Salem, Tamil Nadu
Salem is a city in Salem district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is located about 160 kilometres northeast of Coimbatore, 186 kilometres southeast of Karnataka state capital Bangalore and about 340 kilometres southwest of the state capital, Chennai. Salem is the fifth largest city in Tamil Nadu by population and covers 124 km2; the town and the surrounding hilly regions were part of the Chera dynasty and was part of the trade route with the Roman empire. It was governed by Poligars, who built temples and forts in and around the city, it was part of the Vijayanagara empire before being captured by Hyder Ali during the early 18th century, after the Mysore-Madurai war. It was ceded to the British in 1768 and the area became part of the struggle between Kongu Nadu led by Dheeran Chinnamalai and the British. Salem became part of Salem district since independence in 1947. Salem is located at 11.67°N 78.14°E / 11.67. The city is surrounded by hills: Nagaramalai on the north, Jarugumalai on the south, Kanjamalai on the west, Godumalai on the east and the Shevaroy Hills on the northeast.
Kariyaperumal Hill is in southwestern Salem. The Thirumanimutharu River flows through the city; the fort area is the oldest part of Salem. Salem has a tropical savanna climate. January and February are pleasant. Pre-monsoon thunderstorms occur during May; the Southwest monsoon season lasts from June to September. The northeast monsoon occurs from October to December. Salem is the headquarters of Salem district; the town was constituted as a municipality in 1867, was upgraded to a special-grade municipality in 1979 and to a municipal corporation on 1 April 1994. The Salem municipal corporation has 72 wards, each with an elected councillor; the functions of the municipal corporation are divided into six departments: general administration and personnel, revenue, public health, city planning and information technology. All six departments are governed by a municipal commissioner. Legislative power is vested in the 60-member council, headed by an elected chairperson and assisted by a deputy chairperson.
Law and order is maintained by the Salem city subdivision of the Tamil Nadu Police, headed by a Deputy superintendent. Special units include prohibition enforcement, district crime, social justice and human rights, district crime records and a district-level special branch headed by a superintendent of police. Salem is a part of the Salem North, Salem West and Salem South assembly constituencies delineated in 2008; the city elects the three members to the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly once every five years. Present MLAs are R. Mohan Raj from Desiya Murpokku Dravidar Kazhagam, M. K. Selvaraju and G. Venkatachalam from All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam; until 2008, the city was part of the Salem Salem II assembly constituencies. Since 1977, the ADMK party won the Salem I assembly seat five times. Since 1977, the ADMK won the Salem II assembly seat three times and the DMK won three times; the city is part of the Salem Lok Sabha constituency consisting of six assembly constituencies: Omalur, Salem North, Salem South, Salem West and Edappadi.
Since 1952, the Salem parliament seat was held by the Indian National Congress eight times, by the ADMK four times, by DMK three times, once each by an independent and the Tamil Maanila Congress. The current Member of Parliament from the constituency is V. Pannerselvam from the ADMK. Salem is a major textile centre in Tamil Nadu, with more than 125 spinning mills, weaving units and garment units; until the 1960s, it had less few spinning mills. Private handloom weaving began to increase in the region after the 1960s and during the 1980s, the textile industry expanded with major spinning mills and dying units established supporting the industry; the area houses a number of sago factories for the production starch. In Salem district, 34,000 hectares of land are devoted to cassava and 650 industrial units are engaged in tapioca processing. In 1981, the Salem Starch and Sago Manufacturers Service Industrial Co-operative Society was established to promote the sago industry and nearly 80 percent of the national demand for sago and starch is met by SAGOSERVE.
