Urban design is the process of designing and shaping the physical features of cities and villages and planning for the provision of municipal services to residents and visitors. In contrast to architecture, which focuses on the design of individual buildings, urban design deals with the larger scale of groups of buildings and public spaces, whole neighborhoods and districts, entire cities, with the goal of making urban areas functional and sustainable. Urban design is an inter-disciplinary field that utilizes elements of many built environment professions, including landscape architecture, urban planning, civil engineering and municipal engineering, it is common for professionals in all these disciplines to practice urban design. In more recent times different sub-subfields of urban design have emerged such as strategic urban design, landscape urbanism, water-sensitive urban design, sustainable urbanism. Urban design demands an understanding of a wide range of subjects from physical geography to social science, an appreciation for disciplines, such as real estate development, urban economics, political economy and social theory.
Urban design is about making connections between people and places and urban form and the built fabric. Urban design draws together the many strands of place-making, environmental stewardship, social equity and economic viability into the creation of places with distinct beauty and identity. Urban design draws these and other strands together creating a vision for an area and deploying the resources and skills needed to bring the vision to life. Urban design theory deals with the design and management of public space, the way public places are experienced and used. Public space includes the totality of spaces used on a day-to-day basis by the general public, such as streets, plazas and public infrastructure; some aspects of owned spaces, such as building facades or domestic gardens contribute to public space and are therefore considered by urban design theory. Important writers on urban design theory include Christopher Alexander, Peter Calthorpe, Gordon Cullen, Andres Duany, Jane Jacobs, Mitchell Joachim, Jan Gehl, Allan B.
Jacobs, Kevin Lynch, Aldo Rossi, Colin Rowe, Robert Venturi, William H. Whyte, Camillo Sitte, Bill Hillier and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk. Although contemporary professional use of the term'urban design' dates from the mid-20th century, urban design as such has been practiced throughout history. Ancient examples of planned and designed cities exist in Asia, Africa and the Americas, are well known within Classical Chinese and Greek cultures. European Medieval cities are and erroneously, regarded as exemplars of undesigned or'organic' city development. There are many examples of considered urban design in the Middle Ages. In England, many of the towns listed in the 9th century Burghal Hidage were designed on a grid, examples including Southampton, Wareham and Wallingford, having been created to provide a defensive network against Danish invaders. 12th century western Europe brought renewed focus on urbanisation as a means of stimulating economic growth and generating revenue. The burgage system dating from that time and its associated burgage plots brought a form of self-organising design to medieval towns.
Rectangular grids were used in the Bastides of 13th and 14th century Gascony, the new towns of England created in the same period. Throughout history, design of streets and deliberate configuration of public spaces with buildings have reflected contemporaneous social norms or philosophical and religious beliefs, yet the link between designed urban space and human mind appears to be bidirectional. Indeed, the reverse impact of urban structure upon human behaviour and upon thought is evidenced by both observational study and historical record. There are clear indications of impact through Renaissance urban design on the thought of Johannes Kepler and Galileo Galilei. René Descartes in his Discourse on the Method had attested to the impact Renaissance planned new towns had upon his own thought, much evidence exists that the Renaissance streetscape was the perceptual stimulus that had led to the development of coordinate geometry; the beginnings of modern urban design in Europe are associated with the Renaissance but with the Age of Enlightenment.
