in the summer of 1187.
Stockholm's core, the present Old Town was built on the central island next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid-13th century onward. The city rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League. Stockholm developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Gdańsk, Visby and Riga during this time. Between 1296 and 1478 Stockholm's City Council was made up of 24 members, half of whom were selected from the town's German-speaking burghers; the strategic and economic importance of the city made Stockholm an important factor in relations between the Danish Kings of the Kalmar Union and the national independence movement in the 15th century. The Danish King Christian II was able to enter the city in 1520. On 8 November 1520 a massacre of opposition figures called the Stockholm Bloodbath took place and set off further uprisings that led to the breakup of the Kalmar Union. With the accession of Gustav Vasa in 1523 and the establishment of a royal power, the population of Stockholm began to grow, reaching 10,000 by 1600.
The 17th century saw Sweden grow into a major European power, reflected in the development of the city of Stockholm. From 1610 to 1680 the population multiplied sixfold. In 1634, Stockholm became the official capital of the Swedish empire. Trading rules were created that gave Stockholm an essential monopoly over trade between foreign merchants and other Swedish and Scandinavian territories. In 1697, Tre Kronor was replaced by Stockholm Palace. In 1710, a plague killed about 20,000 of the population. After the end of the Great Northern War the city stagnated. Population growth halted and economic growth slowed; the city was in shock after having lost its place as the capital of a Great power. However, Stockholm maintained its role as the political centre of Sweden and continued to develop culturally under Gustav III. By the second half of the 19th century, Stockholm had regained its leading economic role. New industries emerged and Stockholm was transformed into an important trade and service centre as well as a key gateway point within Sweden.
The population grew during this time through immigration. At the end
Birger Jarls torn
Birger Jarls torn is a defensive tower on the northwest corner of Riddarholmen, an islet in Gamla Stan, the old town of Stockholm. The building has been named for Birger Jarl who traditionally is attributed as the founder of Stockholm, but it was built several hundred years and the name is the product of a 17th-century myth. Stockholm translates to "Log-Islet", according to that myth the city was founded where a log drifting ashore from Lake Mälar. Mentioned as the oldest building in town, the tower in fact was built by King Gustav I of Sweden around 1530 in his efforts to reinforce and modernize the fortifications of the capital, it replaced timbered redoubts destroyed by fire in 1525 and along with the southern tower of the Wrangel Palace, is the only remaining structure from a 16th-century defensive system. A wall connected the two towers. For its construction, bricks were taken from St. Clare's Priory when it was destroyed in 1527, from churches on the ridges surrounding the city; the building was two stories high with a crenellated top.
Toward the waterfront, the base of the cavity wall was made thick 2,5 metres at the base and about 0,75 centimetres at the top, while the other side was thinner with much larger openings. In 1589-1590, the original crenellation was rebuilt into a third floor topped by a cone shaped roof, the present white grouting was added to the façade. In the 1620s King Gustavus Adolphus begun to donate parcels of land on Riddarholmen to prominent members of the Swedish nobility, the islet was transformed into the palace laden location it still is. From the mid 17th century the tower, at the time called Rundelen, was attached more and more to surrounding buildings, it was rebuilt in the mid-18th century, the original apertures transformed into windows, while a fourth floor was added, topped by a new roof with a gilt sphere. Along with two flanking buildings, the 18th century restoration has been assumed to be designed by Carl Hårleman. During the 19th century both the tower and the two flanking buildings were rebuilt many times to accommodate various activities and institutions such as a pawn shop and the city's archives.
In the 1950s, the entire complex was rebuilt again with new concrete joints replacing old wooden ones, while new barred windows and a detached spiral staircase were added. Before housing the offices of the Chancellor of Justice in 2007, the building was documented and restored in 2006; some of the more recent additions were removed while some older, discontinued alterations were reinstated. All new additions were adapted to the existing structure to emphasise its historical value, while making room for modern installations and accessibility requirements; the entire top floor has been transformed into a round conference room with an oval desk surrounded by the round windows. As of 2007, the lower part of the building is intended to house restaurant business, to reduce the isolated state of the islet Riddarholmen and make it more attractive to Stockholmers. History of Stockholm Statens Fastighetsverk - Birger Jarls torn, Riddarholmen Bach Arkitekter - 2006 restoration John Wändesjö. "Birger Jarls torn AB 86:3 och Överkommissariens hus AB 86:2".