In and around Salem cassava yields are 25 -- 30 tons per one of the highest in the world. The Salem Steel Plant, a unit of the Steel Authority of India, produces cold-rolled stainless steel and a hot-rolled stainless-carbon steel alloy; the plant is being expanded and modernised, with plans for steel-melting and continuous-casting facilities. The Southern Iron and Steel Company have their first integrated steel plant in Salem for the production of TMT corrosion-resistant bars and alloy steels; the Salem region is rich in mineral ores, with some of the largest magnesite and bauxite deposits in India. Public and private magnesite factories include Burn Standard and Company, Dalmia Magnesites and Tata Refractories. Salem Mango belt contributes the economy in large scale by exporting mangoes to foreign countries and supplying mangoes all over India; the Leigh Bazaar is the region's l
Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God, that Muhammad is the messenger of God. It is the world's second-largest religion with over 1.8 billion followers or 24% of the world's population, most known as Muslims. Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful and has guided humankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs; the primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, the teachings and normative example of Muhammad. Muslims believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith, revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Abraham and Jesus. Muslims consider the Quran in its original Arabic to be the final revelation of God. Like other Abrahamic religions, Islam teaches a final judgment with the righteous rewarded paradise and unrighteous punished in hell. Religious concepts and practices include the Five Pillars of Islam, which are obligatory acts of worship, following Islamic law, which touches on every aspect of life and society, from banking and welfare to women and the environment.
The cities of Mecca and Jerusalem are home to the three holiest sites in Islam. Aside from the theological narrative, Islam is believed to have originated in the early 7th century CE in Mecca, by the 8th century the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate extended from Iberia in the west to the Indus River in the east; the Islamic Golden Age refers to the period traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 13th century, during the Abbasid Caliphate, when much of the Muslim world was experiencing a scientific and cultural flourishing. The expansion of the Muslim world involved various caliphates, such as the Ottoman Empire and conversion to Islam by missionary activities. Most Muslims are of one of two denominations. About 13 % of Muslims live in the largest Muslim-majority country. Sizeable Muslim communities are found in the Americas, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Europe, Mainland Southeast Asia, the Philippines, Russia. Islam is the fastest-growing major religion in the world. Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root S-L-M which forms a large class of words relating to concepts of wholeness, submission and peace.
In a religious context it means "voluntary submission to God". Islām is the verbal noun of Form IV of the root, means "submission" or "surrender". Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the same verb form, means "submitter" or "one who surrenders"; the word sometimes has distinct connotations in its various occurrences in the Quran. In some verses, there is stress on the quality of Islam as an internal spiritual state: "Whomsoever God desires to guide, He opens his heart to Islam." Other verses connect Islam and religion together: "Today, I have perfected your religion for you. Still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God—more than just a verbal affirmation of faith. In the Hadith of Gabriel, islām is presented as one part of a triad that includes imān, ihsān. Islam was called Muhammadanism in Anglophone societies; this term has fallen out of use and is sometimes said to be offensive because it suggests that a human being rather than God is central to Muslims' religion, parallel to Buddha in Buddhism.
Some authors, continue to use the term Muhammadanism as a technical term for the religious system as opposed to the theological concept of Islam that exists within that system. Faith in the Islamic creed is represented as the six articles of faith, notably spelled out in the Hadith of Gabriel. Islam is seen as having the simplest doctrines of the major religions, its most fundamental concept is a rigorous monotheism, called tawḥīd. God is described in chapter 112 of the Quran as: "He is God, the One and Only. Muslims repudiate polytheism and idolatry, called Shirk, reject the Christian doctrine of the Trinity. In Islam, God is beyond all comprehension and thus. God is described and referred to by certain names or attributes, the most common being Al-Rahmān, meaning "The Compassionate" and Al-Rahīm, meaning "The Merciful". Muslims believe that the creation of everything in the universe was brought into being by God's sheer command, "Be, it is" and that the purpose of existence is to worship or to know God.
