Canada Glacier is a small glacier flowing south-east into the northern side of Taylor Valley in Victoria Land, Antarctica. It is in the Ross Dependency, its melting season is in the summer. The glacier receives less than 10 cm of snowfall annually, is an ecosystem, its seasonal melting feeds Lake Hoare to Lake Fryxell to the east. At the north side of its head sit the Hothem Cliffs; the glacier was named in the course of the Terra Nova Expedition, under Robert Scott. Charles S. Wright, a Canadian physicist, was a member of the party that explored the area.jhh An area of about 1 km2 on the eastern side of the glacier is protected under the Antarctic Treaty System as Antarctic Specially Protected Area No.131 because it contains some of the richest plant growth in the McMurdo Dry Valleys region. It is exceptionally important not only for its ecological and biological values, but as a reference site for other similar ecosystems; the site comprises sloping ice-free ground with summer ponds and meltwater streams.
It is unusual in receiving more consistent water flows than many other parts of the Dry Valleys region, is sheltered from strong winds by the 20 m high glacier face. Canada Peak List of glaciers in the Antarctic Glaciology Cherry-Garrard, A.. The Worst Journey in the World. Stackpole Books. ISBN 1-58976-120-0 Fiennes, R. Race to the Pole: Tragedy and Scott's Antarctic Quest. Hyperion. ISBN 1-4013-0047-2 Hattersley-Smith, G.. The Norwegian with Scott: The Antarctic Diary of Tryggve Gran, 1910-13. Stationery Office. ISBN 0-11-290382-7 Jones, M.. The Last Great Quest: Captain Scott's Antarctic Sacrifice. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 0-19-280483-9 Lambert, K.. The Longest Winter: The Incredible Survival of Captain Scott's Lost Party. Smithsonian Books. ISBN 1-58834-195-X Scott, R. et al.. Scott's Last Expedition: The Journals. Carroll & Graf Publishers. ISBN 0-7867-0382-2 Solomon, S.. The Coldest March: Scott's Fatal Antarctic Expedition. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-09921-5 Ponting, H. G.. The Great White South.
Cooper Square Press. ISBN 0-8154-1161-8 U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Canada Glacier
Wilkes Station was an Antarctic research station established 29 January 1957 by the United States as one of seven U. S. stations established for the International Geophysical Year program in Antarctica. It was taken over by Australia on 7 February 1959. Navy personnel from the United States constructed the main part of Wilkes in a period of 16 days in January and February 1957, unloading 11,000 tons of material and supplies, it took a crew of over 100 to erect the station which housed 24 naval personnel and scientists for the next 18 months. As this was the time of the Cold War, there was considerable concern by the United States and Australia about Russian activity in Antarctica. Wilkes was seen to be strategically located because of its proximity to the south magnetic pole. Australia assumed custody of Wilkes, which remained the property of the U. S. State Department, in February 1959. Although Australia took over the operational command, the remaining US personnel did not take kindly to being under Australian control.
There was a'back down' until 1961 when the station came under exclusive ANARE control. Wilkes had been built in 1957 for a two-year period. By 1964 the buildings had become a fire hazard due to fuel seepage, the station was becoming buried by snow and ice; the new station of Casey Repstat was developed on the other, side of Newcomb Bay, about two kilometers across the bay south of Wilkes. It was commissioned in 1969 and Wilkes was closed down. Wilkes Station is now permanently frozen in ice and is only revealed during a big thaw every four or five years. Many objects remain embedded in the ice, visitors are able to see the remains of the station through the ice. What remains at Wilkes are a number of barracks buildings known as Clements huts, the remnants of the semi-cylindrical canvas store buildings known as Jamesway huts. Wilkes features a series of storage dumps and a considerable amount of rubbish resulting from 12 years of occupation, including 7000 fuel and oil drums. In early 1988, the Australian Army's 17th Construction Squadron deployed Lieutenant Andrew Stanner to Wilkes Station, Antarctica in order to develop an environmental clean-up plan to remove, make safe or dispose of a large accumulation of rubbish, fuel in drums, explosives and gas cylinders deposited since the late 1950s.
