National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups
Spanish missions in Texas
The Spanish Missions in Texas comprise a series of religious outposts established by Spanish Catholic Dominicans and Franciscans to spread the Catholic doctrine among area Native Americans, but with the added benefit of giving Spain a toehold in the frontier land. The missions introduced European livestock, fruits and industry into the Texas area. In addition to the presidio and pueblo, the misión was one of the three major agencies employed by the Spanish crown to extend its borders and consolidate its colonial territories. In all, twenty-six missions were maintained for different lengths of time within the future boundaries of the state of Texas. Since 1493, Spain had maintained missions throughout New Spain to facilitate colonization; the eastern Tejas missions were a direct response to fear of French encroachment when the remains of La Salle's Fort Saint Louis were discovered near Matagorda Bay in 1689, a response to the first permanent French outposts along the Gulf Coast ten years later.
Following government policy, Franciscan missionaries sought to make life within mission communities resemble that of Spanish villages and Spanish culture. To become Spanish citizens and "productive" inhabitants, Native Americans learned vocational skills; as plows, farm implements, gear for horses and mules fell into disrepair, blacksmithing skills soon became indispensable. Weaving skills were needed to help clothe the inhabitants; as buildings became more elaborate, mission occupants learned masonry and carpentry under the direction of craftsmen contracted by the missionaries. In the supervised setting of the mission the Native Americans were expected to mature in Christianity and Spanish political and economic practices until they would no longer require special mission status, their communities could be incorporated as such into ordinary colonial society. This transition from official mission status to ordinary Spanish society, when it occurred in an official manner, was called "secularization."
In this official transaction, the mission's communal properties were privatized, the direction of civil life became a purely secular affair, the direction of church life was transferred from the missionary religious orders to the Catholic diocesan church. Although colonial law specified no precise time for this transition to take effect, increasing pressure for the secularization of most missions developed in the last decades of the 18th century; this mission system was developed in response to the very detrimental results of leaving the Hispanic control of relations with Native Americans on the expanding frontier to overly enterprising civilians and soldiers. This had resulted too in the abuse and enslavement of the Indians and a heightening of antagonism. In the end, the mission system was not politically strong enough to protect the Native Americans against the growing power of ranchers and other business interests that sought control over mission lands and the manpower represented by the Native Americans.
In the first few years of the new Republic of Mexico-between 1824 and 1830-all the missions still operating in Texas were secularized, with the sole exception of those in the El Paso district, which were turned over to diocesan pastors only in 1852. Spanish Texas was a part of New Spain. On its southern edge, Texas was bordered by the province of Coahuila; the boundary between the provinces was set at the line formed by the Medina and the Nueces Rivers, 100 miles northeast of the Rio Grande. On the east, Texas bordered French Louisiana. Although Spain claimed that the Red River formed the boundary between the two, France insisted that the border was the Sabine River, 45 miles to the west; the first mission established within the boundaries of Spanish Texas was San Francisco de la Espada. In 1689, Spanish authorities found the remnants of Fort Saint Louis. During their expedition, the Spanish met representatives of the Caddo people, who lived between the Trinity and the Red Rivers; the Caddo expressed interest in learning about Christianity, the following year Alonso De León led an expedition to establish a mission in East Texas.
It was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in late May, its first mass was conducted on June 1, 1690. In its first two years of existence, the mission faced much hardship, as floodwaters and drought destroyed their crops. After an epidemic killed half of the local population, the Hasinai became convinced that the missionaries had caused the deaths. Fearing an attack, on October 25, 1693 the missionaries buried the mission bell, set the building ablaze, retreated to Mexico; the mission was reestablished on July 1716, as Nuestro Padre San Francisco de los Tejas. In 1721, it was renamed Mission San Francisco de los Neches, it was moved in 1731 to San Antonio. The surviving structure is now part of San Antonio Missions National Historical Park operated by the National Park Service. A commemorative representation of Mission San Francisco de los Tejas, is located in Weches at Mission Tejas State Park. Mission Santísimo Nombre de María was the second mission established by the Spanish in East Texas.