He is viewed as a personal god who responds whenever a person in distress calls him. There are no intermediaries, such as clergy, to contact God who states, "I am nearer to him than jugular vein." God consciousness is referred to as Taqwa. Allāh is the term with no plural or gender used by Muslims and Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews to reference God, while ʾilāh is the term used for a deity or a god in general. Other non-Arab Muslims might use different names as much as Allah, for instance "Tanrı" in Turkish, "Khodā" in Persian or "Ḵẖudā" in Urdu. Belief in angels is fundamental
Nawab spelt Nawaab, Navab, Nabob or Nobab, was an honorific title ratified and bestowed by the reigning Mughal emperor to semi-autonomous Muslim rulers of princely states in the Indian subcontinent. "Nawab" refers to males and means Viceroy. The primary duty of a Nawab was to uphold the sovereignty of the Mughal emperor along with the administration of a certain province; the title of "nawabi" was awarded as a personal distinction by the paramount power, similar to a British peerage, to persons and families who ruled a princely state for various services to the government of British India. In some cases, the titles were accompanied by jagir grants, either in cash revenues and allowances or land-holdings. During the British Raj, some of the chiefs, or sardars, of large or important tribes were given the title, in addition to traditional titles held by virtue of chieftainship; the term "zamindari " was used for the subahdar or viceroy of a subah or region of the Mughal empire. Nawab is a Hindustani term, used in Urdu, Hindi and many other North-Indian languages, borrowed via Persian from the Arabic honorific plural of naib, or "deputy."
In some areas Bengal, the term is pronounced nobab. This variation has entered English and other foreign languages as nabob; the term "Nawaab" is used to refer to any Muslim ruler in north or south India while the term "nizam" is preferred for a senior official—it means "governor of region". The Nizam of Hyderabad had several nawabs under him: Nawabs of Cuddapah, Rajahmundry, Chicacole, et al. "Nizam" was his personal title, awarded by the Mughal Government and based on the term "Nazim" as meaning "senior officer". "Nazim" is still used for a district collector in many parts of India. The term "nawab" is still technically imprecise, as the title was awarded to Hindus and Sikhs, as well, large zamindars and not to all Muslim rulers. With the decline of that empire, the title, the powers that went with it, became hereditary in the ruling families in the various provinces. Under British rule, nawabs continued to rule various princely states of Awadh, Bahawalpur, Baoni, Bhopal, Jaora, Kurnool, Mamdot, Palanpur, Radhanpur, Malerkotla, Sachin and Tonk.
Other former rulers bearing the title, such as the nawabs of Bengal and Oudh, had been dispossessed by the British or others by the time the Mughal dynasty ended in 1857. Some princes became Nawab by promotion, e.g. the ruler of Palanpur was "diwan" until 1910 "nawab sahib". Other nawabs were promoted are restyled to another princely style, or to and back, e.g. in Rajgarh a single rawat went by nawab. The style for a nawab's queen is begum. Most of the nawab dynasties were male primogenitures, although several ruling Begums of Bhopal were a notable exception. Before the incorporation of the Subcontinent into the British Empire, nawabs ruled the kingdoms of Awadh, Bengal and Bhopal; the title nawab was awarded as a personal distinction by the paramount power to a British peerage, to persons and families who never ruled a princely state. For the Muslim elite various Mughal-type titles were introduced, including nawab. Among the noted British creations of this type were Nawab Hashim Ali Khan, Nawab Khwaja Abdul Ghani, Nawab Abdul Latif, Nawab Faizunnesa Choudhurani, Nawab Ali Chowdhury, Nawaab Syed Shamsul Huda, Nawab Sirajul Islam, Nawab Alam yar jung Bahadur, M.