The plan was subsequently carried out over a period of years for the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions by a series of detachments from the squadron. Ice Station, written by Matthew Reilly, is a fiction thriller loosely based on Wilkes Station; the Coldest Place on Earth, written by Robert Thompson who led the September 1962 Wilkes-Vostock Traverse, returning to Wilkes in January 1963. List of Antarctic research stations List of Antarctic field camps Australian Antarctic Division Casey Station Australian Antarctic Division Wilkes History
Adélie Land is a claimed territory on the continent of Antarctica. It stretches from a coastline area along the Great Southern Ocean inland all the way to the South Pole. France administrates it as one of five districts of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands since 1955 and apply the Antarctic Treaty System rules since 1961. Article 4 deals with territorial claims, although it does not renounce or diminish any preexisting claims to sovereignty, it does not prejudice the position of Contracting Parties in their recognition or non-recognition of territorial sovereignty. France has had a permanent station in Adélie Land since April 9, 1950; the current Dumont d'Urville Station has a winter population around 33, but this goes up to about 78 during the Antarctic summer. Adélie Land lies between 136° E and 142° E, with a shore length of about 350 kilometres and with its inland part extending as a sector of a circle about 2,600 kilometres toward the South Pole. Adélie Land has borders with the Australian Antarctic Territory both on the east and on the west, namely on Clarie Land in the west, George V Land in the east.
Its total land area covered with glaciers, is estimated to be 432,000 square kilometres. The coast of Adélie Land was discovered in 1840 by the French explorer Jules Dumont d'Urville who named it after his wife, Adèle; this is the basis of the French claim to this Antarctic land. Since January 12, 1956, a manned French research base has been located year-round at 66°40′S 140°01′E, the Dumont d'Urville Station, with a winter population around 33, but this goes up to about 78 during the Antarctic summer; the first French station, Port Martin, was built April 9, 1950, at 66°49′04″S 141°23′39″E, but it was destroyed by a fire during the night of January 22–23, 1952. Port Martin housed a winter population of 11 in 1950–51 and 17 in 1951–52. Charcot Station was a French inland base located on the Antarctic ice sheet at 320 kilometres from the coast and from Dumont d'Urville Station, at an elevation of about 2,400 metres; the station, built for the International Geophysical Year of 1957–58, paid homage to Jean-Baptiste Charcot), was occupied from January 1957 through 1960 housing alone three men.
The base was composed of a main body of 24 square metres which consisted of semicylindrical sections of sheet metal assembled end to end. This form was planned to best withstand the snow pressure accumulated on it. Horizontal galleries were connected to house scientific measurement devices, while a vertical air conduit opened a few metres above the snow level provided ventilation. Cap Prud'Homme is an Italian-French camp, opened in 1994, located on the coast of the Antarctic ice sheet, in Adélie Land, about 5 km from Petrel Island, where the French Dumont d'Urville Station is. All the supplies and equipment for the Italian-French Concordia Station are transported by a combined convoy of up to 7 Caterpillar tractors from Cap Prud'Homme, with Kassbohrer trailblazers and a team of up to 9 people; the Dumont d'Urville research station was the filming location of the documentary March of the Penguins. Adelie Land Meteorite Adélie Valley Research stations in Antarctica Antarctic field camps Discover France - French Colonies - TERRE ADÉLIE
Queen Maud Land
Queen Maud Land is a c. 2.7 million square kilometre region of Antarctica claimed as a dependent territory by Norway. The territory lies between 20° west and 45° east, between the claimed British Antarctic Territory to the west and the claimed Australian Antarctic Territory to the east. On most maps there had been an unclaimed area between Queen Maud Land's borders of 1939 and the South Pole until 12 June 2015 when Norway formally annexed that area. Positioned in East Antarctica, the territory comprises about one-fifth of the total area of Antarctica; the claim is named after the Norwegian queen Maud of Wales. Norwegian Hjalmar Riiser-Larsen was the first person known to have set foot in the territory, in 1930. On 14 January 1939, the territory was claimed by Norway. From 1939 until 1945, Nazi Germany claimed New Swabia. On 23 June 1961, Queen Maud Land became part of the Antarctic Treaty System, making it a demilitarised zone, it is one of two Antarctic claims made by the other being Peter I Island.
