Television in Argentina
Argentine television broadcasting began in 1951 with the inaugural of state-owned Canal 7, developed by Radio Belgrano executive Jaime Yankelevich. Color television broadcasting, was not available until after 1978, when the government launched Argentina Televisora Color, now Televisión Pública Argentina. Argentina is one of only five Latin American countries to use the PAL broadcast television system and is one of the only four Spanish-speaking countries to use PAL; the prevalence of cable television, increasing since the first CATV transmitter opened in the city of Junín in 1965, is now the third-widest in the world, reaching at least 78% of households. Argentina has adopted the Japanese standard ISDB-T, with modifications performed by Brazil. Argentina had selected ATSC standard in 1998, backed by Grupo Clarin over DVB-T promoted by the biggest incumbent telcos and European cellphone manufacturers like Nokia. There had been experimental ATSC broadcasts since 1999. There is an agreement between Brazil and Argentina, signed in the light of the Mercosur trade bloc, where both countries agree to share information and efforts to select the same Digital TV standard.
By August 27, 2009, the Argentine government announced that the Japanese standard was adopted, along with Chile and Perú at the same time. The goal behind this political decision is to achieve a wide, high quality regional TV. Major TV broadcasters, namely El Trece and Telefe had been showing off sample digital broadcasts at electronics and media sector shows like the CAPER exhibition, but Canal 13 still hasn't started to broadcast in the now official Argentine standard. HDTV-ready TV sales are increasing in Argentina, with the first TVs made available since 2005 by local firm Philips; the firm introduced back three HD-ready CRT TVs in 25, 29, 33-inch versions. These tvs were manufactured in Tierra del Fuego and included Pal-N/B and NTSC analogue tuners, plus HD component video inputs. Only a single model, the 25-inch, 16:9 one featured HDMI; as of 2008 the firm has switched to LCDs. In November 2008, local cable TV firm Cablevision, which merged with Multicanal, started offering its "Cablevision HD" service.
This rather expensive offering costs an additional $30 ARS over the standard Digital-TV service price. It uses ATSC and the firm makes mandatory the purchase of its "HD Tuner with DVR" at a cost of around $200 US dollars; as of late 2008 most LCDs advertised. As of December 2013, digital television has reached 80 percent of Argentina. Argentina will end all analogue broadcasts in 2019. Cable television had its origins in the 1960s, when a CATV service started to operate in Junín, Buenos Aires. Cable television is available in 5.5 million homes, the best ratio in Latin America and second in the world. In the 1980s cable operators started operations in the absence of local regulations; those earlier operators started a merged process which evolved toward the merge of Cablevision and Multicanal, the two biggest cable companies. The resultant company, named Cablevision, is owned by Grupo Clarin, the biggest newspaper in Argentina, the owner of LS85-TV TyC the owner of the monopoly of the soccer TV broadcast rights, thus turning into the dominant player.
Some small TV cable companies are operating, but the tendency now is that Cablevision will dominate this market in the future. Telecom Operator, Telefónica and Telecom, the monopoly in the fixed-cellular market is lobbying for opening the market towards the triple play; the Government is opening a window to allow the cable operators to enter in the telephony and extend internet coverage, before deregulating this market. In order to operate as a cable company in Argentina, a license from Comfer is required; this license is difficult to get. América Televisión Pública Argentina Canal 9 Telefe El Trece Viewing shares, October 2013: List of Latin American television channels
Argentine comics are one of the most important comic traditions internationally, the most important within Latin America, living its "Golden Age" between the 1940s and the 1960s. Soon after, in 1970, the theorist Oscar Masotta synthesized its contributions in the development of their own models of action comics, humor comics and folkloric comics and the presence of other artists; the first cartoons to appear in Argentina were editorial cartoons in political satire magazines at the end of the 19th century. These cartoons single panels evolved to multiple panel constructions with sequential action. Many used methods such as text indicating dialogue emanating from the speaker's mouth, or text below the drawings for dialogue and explanation. In the 1900s, comics continued to be political satire and commentary, but strips about normal life, called cuentos vivos began to appear. Text still appeared below each drawing with dialogue or explanation. Comics continued to be published in magazines. During this time, translations of comics from the United States, such as Cocoliche by Frederick Burr Opper, showed up in Argentina.