A, Madras, B. A. B. C. L. Barr-At-Law. There were the Nawabs of Dhanbari, Nawabs of Ratanpur, Nawabs of Baroda and such others. Nawaab was the rank title—again not an office—of a much lower class of Muslim nobles—in fact retainers—at the court of the Nizam of Hyderabad and Berar State, ranking only above Khan Bahadur and Khan, but under Jang, Mulk and Jah; this style, adding the Persian suffix -zada which means son, etymologically fits a nawbab's sons, but in actual practice various dynasties established other customs. For example, in Bahawalpur only the nawbab's heir apparent used nawabzada before his personal name Khan Abassi Wali Ahad Bahadur, while the other sons of the ruling nawab used the style sahibzada before the personal name and only Khan Abassi behind. "Nawabzadi" implies daughters of the reigning nawbab. Elsewhere, rulers who were not styled nawbab yet awarded a title nawabzada; the word naib has been used to refer to any local leader in some parts of the Ottoman Empire, successive early modern Iranian kingdoms, in the eastern Caucasus.
Today, the word is used to refer to directly elected legislators in lower houses of parliament in many Arabic-speaking areas to contrast them against officers of upper houses. The term Majlis al-Nuwwab has been adopted as the name of several legislative lower houses and unicameral legislatures. In colloquial usage in English, adopted in other Western languages, the transliteration "nabob" refers to commoners: a merchant-leader of high social status and wealth. "Nabob" de
Biryani known as biriyani, birani or briyani, is a mixed rice dish with its origins among the Muslims of the Indian subcontinent. This dish is popular throughout the Indian subcontinent, as well as among the diaspora from the region, it is prepared in other regions such as Iraqi Kurdistan. It is made with Indian spices, meat, vegetables or eggs. Biryani is a Hindustani word derived from the Persian language, used as an official language in different parts of medieval India by various Islamic dynasties. One theory states that it originated from the Persian word for rice. Another theory states that it is derived from biryan or beriyan, which means "to fry" or "to roast." The exact origin of the dish is uncertain. In North India, different varieties of biryani developed in the Muslim centers of Delhi and other small principalities. In South India, where rice is more used as a staple food, several distinct varieties of biryani emerged from Telangana, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka, where Muslim communities were present.
Andhra is the only region of South India. During the Safavid dynasty in Persia, a dish called Berian Pilao was made with lamb or chicken, marinated overnight — with dahi, spices, dried fruits — and cooked in a tandoor oven, it was served with steamed rice. According to historian Lizzie Collingham, the modern biryani developed in the royal kitchens of the Mughal Empire and is a mix of the native spicy rice dishes of India and the Persian pilaf. Indian restaurateur Kris Dhillon believes that the dish originated in Persia, was brought to India by the Mughals. Another theory claims that the dish was prepared in India before the first Mughal emperor Babur came to India; the 16th-century Mughal text Ain-i-Akbari makes no distinction between biryanis and pilaf: it states that the word "biryani" is of older usage in India. A similar theory, that biryani came to India with Timur's invasion, appears to be incorrect, because there is no record of biryani having existed in his native land during that period.
According to Pratibha Karan, the biryani is of South Indian origin, derived from pilaf varieties brought to the Indian subcontinent by the Arab traders. She speculates; the armies, unable to cook elaborate meals, would prepare a one-pot dish where they cooked rice with whichever meat was available. Over time, the dish became biryani due to different methods of cooking, with the distinction between "pulao" and "biryani" being arbitrary. According to Vishwanath Shenoy, the owner of a biryani restaurant chain in India, one branch of biryani comes from the Mughals, while another was brought by the Arab traders to Malabar in South India. Pilaf or pulao, as it is known in the Indian subcontinent, is another mixed rice dish popular in the cuisines of the Indian subcontinent and Middle Eastern cuisine. Opinions differ on the differences between pulao and biryani, whether there is a difference between the two. According to Delhi-based historian Sohail Nakhvi, pulao tends to be comparatively plainer than the biryani and consists of meat cooked with rice.