Spanish colonial cities were planned, as were some towns settled by other imperial cultures. These sometimes embodied utopian ambitions as well as aims for functionality and good governance, as with James Oglethorpe's plan for Savannah, Georgia. In the Baroque period the design approaches developed in French formal gardens such as Versailles were extended into urban development and redevelopment. In this period, when modern professional specialisations did not exist, urban design was undertaken by people with skills in areas as diverse as sculpture, garden design, surveying and military engineering. In the 18th and 19th centuries, urban design was most linked with surveyors and architects; the increase in urban populations brought with it problems of epidemic disea
Australasia comprises Australia, New Zealand, some neighbouring islands. It is used in a number of different contexts including geopolitically, physiographically, ecologically where the term covers several different but related regions. Charles de Brosses coined the term in Histoire des navigations, he derived it from the Latin for "south of Asia" and differentiated the area from Polynesia and the southeast Pacific. In Australia "Australasia" is considered to be Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea, the neighbouring islands of the Pacific, while in New Zealand it means Australia, New Zealand and former New Zealand dependencies. Richards, Kel. "Australasia". Wordwatch. ABC News Radio. Retrieved 2006-09-30. Media related to Australasia at Wikimedia Commons
Sunshine Coast, Queensland
Sunshine Coast is a peri-urban area and the third most populated area in the Australian state of Queensland. Located 100 km north of the state capital Brisbane in South East Queensland on the Pacific Ocean coastline, its urban area spans 60 km of coastline and hinterland from Pelican Waters to Tewantin; the estimated urban population of Sunshine Coast as at June 2015 was 302,122, making it the 9th most populous in the country. The area was first settled by Europeans in the 19th century with development progressing until tourism became an important industry; the area has several coastal hubs at Caloundra, Kawana Waters and Noosa Heads. Nambour and Maleny have developed as primary commercial centres for the hinterland, although Maleny falls outside the urban area defined by the ABS that this article refers to; the Sunshine Coast, as a term recognised by most Australians, is the district defined in 1967 as "the area contained in the Shires of Landsborough and Noosa, but excluding Bribie Island".
Its use is colloquial however. Since 2014, the Sunshine Coast district has been split into two local government areas, the Sunshine Coast Region and the Shire of Noosa, which administer the southern and northern parts of the Sunshine Coast respectively. James Cook on the deck of HM Bark Endeavour in 1770 became the first known white person to sight the Glass House Mountains, located south-west of Caloundra. In the 1820s, the Sunshine Coast saw its first white inhabitants: three castaways who shared the life of the local Aborigines for eight months. Thereafter, during the 1830s to 1840s, the district became home to numerous runaway convicts from the Moreton Bay penal colony to the south. In 1842, Governor George Gipps had the entire Sunshine Coast and hinterland from Mt Beerwah north to Eumundi declared a "Bunya Bunya Reserve" for the protection of the bunya tree after Andrew Petrie advised him of the importance of bunya groves in Aboriginal culture. However, during the 1840s and 1850s, the Bunya Bunya Reserve and its vicinity became the scene of some of the most bitter skirmishes of Australia's "Black War".
The Blackall Range, on account of the tri-annual Bunya Festival, served as both a hideout and rallying point for attacks against white settlement. By the 1850s timber cutters and cattlemen had started exploiting the area. Many of the Sunshine Coast's towns began as simple ports or jetties for the timber industry during the 1860s and 1870s, as the area once had magnificent stands of forest; the region's roads began as snigging tracks for hauling timber. Timbergetters used the region's creeks and lakes as seaways to float out their logs of cedar – the resultant wood being shipped as far afield as Europe. During the Gympie Gold Rush, prospectors scaled the Sunshine Coast mountains to develop easier roadways to and from the gold fields of Gympie. After construction of the railway line to Gympie, the coastal and river towns, being ports for the early river-trade, were bypassed. By the 1890s diverse small-farming had replaced the cattle-and-timber economy of earlier decades. Sugar cane and pineapples proved important produce for the district.
Many small hamlets and towns now emerged. Produce was taken by horse to Landsborough to Eudlo in 1891. After World War II, the Sunshine Coast grew into a favoured holiday and surfing destination; this tendency was further expanded in the development boom of the 1970s. Around the same time, various tourist/theme parks were created – the most iconic being the Big Pineapple in Woombye. During the 1960s and 1970s, the Sunshine Coast attracted persons drawn to alternative lifestyles; these newcomers developed a range of craft industries, co-operatives and spiritual centres in the hinterlands. After the 1980s, the Sunshine Coast experienced rapid population growth; as of 2016 it had become one of the fastest-growing regions in Australia. As the region becomes residential, most of the district's distinctive small farms – tropical-fruit and sugar-cane farms have disappeared, as have most of its theme parks; the Moreton sugar mills closure in 2003 removed a market for the district's 120 cane growers, harvesting cane in the region.