During the 1910s, the amount of comics made in Argentina grew by bounds. In 1912, the first Argentine comic strip proper, with speech balloons and recurring characters, Las aventuras de Viruta y Chicharrón, by Manuel Redondo, began being published in Caras y Caretas. Comics, such as Aventuras de un matrimonio aun sin bautizar, by 1917, Las diabluras de Tijereta was one of the lone strips that still put text at the bottom of each picture. Billiken, a children's magazine started in 1919 included some cartoons; the popularity of comics grew in the 1920s, children's comics gained popularity. The newspaper La Nación started publishing comics daily in 1920, comics, both foreign and domestic, were a big reason for the popularity of the newspaper Crítica. In 1928, the first publication containing comics, the magazine El Tony, began its run of more than 70 years. The'20s saw the first characters created and drawn by Dante Quinterno. In 1928 Quinterno's most important character, Patoruzú, first appeared.
The 1930s saw most important newspapers featuring comic strips. Patoruzú had its own magazine, which began publication in November 1936, it became one of the most important humor magazines of the 1940s, with a record of over 300,000 copies printed for one edition. During the late 1930s superheroes from the United States, such as Superman and Batman, began appearing in local magazines such as Pif Paf, giving a place to action comics; the Argentine comic had its golden age between the mid-1940s and the 1960s, the so-called Golden Age of Argentine Comics, when a number of foreign artists, including many Italians, arrived in Argentina following World War II. José Antonio Guillermo Divito's magazine Rico Tipo, launched on 16 November 1944, contained many comic strips and was published until 1972, it included Oscar Conti's Amarroto and many others. Intervalo magazine appeared in 1945, containing longer dialogs and text in comparison with comics edited in other houses. Patoruzito magazine appeared in 1945, containing a number of children's comics in addition to the adventures of young Paturuzú.
In 1948, local superhero Misterix got his own magazine, which included other action comics, which would become one of the most important the time period. It contained several Italian comics translated into Spanish, but that gave way to local creations; the late 1940s saw the arrival to Argentina of a circle of Italian writers and artists, which further improved the quantity and quality of the comics in Argentina. These included Mario Faustinelli, Hugo Pratt, Ivo Pavone, Dino Battaglia, who were known as the Venice Group; some Argentines, notably Alberto Breccia and Solano López, were considered honorary members of the Venice Group. A number of new publications appeared, such as Fantasía. During this decade, Héctor Oesterheld, one of the most prolific writers, Solano López created the Hora Cero magazine. Between the mid-1950s and mid-1960s, some of the most important Argentine comics were created, such as Héctor Oesterheld's El Eternauta. Another illustrator, Landrú, launched Tía Vicenta in 1957.
Prominently featuring his own political cartoons and those of colleagues such as Oski and Hermenegildo Sábat, its circulation grew to nearly half a million and became the most read magazine in Argentina before its banning order by the military government installed in 1966. Around 1960, of the 6 best selling publications, only one was foreign; the arrival of foreign publications from Mexico, with better paper and ink quality and lower prices, started a financial crisis in the Argentine comic industry, several publishers, including Oesterheld's Ediciones Frontera, had to close or be sold, which forced several artists and writers to go abroad. After the 1966 coup d'état, the comics industry suffered from both some censorship and from recurring economic downturns; the 1968 biographic graphic novel of Che Guevara by Oesterheld and Breccia was removed from circulation by the government and the originals destroyed. Never
Our Lady of the Pillar
Our Lady of the Pillar is the name given to the Blessed Virgin Mary associated with the claim of Marian apparition to Apostle James the Greater as he was praying by the banks of the Ebro at Caesaraugusta, Hispania, in AD 40. The celebrated wooden image is enshrined at the Basilica of Our Lady of the Pillar in Saragossa. Pope Callixtus III granted indulgences towards her shrine in 1456. Since 1730, Pope Innocent XIII mandated her veneration throughout the Spanish Empire, the Virgin Mary invoked under this specific Marian title is considered the Patroness of the Spanish region of Aragon and its capital Saragossa, of the Spanish Civil Guard. Pope Pius X granted the image its canonical coronation on 20 May 1905, her feast day is 12 October, thus coinciding with Columbus Day, celebrated as the national holiday of Spain. Christian tombs in Saragossa, dating from Roman days, appear to bear images representing the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin. In the 4th century, the presence of votive images placed on columns or pillars is attested.