Stockholm City Museum. Retrieved 2007-05-02. Google Maps
Architecture of Germany
The architecture of Germany has a long and diverse history. Every major European style from Roman to Post Modern is represented, including renowned examples of Carolingian, Gothic, Baroque, Classical and International Style architecture. Centuries of fragmentation of Germany into principalities and kingdoms caused a great regional diversity and favoured vernacular architecture; this made for a heterogeneous and diverse architectural style, with architecture differing from town to town. While this diversity may still be witnessed in small towns, the devastation of architectural heritage in the larger cities during World War II resulted in extensive rebuilding characterized by simple modernist architecture; the Roman Empire once extended over much of today's German Federal Republic, there are still remains from around 100-150AD at the Limes Romanus, the border defence system of Ancient Rome marking the boundaries of the Roman Empire at that time. In addition to military structures such as forts and military camps built by the Romans, other border fortifications, there are spas and amphitheatres.
Trier, on the banks of the Moselle River, is the oldest city in Germany, a great metropolis founded in or before 16 BC. The best-known survival from that period is the Porta Nigra, the best-preserved ancient city gate. There are remains of thermal spas, a Roman bridge and the Constantine basilica. With the departure of the Romans, their urban culture and their advances in architecture vanished from Germany; the Pre-Romanesque period in Western European art is dated from either the emergence of the Merovingian kingdom in about 500 or from the Carolingian Renaissance in the late 8th century, to the beginning of the 11th century Romanesque period. German buildings from this period include Lorsch Abbey; this combines elements of the Roman triumphal arch with the vernacular Teutonic heritage. One of the most important churches in this style is the Abbey Church of St. Michael's, constructed between 1001 and 1031 under the direction of Bishop Bernward of Hildesheim as the chapel of his Benedictine monastery.
It is built in the so-called Ottonic style. The Ottonian Renaissance was a minor renaissance that accompanied the reigns of the first three emperors of the Saxon Dynasty, all named Otto: Otto I, Otto II, Otto III; the Romanesque period, from the 10th to the early 13th century, is characterised by semi-circular arches, robust appearance, small paired windows, groin vaults. Many churches in Germany date from this time, including the twelve Romanesque churches of Cologne; the most significant building of this period in Germany is Speyer Cathedral. It was built in stages from about 1030, was in the 11th century the largest building in the Christian world and an architectural symbol of the power of the Salian dynasty, a dynasty of four German Kings; the cathedrals of Worms and Mainz are other important examples of Romanesque style. Many churches and monasteries were founded in this era in Saxony-Anhalt; the Rhenish Romanesque, for example at Limburg Cathedral, produced works that used coloured surrounds.
Of particular importance are the church of St. Servatius in Quedlinburg, Luebeck Cathedral, Brunswick Cathedral, Hildesheim Cathedral, St. Michael in Hildesheim, Trier Cathedral and Bamberg Cathedral, whose last phase of construction falls in the Gothic period. Maulbronn Abbey is considered a significant example of Cistercian architecture, it was built between the 12th and 15th centuries, therefore includes Gothic elements. In the 11th century there began construction of numerous castles, including the famous castle of Wartburg, expanded in the Gothic style. Gothic architecture flourished during the late medieval period, it evolved from Romanesque architecture. The first Gothic buildings in Germany were built from about 1230, for example the Liebfrauenkirche ca. 1233-1283 in Trier, one of the most important early Gothic cathedrals in Germany and falls into the architectural tradition of the French Gothic. Freiburg Cathedral was built in three stages, the first beginning in 1120 under the dukes of Zähringen, the second beginning in 1210, the third in 1230.
Of the original building, only the foundations still exist. It is noted for its 116-metre tower, which Jacob Burckhardt reputedly claimed is the most beautiful in Christian architecture; the tower is nearly square at the base, at its centre is the dodecagonal star gallery. Above this gallery, the tower is tapered, with the spire above, it is the only Gothic church tower in Germany, completed in the Middle Ages, survived the bombing raids of November 1944, which destroyed all of the houses on the west and north side of the market. Cologne Cathedral is after Milan Cathedral the largest Gothic cathedral in the world. Construction began in 1248 and took, with interruptions, until 1880 to complete – a period of over 600 years, it is 144.5 metres long, 86.5 m wide and its two towers are 157 m tall. Because of its enormous twin spires, it has the largest façade of any church in the world; the choir of the cathedral, measured between the piers holds the distinction of having the largest height to width ratio of any Medieval church, 3.6:1, exceeding Beauvais Cathedral which has a higher vault.