They are administrated by the Polar Affairs Department of the Norwegian Ministry of Justice and Public Security in Oslo. Most of the territory is covered by the Antarctic ice sheet, a tall ice wall stretches throughout its coast. In some areas further within the ice sheet, mountain ranges breach through the ice, allowing for birds to breed and the growth of a limited flora; the region is divided into the Princess Martha Coast, Princess Astrid Coast, Princess Ragnhild Coast, Prince Harald Coast and Prince Olav Coast. The waters off the coast are called the King Haakon VII Sea. There is no permanent population, although there are 12 active research stations housing a maximum average of 40 scientists, the numbers fluctuating depending on the season. Six are occupied year-round; the main aerodromes for intercontinental flights, corresponding with Cape Town, South Africa, are Troll Airfield, near the Norwegian Troll research station, a runway at the Russian Novolazarevskaya Station. Queen Maud Land extends from the boundary with Coats Land in the west to the boundary with Enderby Land in the east, is divided into the Princess Martha Coast, Princess Astrid Coast, Princess Ragnhild Coast, Prince Harald Coast and Prince Olav Coast.
The territory is estimated to cover around 2,700,000 square kilometres. The limits of the claim, put forth in 1939, did not fix the northern and southern limits other than as "the mainland beach in Antarctica... with the land that lies beyond this beach and the sea beyond". The sea that extends off the coast between the longitudal limits of Queen Maud Land is called King Haakon VII Sea. There is no ice-free land at the coast, it is thus only possible to disembark from a ship in a few places. Some 150 to 200 kilometres from the coast, rocky peaks pierce the ice cap, itself at a mean height of around 2,000 metres above sea level, with the highest point at Jøkulkyrkja in the Mühlig-Hofmann Mountains; the other major mountain ranges are the Heimefront Range, Orvin Mountains, Wohlthat Mountains and Sør Rondane Mountains. Geologically, the ground of Queen Maud Land is dominated by Precambrian gneiss, formed c. 1 to 1.2 Ga, before the creation of the supercontinent Gondwana. The mountains consist of crystalline and granitic rocks, formed c. 500 to 600 Ma in the Pan-African orogeny during the assembly of Gondwana.
In the farthest western parts of the territory, there are volcanic rocks. Research on the thickness of the ice has revealed that without the ice, the coast would be similar to those of Norway and Greenland, with deep fjords and islands. Queen Maud Land was the first part of Antarctica to be sighted, on 27 January 1820 by Fabian von Bellingshausen, it was however among the last to be explored, as it required aircraft in combination with ships to undertake systematic exploration. Early Norwegian research activities in Antarctica rested on whaling and sealing expeditions funded by ship owners by Christen Christensen and his son Lars; the first two Norwegian expeditions were carried out by sealing ships in 1892–93 and 1893–94. While they were sent for exploring and whaling possibilities, they performed scientific research. Further Norwegian expeditions were mounted into the first decades of the 20th century; the Antarctic Plateau was claimed for Norway by Roald Amundsen as the King Haakon VII Plateau when his expedition was the first to reach South Pole on 14 December 1911.