The oldest written testimony of devotion to the Blessed Virgin in Saragossa is identified as that of Pedro Librana in 1155. There is evidence that the site attracted pilgrims from across the Iberian Peninsula during the 13th century, e.g. reflected in the work Milagros de Nuestra Señora by Gonzalo de Berceo, dated to the 1250s or early 1260s. The appellation Santa María del Pilar is attested for 1299; the claim that the first church had been the oldest in Hispania, built in AD 40 by James the Greater, is first recorded in 1318. The tradition of the Marian apparition can be traced to the 15th century: In either 1434 or 1435, a fire destroyed the alabaster altarpiece; the replacement altarpiece features bas-relief representations of the Marian apparition. The image of the Virgen del Pilar venerated today dates to this period, it executed in the late Gothic style of Juan de la Huerta. Pope Calixtus III in a bull issued on 23 September 1456 declares a seven year indulgence for those who visit Our Lady of Saragossa.
The text of the bull mentions a pillar, for the first time suggesting the existence of an image known as Our Lady of the Pillar. The feast day of 12 October was introduced by the Council of Zaragoza in 1640. According to the account by María de Ágreda in her Mystical City of God, mother of Jesus, was transported from Jerusalem to Hispania during the night, on a cloud carried by angels. During the journey, the angels built a pillar of marble, a miniature image of Mary with the Child Jesus; the apparition of Our Lady of the Pillar was accepted as canonical by Pope Innocent XIII in 1723. So many contradictions had arisen concerning the miraculous origin of the church that Spain appealed to Innocent XIII to settle the controversy. After careful investigation, the twelve cardinals, in whose hands the affair rested, adopted the following account, approved by the Sacred Congregation of Rites on 7 August 1723, inserted in the lessons of the office of the feast of our Lady of the Pillar, celebrated on 12 October: Of all the places that Spain offers for the veneration of the devout, the most illustrious is doubtless the sanctuary consecrated to God under the invocation of the Blessed Virgin, under the title of our Lady of the Pillar, at Saragossa.
According to ancient and pious tradition, St. James the Greater, led by Providence into Spain, spent some time at Saragossa, he there received a signal favour from the Blessed Virgin. As he was praying with his disciples one night, upon the banks of the Ebro, as the same tradition informs us, the Mother of God, who still lived, appeared to him, commanded him to erect an oratory in that place; the apostle delayed not to obey this injunction, with the assistance of his disciples soon constructed a small chapel. In the course of time a larger church was built and dedicated, with the dedication of Saint Saviour's, is kept as a festival in the city and Diocese of Saragossa on the 4th of October. James returned to Jerusalem with some of his disciples where he became a martyr, beheaded in AD 44 during the reign of Herod Agrippa, his disciples returned his body to Spain. The year AD 40 is the earliest recognised Marian apparition in the Catholic Church, dating to a time when Mary, the mother of Jesus, was still alive.
Pope Clement XII allowed the celebration of the feast of Our Lady of the Pillar all over the Spanish Empire in 1730. As the date coincides with the discovery of the Americas, the lady was named as Patroness of the Hispanic World. A fire in 1434 burned down the church; the construction of the present Basilica of Our Lady of the Pillar, Saragossa was started in 1681 and ended in 1711. The wooden statue of the Blessed Virgin Mary is in the Late Gothic style, it stands 39 centimetres tall, on a pillar of jasper with a height of 1.8 metres. The statue depicts Mary with the Child Jesus on her left arm, who has a dove sitting on his left palm; some reports state that an earlier wooden image was destroyed when the church burned down in 1434, consistent with an attribution of the current image to Juan de la Huerta or his school. It appears that folk belief in some cases may be inclined to regard the Saragossa image as miraculous, sculptured by the angels as they transported Mary from Jerusalem to Saragossa.
Vittorio Meano was an Italian architect born in Susa, near Turin. He studied architecture in Albertina Academy in Turin. In 1884 he arrived in Argentina to work in the studio of the Italian architect Francesco Tamburini, who at that time was involved in a number of major public works, including the enlargement and renovation of the Casa Rosada, they worked together on the new building for the Teatro Colón until the death of Tamburini in 1890, after which Meano took charge of the project. After winning the competition for the design of the Argentine National Congress building in 1895, he became absorbed with these two great public works. Meano won the international competition for the design of the Palacio Legislativo building in Montevideo, Uruguay. Shortly after this achievement, on 1 June 1904 he returned to his residence and found his wife in bed with an Italian named Juan Passera, after a couple of minutes a shot gun sounds in the house, Vittorio screamed "They murdered me!". Passera was sentenced to seventeen years' imprisonment and Mrs. Meano was deported to Italy as a punishment.