Brick Gothic is a specific style of Gothic architecture common in Northern Europe in Northern Germany and the regions around the Baltic Sea wi
Culture in Stockholm
Apart from being a large city with an active cultural life, the capital of Sweden, houses many national cultural institutions. There are two UNESCO World Heritage sites in the Stockholm County area: the Royal Palace Drottningholm and the Skogskyrkogården. Stockholm was the 1998 European City of Culture. Authors connected to Stockholm include the poet and songwriter Carl Michael Bellman and dramatist August Strindberg, novelist Hjalmar Söderberg, all of whom made Stockholm part of their works. Other authors with notable heritage in Stockholm were the Nobel Prize laureate Eyvind Johnson and the popular poet and composer Evert Taube; the novelist Per Anders Fogelström wrote a popular series of historical novels depicting life in Stockholm from the 19th to the mid-20th century. The city's oldest section is Gamla stan, located on the original small islands of the city's earliest settlements and still featuring the medieval street layout; some notable buildings of Gamla Stan are the large German Church and several mansions and palaces: the Riddarhuset, the Bonde Palace, the Tessin Palace and the Oxenstierna Palace.
The oldest building in Stockholm is the Riddarholmskyrkan from the late 13th century. After a fire in 1697 when the original medieval castle was destroyed, Stockholm Palace was erected in a baroque style. Storkyrkan Cathedral, the episcopal seat of the Bishop of Stockholm, stands next to the castle, it is clad in a baroque exterior dating to the 18th century. As early as the 15th century, the city had expanded outside of its original borders; some pre-industrial, small-scale buildings from this era can still be found in Södermalm. During the 19th century and the age of industrialization Stockholm grew with plans and architecture inspired by the large cities of the continent such as Berlin and Vienna. Notable works of this time period include public buildings such as the Royal Swedish Opera and private developments such as the luxury housing developments on Strandvägen. In the 20th century, a nationalistic push spurred a new architectural style inspired by medieval and renaissance ancestry as well as influences of the Jugend / Art Nouveau style.
A key landmark of Stockholm, the Stockholm City Hall, was erected 1911–1923 by architect Ragnar Östberg. Other notable works of these times are the Stockholm Public Library and the Forest Cemetery, Skogskyrkogården Modernism characterized the style of the Stockholm International Exhibition and the development of the city as it grew in that decade. New residential areas sprang up such as the development on Gärdet while industrial development added to the growth, such as the KF manufacturing industries on Kvarnholmen located in the Nacka Municipality. In the 1950s, suburban development entered a new phase with the introduction of the Stockholm metro; the modernist developments of Vällingby and Farsta where internationally praised. In the 1960s this suburban development continued but with the aesthetic of the times, the industrialised and mass-produced blocks of flats received a large amount of criticism. At the same time that this suburban development was happening the most central areas of the inner city were being redesigned.
Sergels Torg, with its five high-rise office towers was created in the 1960s, followed by the total clearance of large areas to make room for new development projects. The most notable buildings from this period is the ensemble of the House of Culture, City Theatre and National Bank building, designed by architect Peter Celsing. Stockholm boasts some 70 museums, making the city host one of the largest numbers of museums in the world. Collectively, these museums are visited by over 9 million people per year. One of the most renowned museums is the Nationalmuseum, with the largest national collection of art: 16,000 paintings and 30,000 objects of art handicraft; the collection dates back to the days of Gustav Vasa in the 16th century, has since been expanded with works by artists such as Rembrandt, Antoine Watteau, as well as constituting a main part of Sweden's art heritage, manifested in the works of Alexander Roslin, Anders Zorn, Johan Tobias Sergel, Carl Larsson, Carl Fredrik Hill and Ernst Josephson.
The Museum of Modern Art, or Moderna Museet, is Sweden's national museum of modern art. It has works by famous modern artists such as Picasso and Salvador Dalí. Other notable museums in Stockholm include: Nationalmuseum Skansen - An open air heritage museum and zoo Vasa Museum, dedicated to the restored Vasa, a ship that sank in 1628 The Nordic Museum with art and design from the Nordic countries The Stockholm City Museum The Museum of Medieval Stockholm The National Museum of Science and Technology The National Maritime Museum The Swedish Museum of Natural History The Biological museum, Swedish flora and fauna; the Museum of Spirits Millesgården - The home of sculptor Carl Milles. Distinguished among Stockholm's many theatres are the Royal Dramatic Theatre, one of Europe's most renowned theatres, the Royal Swedish Opera, inaugurated in 1773. Other notable theatres are the Stockholm City Theatre, the Peoples Opera, the Modern Theatre of Dance, the China Theatre, the Göta Lejon Theatre, the Mosebacke Theatre, the Oscar Theatre.
The stages of Stockholm number in their fifties at the least, a wide variety of plays are on, from classical to newly written. Stockholm is the media center of Sweden, it has four nationwide daily newspapers, is the central location of the publicly funded radio and television.