Biryani, on the other hand, contains more gravy, is cooked for longer, leaving the meat or vegetables more tender. Biryani is cooked with additional dressings. Pratibha Karan states that while the terms are applied arbitrarily, the main distinction is that a biryani consists of two layers of rice with a layer of meat in the middle. Colleen Taylor Sen lists the following distinctions between biryani and pulao: Biryani is the primary dish in a meal, while the pulao is a secondary accompaniment to a larger meal In biryani and rice are cooked separately before being layered and cooked together. Pulao is a single-pot dish: meat and rice are simmered in a liquid until the liquid is absorbed. However, some other writers, such as Holly Shaffer, R. K. Saxena and Sangeeta Bhatnagar have reported pulao recipes in which the rice and meat are cooked separately and mixed before the dum cooking. Biryanis have stronger spices compared to pulao; the British-era author Abdul Halim Sharar mentions the following as their primary difference: biryani has a stronger taste of curried rice due to a greater amount of spices.
Ingredients vary according to the type of meat used. Meat is the prime ingredient with rice; as is common in dishes of the Indian subcontinent, vegetables are used when preparing biryani, known as vegetable biriyani. Corn may be used depending on the availability. Navratan biryani tends to use sweeter, richer ingredients such as cashews and fruits, such as apples and pineapples; the spices and condiments used in biryani may include ghee, mace, cloves, cinnamon, bay leaves, mint leaves, onions, green chilies, garlic. The premium varieties include saffron. In all biryanis, the main ingredient that accompanies the spices is the goat meat; the dish may be served with dahi chutney or raita, curry, a sour dish of aubergine, boiled egg, salad. Kacchi biryani For kacchi biryani, raw marinated meat is layered with raw rice before being cooked together, it i
South India is the area including the five Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana, as well as the three union territories of Lakshadweep and Nicobar Islands and Puducherry, occupying 19% of India's area. Covering the southern part of the peninsular Deccan Plateau, South India is bounded by the Bay of Bengal in the east, the Arabian Sea in the west and the Indian Ocean in the south; the geography of the region is diverse with two mountain ranges–the Western and Eastern Ghats, bordering the plateau heartland. Godavari, Kaveri and Vaigai rivers are important non-perennial sources of water. Chennai, Hyderabad, Coimbatore, Visakhapatnam and Kochi are the largest urban areas; the majority of the people in South India speak one of the four major Dravidian languages: Telugu, Tamil and Malayalam. During its history, a number of dynastic kingdoms ruled over parts of South India whose invasions across southern and southeastern Asia impacted the history and culture in those regions.
Major dynasties that were established in South India include the Cheras, Pandyas, Satavahanas, Chalukyas and Vijayanagara. Europeans entered India through Kerala and the region was colonised by Britain and other nations. After experiencing fluctuations in the decades after Indian independence, the economies of South Indian states have registered higher than national average growth over the past three decades. While South Indian states have improved in some socio-economic metrics, poverty continues to affect the region much like the rest of the country, although it has decreased over the years. HDI in the southern states is high and the economy has undergone growth at a faster rate than most northern states. Literacy rates in the southern states are higher than the national average with 80% of the population capable of reading and writing; the fertility rate in South India is the lowest of all regions in India. South India known as Peninsular India has been known by several other names; the term "Deccan" referring to the area covered by the Deccan Plateau that covers most of peninsular India excluding the coastal areas is an anglicised form of the word Prakrit dakkhin derived from the Sanskrit word dakshina meaning south.
Carnatic derived from "Karnād" or "Karunād" meaning high country has been associated with South India. Carbon dating on ash mounds associated with Neolithic cultures in South India date back to 8000 BCE. Artefacts such as ground stone axes, minor copper objects have been found in the region. Towards the beginning of 1000 BCE, iron technology spread through the region; the region was in the middle of a trade route that extended from Muziris to Arikamedu linking the Mediterranean and East Asia. Trade with Phoenicians, Greeks, Syrians and Chinese began from the Sangam period; the region was part of the ancient Silk Road connecting the Asian continent in the East and the West. Several dynasties such as the Cheras of Karuvur, the Pandyas of Madurai, the Cholas of Thanjavur, the Satavahanas of Amaravati, the Pallavas of Kanchi, the Kadambas of Banavasi, the Western Gangas of Kolar, the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta, the Chalukyas of Badami, the Hoysalas of Belur and the Kakatiyas of Orugallu ruled over the region from 6th century B.