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Spanish Colonial architecture
Spanish Colonial architecture represents Spanish colonial influence on New World and East Indies' cities and towns, it is still being seen in the architecture as well as in the city planning aspects of conserved present-day cities. These two visible aspects of the city are complementary; the 16th century Laws of the Indies included provisions for the layout of new colonial settlements in the Americas and elsewhere. To achieve the desired effect of inspiring awe among the Indigenous peoples of the Americas-Indians as well as creating a legible and militarily manageable landscape, the early colonizers used and placed the new architecture within planned townscapes and mission compounds; the new churches and mission stations, for example, aimed for maximum effect in terms of their imposition and domination of the surrounding buildings or countryside. In order for that to be achievable, they had to be strategically located – at the center of a town square or at a higher point in the landscape; these elements are common and can be found in every city and town in Spain.
The Spanish Colonial style of architecture dominated in the early Spanish colonies of North and South America, were somewhat visible in its other colonies. It is sometimes marked by the contrast between the simple, solid construction demanded by the new environment and the Baroque ornamentation exported from Spain. Mexico, as the center of New Spain—and the richest province of Spain's colonial empire—has some of the most renowned buildings built in this style. With twenty-nine sites, Mexico has more sites on the UNESCO World Heritage list than any other country in the Americas, many of them boasting some of the richest Spanish Colonial architecture; some of the most famous cities in Mexico built in the Colonial style are Puebla, Querétaro and Morelia. The historic center of Mexico City is a mixture of architectural styles from the 16th century to the present; the Metropolitan Cathedral – built from 1563 to 1813 in a variety of styles including the Renaissance and Neo Classical. The rich interior is Baroque.
Other examples are the Palacio Nacional, the beautifully restored 18th-century Palacio de Iturbide, the 16th-century Casa de los Azulejos – clad with 18th-century blue-and-white talavera tiles, many more churches, cathedrals and palaces of the elite. During the late 17th century to 1750, one of Mexico's most popular architectural styles was Mexican Churrigueresque; these buildings were built in an ultra-Baroque, fantastically extravagant and visually frenetic style. Antigua Guatemala in Guatemala is known for its well preserved Spanish colonial style architecture; the city of Antigua is famous for its well-preserved Spanish Mudéjar-influenced Baroque architecture as well as a number of spectacular ruins of colonial churches dating from the 16th century. It has been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site; the Ciudad Colonial of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, founded in 1498, is the oldest city in the New World and a prime example of this architectural style. The port of Cartagena, founded in 1533 and Santa Ana de Coro, founded in 1527, are two more UNESCO World Heritage Sites preserving some of the best Spanish colonial architecture in the Caribbean."
San Juan was founded by the Spaniards in 1521, where Spanish colonial architecture can be found like the Historic Hotel El Convento. Old San Juan with its walled city and buildings are good examples, in excellent condition. According to UNESCO, Ecuador has the largest, best-preserved, least-altered historic centre in Latin America, despite several earthquakes, it was the first city, inscribed onto the UNESCO World Heritage List, along with Kraków, Poland in 1978. The historic district of this city is the sole largest and best preserved area of Spanish Colonial architecture in the world; the idea of laying out a city in a grid pattern is not unique to the Spanish. In fact, it never started out with the Spanish colonizers, it has been traced back to some ancient civilizations the ancient cities of the Aztec and Maya, Ancient Greeks. The idea was spread by the Roman conquest of European empires and its ideas were adopted by other civilizations, it was popularized at different paces and in different levels throughout the Renaissance—the French took to building grid-like villages and the English, under King Edward I did as well.
Some argue, that Spain was not part of this movement to order towns as grids. Despite its clear military advantage, despite the knowledge of city planning, the New World settlements of the Spanish grew amorphously for some three to four decades before they turned to grids and city plans as ways of organizing space. In contrast to the orders given much on how the city should be laid out, Ferdinand II did not give specific instructions for how to build the new settlements in the Caribbeans. To Nicolas De Ovando, he said the following in 1501: As it is necessary in the island of Española to make settlements and from here it is not possible to give precise instructions, investigate the possible sites, in conformity with the quality of the land and sites as well as with the present population outside present settlements establish settlements in the numbers and in the places that seem proper to you. In 1513 the monarchs wrote out a set of guidelines that ordained the conduct of Spaniards in the New World as well as that of the Indians that they found there.