Instead, businesses concerned with retail and tourism have assumed increasing importance. In 2008, The Shire of Noosa, Shire of Maroochy and City of Caloundra merged to form the Sunshine Coast Region; the 2007 referendum conducted by the Australian Electoral Commission and leading to the merger remained controversial in Noosa Shire, where 95% of voters had rejected amalgamation. In March 2013, a second referendum resulted in 81% of residents voted to leave the amalgamated Sunshine Coast Region. On 9 November 2013 an election resulted in Noel Playford being elected to take office as mayor on 1 January 2014 with the new council; the Shire of Noosa was re-established on 1 January 2014. This resulted in two geopolitical areas occupying the area recognised as'The Sunshine Coast'; the Sunshine Coast Region, governed by the Sunshine Coast Council and the Shire of Noosa, governed by Noosa Shire Council. Major rivers of the Sunshine Coast include Noosa River, Maroochy River, Mooloolah River and the Stanley River.
The region includes several lakes such as Lake Weyba. Ewen Maddock Dam, Wappa Dam and Baroon Pocket Dam have been built for water storage. Several stretches of the Sunshine Coast are lined with unbroken beaches – from Sunshine Beach near Noosa to Coolum Beach.
1 Bligh Street
1 Bligh Street is a skyscraper in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The modern style office building is located in the Sydney central business district overlooking Circular Quay, the Sydney Harbour and the Sydney Harbour Bridge; the premium grade office tower was designed by Ingenhoven Architects of Germany and Architectus of Australia. It is an ecologically sustainable development and was awarded six-star green status by the Green Building Council of Australia. Green features include a basement sewage plant that recycles 90 percent of the building waste water, solar panels on the roof and air conditioning by chilled beams, it is Australia’s first major high-rise building with a full double-skin façade with external louvres. These eliminate sky glare and optimise user comfort; the angle of the louvre blades is automatically adjusted according to their orientation to the sun. A ventilated, full height atrium, on the southern side of the building, maximises natural light to each office level; the building houses a childcare centre, two cafés and a basement car park for 96 cars.
The large-scale aluminium sculpture at the top of the curving steps at the entrance on the corner of Bligh and O'Connell streets is by New York-based Australian James Angus. The developers describe it as "a complex network of three-dimensional ellipsoidal surfaces drawn from shapes expressed in the design of the building", adding that its brightly painted colour scheme traces the underlying geometry of the sculpture; the building was named the Best Tall Building Award in Asia & Australasia for 2012 in the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat's Skyscraper Awards and won the International Highrise Award 2012. Bloomberg L. P. Clayton Utz Office of the Prime Minister of Australia Commonwealth Parliament Offices Oil Search Vault Systems Buildings and architecture of Sydney List of tallest buildings in Sydney 1 Bligh official website 1 Bligh Street at Cbus Property website 1 Bligh Street at Architectus website 1 Bligh Street at enstuct website
Gatton is a town and the administrative centre of the Lockyer Valley local government area situated in the Lockyer Valley of South East Queensland, Australia. At the 2006 census, Gatton had a population of 6,869. Over recent years, the rural tranquility of the Gatton area has started to be encroached on by the suburban sprawl of metropolitan Brisbane and Ipswich in the east and Toowoomba in the west; the Warrego Highway, which runs east–west through the Shire, has experienced increasing strip development, with fuel outlets and commercial properties spreading along the highway. The Gatton area was explored by Major Edmund Lockyer in 1825. A settlement known as Gatton was gazetted in 1855; the post office opened 1 January 1866, with a dairyman, as the first postmaster. The small village did not experience significant growth until the mid-1870s, after the railway to Grandchester attracted people to the area; the Queensland Agricultural College opened an agricultural college and experimental farm in 1897 at Gatton.