Built for the native Neches population, the mission opened in September 1690 6 miles northeast of Mission San Francisco. The mission consisted of a house for the priest, it was destroyed by a flood in 1692. Mission San Juan Capistrano had been known as Mission San José de los Nazonis in East Texas; when the mission was relocated to San Antonio in 1731, it was renamed so as not to cause confusion with Mission San José y San Miguel de Aguayo. Lo
Nicholas J. Clayton
Nicholas Joseph Clayton was a prominent Victorian era architect in Galveston, Texas. Clayton constructed many grand religious and public buildings in Galveston including the First Presbyterian Church, he is credited as the architect of Sacred Heart Catholic Church and of the Main Building of St. Edward's University in Austin, Texas, he designed an addition to St. Mary Cathedral in Galveston. "His work represents a lifetime, worked out day by day under the most ordinary and circumstantial conditions, dedicated to the cause of architecture as the public art." Nicholas Joseph Clayton was born on November 1, 1840, in Cloyne, County Cork, Ireland, to Nicholas Joseph and Margaret O'Mahoney Clayton. In 1848, his father died in a granary accident; the widowed Margaret Clayton emigrated with her son to Cincinnati, where her brother made shoes buckles. Young Clayton attended parochial schools, he followed his uncle, Daniel Crowley, into the building trades, first as an apprentice plasterer and a stone cutter.
He was a Navy yeoman during the Civil War, assigned to the gunboat the USS Juliet. After the war, he returned to Cincinnati, where he became first a marble carver and an architectural draftsman, he studied architecture with W. H. Baldwin of the Memphis firm Jones and Baldwin which sent him, in the winter of 1872, to Galveston, Texas as supervising architect for the construction of the Norman Romanesque First Presbyterian Church and the Tremont House. Upon arriving in the city, he soon met with Bishop Claude Marie Dubuis to discuss possible improvements to St. Mary's Cathedral, built in 1846. Clayton soon designed the central tower and a new bell and statue of Mary, Star of the Sea, he remained in Galveston and set up his own office, becoming one of the first professional architects to establish a practice in Texas. "Over the next three decades Clayton's work and influence would dominate the physical character of Galveston." His first known independent work was St. Mary's Church in Austin, it may have been through the Holy Cross fathers that the bishop connected Nicholas Clayton with St. Mary's in Austin.
In a 2013 interview regarding the ongoing restoration, Cathedral Rector Albert Lafloret observed that, when finished, "then you'll see how beautiful the work is that's been done and what a glorious plan Nicholas Clayton had."A devout Catholic who attended daily mass, Clayton designed buildings for the Congregation of the Sacred Heart, as well as numerous parishes throughout the diocese of Galveston and Alexandria, Louisiana. He produced major church and institutional buildings for Catholic religious orders the Sisters of Charity of the Incarnate Word, the Ursuline Sisters, the Jesuits, the Congregation of Holy Cross, his religious architecture accounted for the broadest geographical distribution of his work outside Galveston. These demonstrate his self-assured free eclecticism and his interpretation of contemporary French and British styles. Clayton had a particular affinity for ecclesiastical architecture and his work spanned a number of faiths, including the Eaton Chapel at Trinity Episcopal, Temple B'Nai Israel, Grace Episcopal Church.
Nicholas Clayton is described as 5 feet 10 inches with pale blue eyes and cropped curly brown hair, which he wore longer as it turned gray. Robust and active, he liked to swim in the Gulf, he was a member of The Knights of Columbus, The Ancient Order of Hibernians. In 1873 he brought his mother to Galveston. A tireless worker he was noted for his bold style, attention to detailing, professionalism, it was his custom to work six days a week, excluding Sundays and Christmas, although he spent much time in his office on Postoffice Street. In 1887, he oversaw sixty-four projects. A meticulous perfectionist about his work, Clayton was quiet and reserved with a mild sense of humor. For many years, he devoted his free time to the children at St. Mary's Orphanage, managed the annual New Year's Eve fireworks display. In 1877 he went into business with civil engineer Michael L. Lynch; the firm of Clayton and Lynch lasted until 1881. Lynch subsequently re-located to Fort Worth. Clayton's uncle, Daniel Crowley, joined him from Cincinnati and handled the modelling and embellishment of the Eaton Memorial Chapel of Trinity Protestant Episcopal Church.
The Galveston Electric Pavilion was the first building in Texas with electric lighting. Before designing the University of Texas Medical Building, he first took a tour of Johns Hopkins, the New York College of Physicians and Surgeons, Harvard. On July 6, 1891, Clayton married a much younger Mary Lorena Ducie, in a marriage arranged by her father, Daniel W. Ducie, a Confederate veteran and friend of Clayton's and the painting contractor with whom he worked most closely; the couple honeymooned in Monterey, where according to family lore, Clayton spent so much time sketching churches that his bride hinted that she might return to Galveston. They purchased a house on 35th Street, his son, Nicholas Jr. became an electrician. The worst name Clayton called anyone was "muttonhead," according to family reminiscences, he told his boys their mouths were for eating. He was a charter member of the Association of Texas Architects, a fellow of the American Institute of Architects. After 25 years as the premier architect of the city, just after the turn of the century, for a variety of reasons, suffered a swift and painful professional decline.