C. to 14th century A. D; the Vijayanagara Empire, founded in 14th century A. D. was the last Indian dynasty. After repeated invasions from the Sultanate of Delhi and the fall of Vijayanagara empire in 1646, the region was ruled by Deccan Sultanates and Nayak governors of Vijayanagara empire who declared independence; the Europeans arrived in the 15th century and by the middle of the 18th century, the French and the British were involved in a protracted struggle for military control over the South India. After the defeat of Tipu Sultan in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War in 1799 and the end of the Vellore Mutiny in 1806, the British consolidated their power over much of present-day South India with the exception of French Pondichéry; the British Empire took control of the region from the British East India Company in 1857. During the British colonial rule, the region was divided into the Madras Presidency, Hyderabad State, Travancore, Vizianagaram and a number of other minor princely states; the region played a major role in the Indian independence movement.
After the independence of India in 1947, the region was organised into four states: Madras State, Mysore State, Hyderabad State and Travancore-Cochin. The States Reorganisation Act of 1956 reorganised the states on linguistic lines resulting in the creation of the new states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu; as a result of this Act, Madras State retained its name and Kanyakumari district was added to it from the state of Travancore-Cochin. The state was subsequently renamed Tamil Nadu in 1968. Andhra Pradesh was created through the merger of Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking districts of the Hyderabad State in 1956. Kerala emerged from the merger of Malabar district and the Kasaragod taluk of South Canara districts of the Madras State with Travancore-Cochin. Mysore State was re-organised with the addition of districts of Bellary and South Canara and the Kollegal taluk of Coimbatore district from the Madras State, the districts of Belgaum, North Canara and Dharwad from the Bombay State, the
Bangalore known as Bengaluru, is the capital city of the Indian state of Karnataka. It has a population of over ten million, making it a megacity and the third most populous city and fifth most populous urban agglomeration in India, it is located in southern India on the Deccan Plateau at an elevation of over 900 m above sea level, the highest among India's major cities. It reflects its multireligious and cosmopolitan character by its more than 1000 temples, 400 mosques, 100 churches, 40 Jain derasars, three Sikh gurdwaras, two Buddhist viharas and one Parsi fire temple located in an area of 741 km² of the metropolis; the religious places are further represented to include the few members of the Jewish community who are making their presence known through the Chabad that they propose to establish in Bengaluru and the large number of Bahá'ís whose presence is registered with a society called the Bahá'í Centre. In 1537 CE, Kempé Gowdā – a feudal ruler under the Vijayanagara Empire – established a mud fort considered to be the foundation of modern Bengaluru and its oldest areas Or Petes which exist to the present day.
After the fall of Vijayanagar empire in 16th Century, the Mughals sold Bangalore to Chikkadevaraja Wodeyar, the ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore for three lakh rupees. When Haider Ali seized control of the Kingdom of Mysore, the administration of Bangalore passed into his hands, it was captured by the British East India Company after victory in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War, who returned administrative control of the city to the Maharaja of Mysore. The old city developed in the dominions of the Maharaja of Mysore and was made capital of the Princely State of Mysore, which existed as a nominally sovereign entity of the British Raj. In 1809, the British shifted their cantonment to Bangalore, outside the old city, a town grew up around it, governed as part of British India. Following India's independence in 1947, Bangalore became the capital of Mysore State, remained capital when the new Indian state of Karnataka was formed in 1956; the two urban settlements of Bangalore – city and cantonment – which had developed as independent entities merged into a single urban centre in 1949.