With regards to city planning, these ordinances had details on the preferred location of a new town and its location relative to the sea and rivers. It detailed the shape and measurements of
Argentine War of Independence
The Argentine War of Independence was fought from 1810 to 1818 by Argentine patriotic forces under Manuel Belgrano, Juan José Castelli and José de San Martín against royalist forces loyal to the Spanish crown. On July 9, 1816, an assembly met in San Miguel de Tucumán, declared full independence with provisions for a national constitution; the territory of modern Argentina was part of the Spanish Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, with its capital city in Buenos Aires, seat of government of the Spanish viceroy. Modern Uruguay and Bolivia were part of the viceroyalty, began their push for autonomy during the conflict, becoming independent states afterwards; the vast area of the territory and slow communications led most populated areas to become isolated from each other. The wealthiest regions of the viceroyalty were in Upper Peru. Salta and Córdoba had closer ties with Upper Peru than with Buenos Aires. Mendoza in the west had closer ties with the Captaincy General of Chile, although the Andes mountain range was a natural barrier.
Buenos Aires and Montevideo, who had a local rivalry, located in the La Plata Basin, had naval communications allowing them to be more in contact with European ideas and economic advances than the inland populations. Paraguay was isolated from all other regions. In the political structure most authoritative positions were filled by people designated by the Spanish monarchy, most of them Spanish people from Europe known as peninsulares, without strong compromises for American problems or interests; this created a growing rivalry between the Criollos, white people born in Latin America, the peninsulares, Spanish people who arrived from Europe. Despite the fact that all of them were considered Spanish, that there was no legal distinction between Criollos and Peninsulares, most Criollos thought that Peninsulares had undue weight in political matters; the ideas of the American and French Revolutions, the Age of Enlightenment, promoted desires of social change among the criollos. The full prohibition imposed by Spain to trade with other nations was seen as damaging to the viceroyalty's economy.
The population of Buenos Aires was militarized during the British invasions of the Río de la Plata, part of the Anglo-Spanish War. Buenos Aires was captured in 1806, liberated by Santiago de Liniers with forces from Montevideo. Fearing a counter-attack, all the population of Buenos Aires capable of bearing arms was arranged in military bodies, including slaves. A new British attack in 1807 captured Montevideo, but was defeated in Buenos Aires, forced to leave the viceroyalty; the viceroy Rafael de Sobremonte was deposed by the criollos during the conflict, the Regiment of Patricians became a influential force in local politics after the end of the British threat. The transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil generated military concern, it was feared that the British would launch a third attack, this time allied with Portugal. However, no military conflict took place, as when the Peninsular War started Britain and Portugal became allies of Spain against France; when the Spanish king Ferdinand VII was captured, his sister Carlota Joaquina sought to rule in the Americas as regent, but nothing came out of it because of the lack of support from both the Spanish Americans and the British.
Javier de Elío created a Junta in Montevideo and Martín de Álzaga sought to make a similar move by organizing a mutiny in Buenos Aires, but the local military forces intervened and thwarted it. Spain appointed a new viceroy, Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros, Liniers handed the government to him without resistance, despite the proposals of the military to reject him; the military conflict in Spain worsened by 1810. The city of Seville had been invaded by French armies, which were dominating most of the Iberian Peninsula; the Junta of Seville was disestablished, several members fled to Cádiz, the last portion of Spain still resisting. They established a Council of Regency, with political tendencies closer to absolutism than the former Junta; this began the May Revolution in Buenos Aires, as soon. Several citizens thought that Cisneros, appointed by the disestablished Junta, did not have the right to rule anymore, requested the convening of an open cabildo to discuss the fate of the local government.
The military gave their support to the request. The discussion ruled the removal of viceroy Cisneros and his replacement with a government junta, but the cabildo attempted to keep Cisneros in power by appointing him president of such junta. Further demonstrations ensued, the Junta was forced to resign immediately, it was replaced by the Primera Junta. Buenos Aires requested the other cities in the viceroyalty to acknowledge the new Junta and send deputies; the precise purpose of these deputies, join the Junta or create a congress, was unclear at the time and generated political disputes later. The Junta was resisted by all the main locations around Buenos Aires: Córdoba, Montevideo and the Upper Peru. Santiago de Liniers came out of his retirement in Córdoba and organized an army to capture Buenos Aires, Montevideo had naval supremacy over the city, Vicente Nieto organized the actions at the Upper Peru. Nieto proposed to José Fernando de Abascal y Sousa, viceroy of the Viceroyalty of Peru at the North, to annex the Upper Peru to it.
He thought that the revolution could be contained in Buenos Aires, before launching a definitive attack. Buenos Aires was declared a rogue city by the Council of Regency, which appointed Montevideo as capital of the viceroyalty