Archon is a Greek word that means "ruler" used as the title of a specific public office. It is the masculine present participle of the verb stem αρχ-, meaning "to be first, to rule". Derived from the same root as words such as monarch and hierarchy. In the early literary period of ancient Greece the chief magistrates of various Greek city states were called Archon; the term was used throughout Greek history in a more general sense, ranging from "club leader" to "master of the tables" at syssitia to "Roman governor". In Roman terms, archontes ruled by imperium. In Athens a system of three concurrent Archons evolved, the three office holders being known as the Eponymous archon, the Polemarch, the Archon basileus. According to Aristotle's Constitution of the Athenians, the power of the king first devolved to the archons, these offices were filled from the aristocracy by elections every ten years. During this period the Archon Eponymos was the chief magistrate, the Polemarch was the head of the armed forces, the Archon Basileus was responsible for the civic religious arrangements.
After 683 BC the offices were held for only a single year, the year was named after the Archon Eponymos. Although the process of the next transition is unclear, after 487 BC the archonships were assigned by lot to any citizen and the Polemarch's military duties were taken over by a new class of generals known as strategoi; the Polemarch thereafter had only minor religious duties. The Archon Eponymos remained the titular head of state under democracy, though of much reduced political importance; the Archons were assisted by "junior Archons", called Thesmothetes. After 457 BC ex-archons were automatically enrolled as life members of the Areopagus, though that assembly was no longer important politically at that time. Under the Athenian constitution, Archons were in charge of organizing festivals by bringing together poets, playwrights and city-appointed choregai; the Archon would begin this process months in advance of a festival by selecting a chorus of three playwrights based on descriptions of the projected plays.
Each playwright would be assigned a choregos selected by the Archon, from among the wealthy citizens who would pay all the expenses of costumes and training the chorus. The Archon assigned each playwright a principal actor, as well as a second and third actor; the City Dionysia, an ancient dramatic festival held in March in which tragedy and satyric drama originated, was under the direction of one of the principal magistrates, the archon eponymos. Byzantine historians described foreign rulers as archontes; the rulers of the Bulgars themselves, along with their own titles bear the title archon placed by God in inscriptions in Greek. Inside Byzantium, the term could be used to refer to any powerful noble or magnate, but in a technical sense, it was applied to a class of provincial governors. In the 8th and 9th centuries, these were the governors of some of the more peripheral provinces, inferior in status to the themata: Dalmatia, Cephalonia and Cyprus. Archontes were placed in charge of various naval bases and trade stations, as well as semi-autonomous Slavic-inhabited areas under Byzantine sovereignty.
In the 10th–12th centuries, archontes are mentioned as the governors of specific cities. The area of an archon's jurisdiction was called an archontia; the title was used for the holders of several financial posts, such as the head of the mint, as well as directors of the imperial workshops, etc. The title of megas archon is attested, as a translation of foreign titles such as "grand prince". In the mid-13th century, it was established as a special court rank, held by the highest-ranking official of the emperor's company, it did not have any specific functions. From time to time, laity of the Orthodox Church in communion with the Patriarch of Constantinople have been granted the title of Archon to honor their service to Church administration. In 1963, Archons in the United States were organized into the Order of St Andrew; this Archon status is purely honorary. An Archon is an honoree by His All Holiness the Ecumenical Patriarch, for his outstanding service to the Church, a well-known and well-respected leader of the Orthodox Church.
It is the sworn oath of the Archon to promote the Orthodox Church faith and tradition. His main concern is to promote the Holy Patriarchate and its mission, he is concerned with human rights and the well-being and general welfare of the Church. As it is a significant religious position, the faith and dedication of a candidate for the role are extensively reviewed during consideration. "Archon" is used in Modern Greek colloquially, as άρχοντας to someone that holds a form of status, or power The term is used within the Arab-speaking Copts in church parlance as a title for a leading member of the laity. Various fraternities and sororities use the title of archon or variations on it; some Gnostic sects used this term for demons associated with the planetspheres. In Steven L. Peck's near-future climate-fiction novel King Leere, he uses "archon" to refer to multinational corporations as living organisms, similar to ant colonies, that consume all resour
The Erms Valley Railway is a single-track branch line in the German state of Baden-Württemberg. It links Metzingen, where it branches off from the Plochingen–Tübingen railway with Bad Urach on the northern edge of the Swabian Jura. For its entire length, the branch line follows the Erms river and it is now operated by the Erms-Neckar-Bahn Eisenbahninfrastruktur AG; the Erms Valley Railway was opened on 27 December 1873 as a private railway by the Ermsthalbahn-Gesellschaft. The concession consigned the railway with effect from 1 April 1904 to the Kingdom of Württemberg, after which the railway was controlled by the Royal Württemberg State Railways. On 2 August 1919, the line was extended by 1.194 km to Kunstmühle Künkele. Although this extension was only for the carriage of freight to the mill, provision was made for the construction of an envisaged extension towards Münsingen, which would have created a link to the Reutlingen–Schelklingen railway. After the First World War, the line became part of Deutsche Reichsbahn, founded in 1920, after the Second World War it was taken over by Deutsche Bundesbahn.