The existing Kannada name, Bengalūru, was declared the official name of the city in 2006. Bengaluru is sometimes referred to as the "Silicon Valley of India" because of its role as the nation's leading information technology exporter. Indian technological organisations ISRO, Wipro and HAL are headquartered in the city. A demographically diverse city, Bangalore is the second fastest-growing major metropolis in India. Bengaluru has one of the most educated workforces in the world, it is home to many educational and research institutions in India, such as Indian Institute of Science, Indian Institute of Management, International Institute of Information Technology, National Institute of Fashion Technology, National Institute of Design, National Law School of India University and National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences. Numerous state-owned aerospace and defence organisations, such as Bharat Electronics, Hindustan Aeronautics and National Aerospace Laboratories are located in the city.
The city houses the Kannada film industry. The name "Bangalore" represents an anglicised version of the Kannada language name and its original name, "Bengalūru" ಬೆಂಗಳೂರು, it is the name of a village near Kodigehalli in Bangalore city today and was used by Kempegowda to christen the city as Bangalore at the time of its foundation. The earliest reference to the name "Bengalūru" was found in a ninth-century Western Ganga Dynasty stone inscription on a "vīra gallu". In this inscription found in Begur, "Bengalūrū" is referred to as a place in which a battle was fought in 890 CE, it states that the place was part of the Ganga Kingdom until 1004 and was known as "Bengaval-uru", the "City of Guards" in Halegannada. An apocryphal story recounts that the 12th century Hoysala king Veera Ballala II, while on a hunting expedition, lost his way in the forest. Tired and hungry, he came across a poor old woman; the grateful king named the place "benda-kaal-uru", which evolved into "Bengalūru". Suryanath Kamath has put forward an explanation of a possible floral origin of the name, being derived from benga, the Kannada term for Pterocarpus marsupium, a species of dry and moist deciduous trees, that grew abundantly in the region.
On 11 December 2005, the Government of Karnataka announced that it had accepted a proposal by Jnanpith Award winner U. R. Ananthamurthy to rename Bangalore to Bengalūru. On 27 September 2006, the Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike passed a resolution to implement the proposed name change; the government of Karnataka accepted the proposal, it was decided to implement the name change from 1 November 2006. The Union government approved this request, along with name changes for 11 other Karnataka cities, in October 2014, hence Bangalore was renamed to "Bengaluru" on 1 November 2014. A discovery of Stone Age artefacts during the 2001 census of India at Jalahalli and Jadigenahalli, all of which are located on Bangalore's outskirts today, suggest probable human settlement around 4,000 BCE. Around 1,000 BCE, burial grounds were established at Koramangala and Chikkajala on the outskirts of Bangalore. Coins of the Roman emperors Augustus and Claudius found at Yeswanthpur and H
The Pallava dynasty was an Indian dynasty that existed from 275 CE to 897 CE, ruling a portion of southern India. They gained prominence after the eclipse of the Satavahana dynasty, whom the Pallavas served as feudatories. Pallavas became a major power during the reign of Mahendravarman I and Narasimhavarman I and dominated the Telugu and northern parts of the Tamil region for about 600 years until the end of the 9th century. Throughout their reign they were in constant conflict with both Chalukyas of Badami in the north and the Tamil kingdoms of Chola and Pandyas in the south and Pallava were defeated by the Chola Aditya I in the 9th century CE. Pallavas are most noted for their patronage of architecture, the finest example being the Shore Temple, a UNESCO World Heritage Site in Mahabalipuram; the Pallavas, who left behind magnificent sculptures and temples, established the foundations of medieval South Indian architecture. They developed the Pallava script from which Grantha descended; the Pallava script gave rise to several other southeast Asian scripts.