Commissions suffered while the community focused on recovering after the hurricane
Religion is a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, worldviews, sanctified places, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements. However, there is no scholarly consensus over what constitutes a religion. Different religions may or may not contain various elements ranging from the divine, sacred things, faith, a supernatural being or supernatural beings or "some sort of ultimacy and transcendence that will provide norms and power for the rest of life". Religious practices may include rituals, commemoration or veneration, festivals, trances, funerary services, matrimonial services, prayer, art, public service, or other aspects of human culture. Religions have sacred histories and narratives, which may be preserved in sacred scriptures, symbols and holy places, that aim to give a meaning to life. Religions may contain symbolic stories, which are sometimes said by followers to be true, that have the side purpose of explaining the origin of life, the universe, other things.
Traditionally, faith, in addition to reason, has been considered a source of religious beliefs. There are an estimated 10,000 distinct religions worldwide, but about 84% of the world's population is affiliated with one of the five largest religion groups, namely Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism or forms of folk religion; the religiously unaffiliated demographic includes those who do not identify with any particular religion and agnostics. While the religiously unaffiliated have grown globally, many of the religiously unaffiliated still have various religious beliefs; the study of religion encompasses a wide variety of academic disciplines, including theology, comparative religion and social scientific studies. Theories of religion offer various explanations for the origins and workings of religion, including the ontological foundations of religious being and belief. Religion is derived from the ultimate origins of which are obscure. One possible interpretation traced to Cicero, connects lego read, i.e. re with lego in the sense of choose, go over again or consider carefully.
The definition of religio by Cicero is cultum deorum, "the proper performance of rites in veneration of the gods." Julius Caesar used religio to mean "obligation of an oath" when discussing captured soldiers making an oath to their captors. The Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder used the term religio on elephants in that they venerate the sun and the moon. Modern scholars such as Tom Harpur and Joseph Campbell favor the derivation from ligare bind, connect from a prefixed re-ligare, i.e. re + ligare or to reconnect, made prominent by St. Augustine, following the interpretation given by Lactantius in Divinae institutiones, IV, 28; the medieval usage alternates with order in designating bonded communities like those of monastic orders: "we hear of the'religion' of the Golden Fleece, of a knight'of the religion of Avys'". In the ancient and medieval world, the etymological Latin root religio was understood as an individual virtue of worship in mundane contexts. In general, religio referred to broad social obligations towards anything including family, neighbors and towards God.
Religio was most used by the ancient Romans not in the context of a relation towards gods, but as a range of general emotions such as hesitation, anxiety, fear. The term was closely related to other terms like scrupulus which meant "very precisely" and some Roman authors related the term superstitio, which meant too much fear or anxiety or shame, to religio at times; when religio came into English around the 1200s as religion, it took the meaning of "life bound by monastic vows" or monastic orders. The compartmentalized concept of religion, where religious things were separated from worldly things, was not used before the 1500s; the concept of religion was first used in the 1500s to distinguish the domain of the church and the domain of civil authorities. In the ancient Greece, the Greek term threskeia was loosely translated into Latin as religio in late antiquity; the term was sparsely used in classical Greece but became more used in the writings of Josephus in the first century CE. It was used in mundane contexts and could mean multiple things from respectful fear to excessive or harmfully distracting practices of others.
It was contrasted with the Greek word deisidaimonia which meant too much fear. The modern concept of religion, as an abstraction that entails distinct sets of beliefs or doctrines, is a recent invention in the English language; such usage began with texts from the 17th century due to events such the splitting of Christendom during the Protestant Reformation and globalization in the age of exploration, which involved contact with numerous foreign cultures with non-European languages. Some argue that regardless of its definition, it is not appropriate to apply the term religion to non-Western cultures. Others argue that using religion on non-western cultures distorts what people believe; the concept of religion was formed in the 16th and 17th centuries, despite the fact that ancient sacred texts like the Bible, the Quran, others did not have a word or a concept of religion in the original languages and neither did the peopl
Bexar County Courthouse
The Bexar County Courthouse is a historic building in downtown San Antonio, Texas, USA. The building was designed by architect J. Riely Gordon, borders Main Plaza, along with such other architectural landmarks as the Cathedral of San Fernando; the style is Romanesque Revival, the main material used is red sandstone. Ground was broken for Gordon's structure on August 4, 1891, the cornerstone was laid December 17, 1892. After several delays, construction was completed in 1896; the building was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1977. The Courthouse functions as the county seat of Bexar County. Main and Military Plazas Historic District Texas Historical Commission - Bexar County Courthouse More pictures related to early San Antonio, Texas at University of Houston Digital Library
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Alamo Mission in San Antonio
The Alamo Mission in San Antonio called The Alamo and known as the Misión San Antonio de Valero, is a historic Spanish mission and fortress compound founded in the 18th century by Roman Catholic missionaries in what is now San Antonio, United States. It was the site of the Battle of the Alamo in 1836. Today it is a museum in the Alamo Plaza Historic District and a part of the San Antonio Missions World Heritage Site; the historic district was one of the early Spanish missions in Texas, built for the education of local American Indians after their conversion to Christianity. The mission was secularized in 1793 and abandoned. Ten years it became a fortress housing the Second Flying Company of San Carlos de Parras military unit, who gave the mission the name Alamo. During the Texas Revolution, Mexican General Martín Perfecto de Cos surrendered the fort to the Texian Army in December 1835, following the Siege of Béxar. A small number of Texian soldiers occupied the compound for several months; the defenders were wiped out at the Battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.