It was mapped as a circular territory comprising the plateau around the South Pole, including all the land above latitude 85°S. However the same area had been claimed by the British as the King Edward VII Plateau, in conflict with the Norwegian claim. Amundsen's claim has never been claimed by the Norwegian government; the name Queen Maud Land was applied in January 1930 to the land between 37°E and 49°30′E discovered by Hjalmar Riiser-Larsen and Finn Lützow-Holm during Lars Christensen's Norvegia expedition of 1929–30. It was named after the Norwegian queen Maud of Wales, wife of the then-reigning King Haakon VII; the territory was explored further during the Norvegia expedition of 1930–31. During this whaling season, a total of 265 whaling ships Norwegian, worked off the coast of Queen Maud Land. In the same season, Riiser-Larsen discovered the Prince Olav Coast, Princess Martha Coast and Princess Ragnhild Coast from the air. Captain H. Halvorsen of the whaler Sevilla discovered the Princess Astrid Coa
Queen Elizabeth Land
Queen Elizabeth Land is portion of mainland Antarctica named by the government of the United Kingdom and claimed as part of the British Antarctic Territory, the largest of the 14 British Overseas Territories. Situated south of Weddell Sea and between longitudes 20°W and 80°W, stretching from Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf to the South Pole; that territory was unnamed until 2012, though most of it was unofficially known as Edith Ronne Land in 1947–68 and includes areas claimed by the United Kingdom and Argentina. On the occasion of a visit by Queen Elizabeth II to the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office in London on 18 December 2012, it was announced there that a 437,000-square-kilometre area of the British Antarctic Territory had been named Queen Elizabeth Land after The Queen; the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, William Hague, said that the naming was "a fitting tribute at the end of Her Majesty's Diamond Jubilee year". Queen Elizabeth Land is nearly twice the size of the United Kingdom and is a triangular segment of Antarctica, with one vertex at the South Pole.
It is bounded on the North side by the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf, to the North East by Coats Land, on the East by Queen Maud Land and extending on the West side to a line between the South Pole and Rutford Ice Stream, east of Constellation Inlet. The Pensacola Mountains, discovered in January 1956, run for some 450 km along a north-east to south-west line along the centre of the territory; the area's name will be included on all British maps. Argentina, whose Argentine Antarctica claim overlaps with the British Antarctic Territory, criticised the naming calling it a "systematic attack" and described it as "provocation" after recent tensions over Argentina's claim to the sovereignty of the Falkland Islands, a British Overseas Territory; the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs issued a statement regarding the naming, where they reminded that Russia was one of the original parties to the Antarctic Treaty signed in 1959 and calling for the full and responsible compliance by all State parties with its provisions.
According to the Russians, "no acts or activities taking place while the present Treaty is in force shall constitute a basis for asserting, supporting or denying a claim to territorial in Antarctica and do not create any rights of sovereignty in Antarctica". Queen Elizabeth Islands Princess Elizabeth Land
Queen Mary Land
Queen Mary Land or the Queen Mary Coast is the portion of the coast of Antarctica lying between Cape Filchner, in 91° 54' E, Cape Hordern, at 100° 30' E. It is claimed by Australia as part of the Australian Antarctic Territory, it was discovered in February 1912 by the Australasian Antarctic Expedition under the leadership of Douglas Mawson, who named it for Mary of Teck, queen consort of George V. This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Geological Survey document "Queen Mary Land"
Yukidori Valley lies in the middle of the Langhovde Hills, on the east coast of Lützow-Holm Bay, in Queen Maud Land of East Antarctica, about 20 km south of Japan’s Showa Station. Yukidori is Japanese for “snow petrel”; the valley is aligned east-west, 2.0-2.5 km long and 1.8 km wide. It contains two lakes, a melt stream flowing from the Antarctic ice cap through Lake Yukidori to the sea at its western end, has a continental fellfield ecosystem. Plants include several species of lichens. Birds nesting at the site include several thousand snow petrels as well as a few south polar skuas. Four species of free-living mites are present as well as over 60 species of microalgae, including some that are endemic to the valley; the site is protected under the Antarctic Treaty System as Antarctic Specially Protected Area No.141