In December 1898 three local youths from nearby Blackfellow’s Creek were murdered. The crime, known as the Gatton murders, has never been solved; the Star is a free, community newspaper which began publishing in 1956. Gatton has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Crescent Street: Boer War Memorial Hickey Street: Weeping Mother Memorial Warrego Highway: University of Queensland Gatton Campus According to the 2016 census of Population, there were 7,101 people in Gatton. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 3.3% of the population. 68.3% of people were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were Taiwan 4.4%, India 2.2% and South Korea 1.8%. 72.6% of people spoke only English at home. Other languages spoken at home included Mandarin 5.3%, Arabic 2.0% and Korean 1.7%. The most common responses for religion were No Religion 22.6%, Catholic 20.7% and Anglican 11.7%. As part of the "Salad Bowl" of the Lockyer Valley, the area is agricultural, with vegetables making up the majority of crops.
Fruit was grown extensively in the area until the 1990s, when economic conditions changed and many of the orchards were removed. There is significant beef and dairy cattle farming, along with a growing equine industry, the town is a noted producer of fodder crops prime lucerne hay. Edna Linning and her husband started Gatton Bus Services in 1957 when they heard a high school was being built in town; the business only had one bus travelling to the college and back. The buses travelled to Flagstone Creek, Buaraba and Forest Hill to pick-up students; the company organized tours of Gatton for schoolchildren who lived in the city, so they could understand farm life and see how produce is grown and harvested. In its early days the business ran tours to Brisbane; the area has a humid subtropical climate, with mild, sunny winters. Heavy summer rain and warm conditions have provided ideal conditions for the areas agricultural productivity, although droughts and heatwaves can be problematic at times. Temperatures in Gatton are among the warmest in south-east Queensland in summer due to its position away from the coast but at low elevation in the Brisbane Valley.
Gatton State School caters for students from Prep to Year six. Secondary education in Gatton was first offered from 1 January 1913 as a secondary department attached to Gatton State School. In 1917, due to increasing enrolments, Gatton State High School was created on the present Gatton State School site; this became Lockyer District High School when it was opened at its present location in 1961. The University of Queensland has a campus on the former Queensland Agricultural College site at Lawes, just to the east of the town of Gatton; this Gatton campus is now the base for much of teaching. The Lockyer Valley Regional Council operate a public library in the Lockyer Valley Cultural Centre at 34 Lake Apex Drive; the town has a number of war memorials: The Boer War Memorial was dedicated on 3 August 1908. The Weeping Mother Memorial is an unusual depiction of the role of women in war; the foundation stone was laid on 22 April 1922 by the Australian Attorney-General, Littleton Groom and was unveiled on 14 November 1922 by Queensland Governor, Matthew Nathan.
The Gatton Shire War Memorial Pool was dedicated on 1 December 1959 to commemorate those who served in war. The National Servicemen's Memorial was erected in November 1996 and commemorates those that served during the national service period of 1951 to 1972; the Gatton Agricultural College War Memorial was dedicated on 25 April 1997 to commemorate the staff and students who died in war during the college's first century. The Lone Pine Memorial is a tree planted from seeds whose lineage can be traced back to the Lone Pine at Gallipoli, it was dedicated on 19 May 2005. Another Lone Pine Memorial at Gatton Campus traces its lineage back to Gallipoli; the Lights on the Hill Truck and Coach Drivers' Memorial is located at Lake Apex Park on the outskirts of Gatton. Gatton murders University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Gatton Lights on the Hill Truck & Coach Drivers' Memorial official website
University of the Sunshine Coast
The University of the Sunshine Coast is a public university based on the Sunshine Coast, Australia. After opening with 524 students in 1996 as the Sunshine Coast University College, it was renamed the University of the Sunshine Coast in 1999; the university has a flagship campus at Sippy Downs on the Sunshine Coast, with more campuses at Hervey Bay on the Fraser Coast, Gympie and South Bank in Brisbane. USC has study hubs in Noosa and North Lakes. In 2020, USC will open a full-service campus at Petrie in Moreton Bay. Undergraduate and postgraduate programs are offered in both faculties, with study areas divided into seven disciplines: business, IT and tourism; the university is listed on the Commonwealth Register of Institutions and Courses for Overseas Students. The first discussions about a university for the Sunshine Coast region began in 1973. In 1989, the Australian Federal Government approved its establishment. On 1 July 1994 the Queensland Parliament passed the Sunshine Coast University College Act 1994.