Chinese traveller Xuanzang extolled their benign rule. There were numerous theories about the origin of Pallavas. According to many notable scholars like Gabriel Jouveau, N. S Ramaswamy early pallavas originated in Andhradesa, which forms present day Andhra region and extended till kanchipuram of present day Tamilnadu; the early literary works of pallavas were traced in Prakrit and sanskrit from third century to sixth centuary and tamil literary records of pallavas were only available from seventh century. Velurpalaiyam plates dated to 852 AD, mentioned Virakurcha to be the first king of the Pallava dynasty as grant tells that Virakurcha grasped the complete insignia of royalty after marrying a Naga princess of Cutu-Nagas of Vanavasi who were feudatories of Andhras. Early relations between Nagas and Pallavas became well-established before the myth of Pallava's birth to Ashvatthama took root. A prashasti, composed in 753 on the dynastic eulogy in the Kasakadi plates, by the Pallava Trivikrama, traces the Pallava lineage from creation through a series of mythic progenitors, praises the dynasty in terms of two similes hinged together by triple use of the word avatara, as below:The Proceedings of the First Annual Conference of South Indian History Congress notes: The word Tondai means a creeper and the term Pallava conveys a similar meaning.
Since the Pallavas ruled in the territory extending from Bellary to Bezwada, it led to the theory that they were a northern dynasty who contracted marriages with princesses of the Andhra Dynasty and so inherited a portion of southern Andhra Pradesh. Historian K. R. Subramanian says the Pallavas were a Telugu power rather than a Tamil one. Telugu sources know of a Trilochana Pallava as the earliest Telugu king and they are confirmed by inscriptions; the first Chalukya king is said to have been met and killed by the same Trilochana near Mudivemu. A Buddhist story describes Kala the Nagaraja, resembling the Pallava Kalabhartar as a king of the region near Krishna district; the Pallava Bogga may be identified with the kingdom of Kala in Andhra which had close and early maritime and cultural relations with Ceylon. K. A. Nilakanta Sastri postulated that Pallavas were descendants of a North Indian dynasty who moved southwards, adopted local traditions to their own use, named themselves as Tondaiyar after the land called Tondai.
K. P. Jayaswal proposed a North Indian origin, putting forward the theory that the Pallavas were a branch of the Vakatakas; the earliest inscriptions of the Pallavas were found in the districts of Bellary and Nellore and all the inscriptions of the dynasty till the rise of Simhavishnu were found in the latter two of those. The mention of the Pallava king Vishnugopa of Kanchi, in the Allahabad record of Samudragupta in the fourth century, is noted as an important milestone in early Pallava history; the Pallavas captured Kanchi from the Cholas as recorded in the Velurpalaiyam Plates, around the reign of the fifth king of the Pallava line Kumaravishnu I. Thereafter Kanchi figures in inscriptions as the capital of the Pallavas; the Cholas drove the Pallavas away from Kanchi in the mid-4th century, in the reign of Vishugopa, the tenth king of the Pallava line. The Pallavas re-captured Kanchi in the mid-6th century in the reign of Simhavishnu, the fourteenth king of the Pallava line, whom the Kasakudi plates state as "the lion of the earth".
Thereafter the Pallavas held on to Kanchi until the 9th century, until the reign of their last king, Vijaya-Nripatungavarman. The Pallavas were in conflict with major kingdoms at various periods of time. A contest for political supremacy existed between the Kadambas. Numerous Kadamba inscriptions provide details of Pallava-Kadamba hostilities. Kadamba dynasty's founder Mayurasharma first succeeded in establishing himself in the forests of Shriparvata by defeating the Antharapalas of the Pallavas and subduing the Banas of Kolar in 345 CE; the Pallavas under Skandavarman were unable to contain Mayurasharma and recognised him as a sovereign in the regions from the Amara Ocean to Prehara. Some historians feel that Mayurasharma was appointed as a commander in the army of the Pallavas, as the inscription uses such terms as Senani and calls Mayurasharma Shadanana. After a period of time, due to the confusion caused by the defeat of Pallava Vishnugopa by Samudragupta, Mayurasharma formed his kingdom with Banavasi as his capital.