As the Mexican Army retreated from Texas several months they tore down many of the Alamo walls and burned some of the buildings. For the next five years, the Alamo was periodically used to garrison soldiers, both Texian and Mexican, but was abandoned. In 1849, several years after Texas was annexed to the United States, the U. S. Army began renting the facility for use as a quartermaster's depot, before again abandoning the mission in 1876 after nearby Fort Sam Houston was established; the Alamo chapel was sold to the state of Texas, which conducted occasional tours but made no effort to restore it. The remaining buildings were sold to a mercantile company which operated them as a wholesale grocery store; the Daughters of the Republic of Texas began trying to preserve the Alamo. Adina Emilia De Zavala and Clara Driscoll convinced the state legislature in 1905 to purchase the remaining buildings and to name the DRT as the permanent custodian of the site. Over the next century, periodic attempts were made to transfer control of the Alamo from the DRT.
In early 2015, Texas Land Commissioner George P. Bush removed control of the Alamo to the Texas General Land Office; the Alamo and the four missions in the San Antonio Missions National Historical Park were designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site on July 5, 2015. In 1716, the Spanish government established several Roman Catholic missions in East Texas; the isolation of the missions—the nearest Spanish settlement, San Juan Bautista, Coahuila was over 400 miles away—made it difficult to keep them adequately provisioned. To assist the missionaries, the new governor of Spanish Texas, Martín de Alarcón, wished to establish a waystation between the settlements along the Rio Grande and the new missions in East Texas. In April 1718, Alarcón led an expedition to found a new community in Texas. On May 1, the group erected a temporary mud and straw structure near the headwaters of the San Antonio River; this building would serve as a new mission, San Antonio de Valero, named after Saint Anthony of Padua and the viceroy of New Spain, Baltasar de Zúñiga y Guzmán Sotomayor y Sarmiento, Marquess of Valero.
The mission, headed by Father Antonio de San Buenaventura y Olivares, was located near a community of Coahuiltecans and was populated by three to five Indian converts from Mission San Francisco Solano near San Juan Bautista. One mile north of the mission, Alarcón built the Presidio San Antonio de Béxar. Close by, he founded the first civilian community in Texas, San Antonio de Béxar, which developed into the present-day city of San Antonio, Texas. Within a year, the mission moved to the western bank of the river, where it was less to flood. Over the next several years, a chain of missions were established nearby. In 1724, after remnants of a Gulf Coast hurricane destroyed the existing structures at Misión San Antonio de Valero, the mission was moved to its current location. At the time, the new location was just across the San Antonio River from the town of San Antonio de Béxar and just north of a group of huts known as La Villita. Over the next several decades, the mission complex expanded to cover 3 acres.
The first permanent building was the two-story, L-shaped stone residence for the priests. The building served as south edges of an inner courtyard. A series of adobe barracks buildings were constructed to house the mission Indians and a textile workshop was erected. By 1744, over 300 Indian converts resided at San Antonio de Valero; the mission was self-sufficient, relying on its 2,000 head of cattle and 1,300 sheep for food and clothing. Each year, the mission's farmland produced up to 100 bushels of beans; the first stones were laid for a more permanent church building in 1744, the church, its tower and the sacristy collapsed in the late 1750s. Reconstruction began with the new chapel located at the south end of the inner courtyard. Constructed of 4-foot thick limestone blocks, it was intended to be three stories high and topped by a dome, with bell towers on either side, its shape was a traditional cross, with short transepts. Although the first two levels were completed, the bell towers and third story were never begun.
While four stone arches were erected to support the planned dome, the dome itself was never built. As the church was never completed, it is unlikely that it was used for religious services; the chapel was intended to be decorated. Niches were carved on either side of the door to hold statues; the lower-level niches displaye