The university was established in 1994. The University of the Sunshine Coast Act 1998 was passed in Queensland Parliament on 19 November of that year, legislating the independent status of the university; the university changed to its current name of the University of the Sunshine Coast in 1999. It was created by the Australian Government to serve the growing population of the Sunshine Coast region, north of Brisbane, in Queensland; the University of the Sunshine Coast is the first greenfield university established in Australia since 1971. The inaugural vice-chancellor was Professor Paul Thomas, who took office with effect from 1 January 1996, having spent an earlier period as planning president. Justice Gerald “Tony” Fitzgerald was the university’s inaugural chancellor, followed by pastoralist Ian Kennedy, AO, USC’s second chancellor. Air Chief Marshal Sir Angus Houston AK, AFC became the university’s fourth chancellor when he was appointed to the role in 2017 after John Dobson OAM retired from the position.
Sir Angus remains the University's current chancellor. The student body has grown since the university opened in 1996 with an intake of 524 students. In 2017, USC had a 13.6 percent increase on the previous year. The university introduced paid parking at its Sippy Downs campus from February 2013, a move that garnered a negative response from some students and staff. Of the university's 2,400 parking spaces 450 remain as free parking. Since 2010, USC has been the only public institution in Queensland to receive five stars for teaching quality in the independently ranked Hobson's Good Universities Guide. In the 2010 edition of the guide, the university earned five stars for staff qualifications and graduates' satisfaction with the generic skills they learned while studying. In the 2011 edition, the university earned five stars for graduate satisfaction with the generic skills learned while studying, four stars for access by equity groups, Indigenous enrolments, gender balance, for graduates' satisfaction with their overall university experience.
However, the university only received one star for research grants, research intensity, toughness to get in, cultural diversity of the student body, success in getting a job, graduate starting salary and positive graduate outcomes. The 2012 edition of the guide, released in August 2011 awarded the university five stars for its graduates' satisfaction with the generic skills they gained while at university, for Indigenous participation; the university scored four stars for access by equity groups, gender balance, for graduates' satisfaction with their overall university experience. Its ratings for graduates' satisfaction remained the highest awarded to any public university in Queensland. In 2007 the Australian Universities Quality Agency audited USC as part of their assessment of all Australian universities. AUQA is a national agency that operates independently of governments and the higher education sector; the report commended USC for "its significant achievements since inception" and awarded USC commendations for the quality of the university's learning and teaching, student support services, workplace integrated learning program and degree approval process.
The Headstart Program – a program allowing Year 11 and 12 school students to study one or more courses at the University, while still completing secondary school – and Global Opportunities Program – the University's study abroad were acknowledged in the assessment. Graduates have given the university top marks for educational experience, with a 92 percent satisfaction rating in the 2007 Course Experience Questionnaire; the university's Global Opportunities Program received an award from the Queensland government at the Celebrating International Education and Training Industry Showcase in August 2007 for promoting internationalisation. In March 2008 the university was one of 99 organisations nationally and one of 10 in Queensland to earn an Employer of Choice for Women citation; the citations are awarded annually by the federal government's Equal Opportunity for Women in the Workplace Agency. It has received the citation for six consecutive years to 2010. Since 2006, the university has been awarded 17 citations from the Australian Learning and Teaching Council, recognising outstanding contribu