The temporary closure of the railway began in the summer of 1971. On Friday, 27 May 1976, the last regular passenger service ran to Urach, but freight traffic was still maintained to URACA. Special excursion trains operated on the line. In July 1983, Urach was declared to be a spa town and renamed Bad Urach, but freight traffic continued to fall. At the end of 1989, the sparse freight between the crossing loop at Dettingen Gsaidt and Bad Urach was abandoned; the aspirations of the neighbouring communities the spa town of Bad Urach, to revive rail transport led first to the establishment of the Ermstal-Verkehrsgesellschaft mbH. This took over the line on 28 December 1993 with effect from 1 January 1994 from the former Deutsche Bundesbahn for the symbolic price of one Deutschmark. In 1995, the EVG was reformed as the Erms-Neckar-Bahn AG in Bad Urach. On 1 August 1999, regular passenger services to Bad Urach were resumed, with traffic operated by DB ZugBus Regionalverkehr Alb-Bodensee GmbH, a Deutsche Bahn subsidiary that operates buses and trains in the region.
Since Regionalbahn trains, composed of Stadler Regio-Shuttle RS1 diesel railcars, have run every hour from Herrenberg running via the Ammer Valley Railway and the Plochingen–Tübingen railway to Bad Urach, but some services run only between Bad Urach and Metzingen or Reutlingen. The regular services were preceded by the operation of tourist services on weekends in the summer of 1998. Parallel to the Erms Valley Railway, the RAB operates bus, the timetables of which are coordinated with the train timetable; the Erms Valley Railway has been integrated since 1 January 2002 in the Verkehrsverbund Neckar-Alb-Donau transport association and it passes through cells 219 and 221 of the Naldo “honeycomb” fare structure. All four stations in the municipality of Dettingen line on the edge of both cells. For journeys outside the limit of the Naldo fare zones, standard Deutsche Bahn fares apply. There are Deutsche Bahn ticket machines available at all stations and all stations except Metzingen are unstaffed.
For several years, there have been considerations due to increased ridership of establishing a tram-train network called the Regionalstadtbahn Neckar-Alb, which would include the Erms Valley Railway with services running every half-hour. This would involve a section by section doubling of the track. In January 2016, the Tübingen region initiated the planning approval process for the so-called "Module 1" of the Regionalstadtbahn Neckar-Alb; this includes among other things the electrification of the Erms Valley Railway and the Ammer Valley Railway. All breakpoints are to be brought to height of 55 cm; the extension of a headshunt in Bad Urach and the establishment of a crossing loop at Dettingen Gsaidt station to enable a half-hourly service are provided. Hans-Joachim Knupfer. Einmal Urach und retour!. Althengstett: Knupfer-Bahnbücher. ISBN 3-934379-00-1. Peter-Michael Mihailescu. Vergessene Bahnen in Baden-Württemberg. Stuttgart: Konrad Theiss Verlag. Pp. 197–200. ISBN 3-8062-0413-6. "Official website".
Erms-Neckar-Bahn AG. Retrieved 8 June 2016. "Private site of the Erms Valley Railway". Archived from the original on 16 August 2016. Retrieved 8 June 2016. "Description of the disused section to Künkelemühle". Www.vergessene-bahnen.de. Retrieved 8 June 2016
Hwang Byungki was the foremost South Korean player of the gayageum, a 12-string zither with silk strings. He was a composer and an authority on sanjo, a form of traditional Korean instrumental music. In 1951 he began playing the gayageum at The National Center for Korean Traditional Performing Arts in Seoul, where he studied under the renowned gayageum masters Kim Yeong-yun, Kim Yun-deok, Shim Sang-geon. In 1959 he graduated from Seoul National University School of Law. In 1962 he began composing film music using traditional Korean instruments, he presented the premiere performance of Alan Hovhaness's Symphony no. 16 in South Korea in 1963. In 1964 he traveled around the world to Europe, the United States and Southeast Asian countries, giving gayageum performances in each place. In 1985 he served as visiting professor of Korean Music at Harvard University. In 1990 he led a group of musicians from the South Korea at the Pan-Korean Unification Concert in Pyongyang, North Korea. After producing his fifth gayageum album in 2007, Hwang continued to compose innovative Korean music.
Ranging in style from the evocation of traditional genres to avant-garde experimentation, a selection of these pieces is available on a series of five albums. He was an emeritus professor of Korean music at Ewha Womans University. Hwang taught a course entitled ″Introduction to Korean Traditional Music″ at Yonsei University in Seoul. Hwang served on the government's Cultural Properties Preservation Committee, in 2000 was appointed to the National Academy of Arts. Hwang has published a number of albums, among, a set of five volume albums that are representative of his work: Vol. 1: Chimhyang-moo "Dancing Among Agarwood Incense" Vol. 2: The Silk Road Vol. 3: The Labyrinth Vol. 4: Spring Snow Vol. 5: Darha Nopigom, based on the Baekje gayo named, Jeongeupsa Website of Hwang ByungkiHwang Byungki discography on discogs News article about the 5th album, Darha Nopigom "Portrait of Hwang Byungki: Korean Traditional Music". The Korea Society. 2007. Archived from the original on 2008-07-25. Retrieved 2008-05-31