click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Khalid bin Saqr Al Qasimi

Sheikh Khalid bin Saqr Al Qasimi is the former Crown Prince and Deputy Ruler of Ras al-Khaimah, the northernmost Emirate of the United Arab Emirates. He is the eldest son of Sheikh Saqr bin Mohammad al-Qassimi, who ruled Ras Al Khaimah from 1948 until his death in 2010 Khalid served as Crown Prince and Deputy Ruler of Ras Al Khaimah from 1958 until his removal from office by his father in June 2003, he resides in Sharjah, a neighboring Emirate. Khalid has stated that his father, Sheikh Saqr, in 2004 reaffirmed in a royal decree that Sheikh Khalid – not his half-brother, Sheikh Saud bin Saqr al Qasimi – was the true Crown Prince and Deputy Ruler of Ras Al Khaimah; the claim has not been recognized by the Government of Ras Al Khaimah or the United Arab Emirates. Khalid has not yet recognised Saud. Khalid is one of eight brothers, most of whom hold official roles within the government of Ras Al Khaimah. Khalid undertook his elementary schooling in Ras Al Khaimah, his secondary education in Cairo and his higher education at Loughborough University, a public university located in the East Midlands of England in the United Kingdom.

Sheikh Khalid was named Crown Prince and Deputy Ruler of Ras Al Khaimah in 1958. As Crown Prince, Sheikh Khalid oversaw the day-to-day operations of the Ras Al Khaimah Government and served as principal contact with all foreign governments, he led high-level diplomatic missions to the United States during the Nixon and Clinton Administrations. In 1999, President Clinton received him in the White House, he served as Chairman of the Board of the National Bank of Ras Al Khaimah, the Ras Al Khaimah National Oil Company, RAK Gas Commission and RAK Cement Company. During his tenure as Crown Prince and Deputy Ruler, Sheikh Khalid promoted economic development including the expansion of both the International Airport and Saqr Port, the promotion of clean energy and agricultural initiatives, cement manufacturing and investment in health care. Khalid has been called a reformer for his efforts to promote changes that would lead to greater popular participation in society in both the Emirates and the region as a whole.

As the Arabic news network Al Jazeera noted, the "eform minded Sheikh Khalid had asked for democratic changes in his Emirate and the Country as a whole which have been accepted and integrated policies of the Federal Government of the United Arab Emirates."Khalid built a reputation for hardline opposition to Iran and its controversial occupation of the Tunb Islands, under the long historical control of Ras Al Khaimah, but were forcibly seized by Iran on November 30, 1971. After 37 years in office, Khalid was removed as Crown Prince and Deputy Ruler on June 14, 2003 by his father and replaced by his younger half-brother Sheikh Saud bin Saqr al Qasimi; the removal of Sheikh Khalid as Crown Prince and Deputy Ruler caused unrest in Ras Al Khaimah and was met with street protests. Thousands of demonstrators shouted "with our souls and blood we defend you Khalid" and "no other crown prince" following his expulsion. Order was restored when Abu Dhabi, the lead emirate of the UAE, sent armored vehicles to Ras Al Khaimah.

Media reports at the time speculated that Sheikh Khalid was removed, in part, due to his support for women's rights and his opposition to Iran and its controversial occupation of the Tunb Islands. In addition, Sheikh Khalid's opposition to the war in Iraq to depose Saddam Hussein's Ba'ath regime was seen as counter to UAE policy Separate media reports attribute his removal from office to other factors that Sheikh Khalid was considered to be at odds with the political leadership of the UAE. Khalid's vocal hostility to the US intervention to depose Saddam Hussein's Ba'ath regime became a liability for the UAE. In 2003, he led a protest march of several hundred people through Ras-Al Khaimah that culminated with Khalid himself burning the American flag and allowed the local radio station to broadcast a anti-US line; this occurred at a time when the federal government guided by Sheikh Zayed in Abu Dhabi was strengthening cooperation with the US. Once Khalid was deposed, the Emirates News Agency reported the appointment of Sheikh Saud bin Saqr al-Qasimi as crown prince without delay, which gave the impression that Abu Dhabi approved of the appointment.

No reaction was forthcoming from Dubai. Those close to Shaikh Saqr al-Qasimi, the Ruler of Ras al-Khaimah, said that despite the fact that he was at the time approaching 85, he was still with full faculties; as such, the pressure that Sheikh Khalid's supporters put on him to reverse his decision was futile. He said to those attempting to mediate in the affair at the time: "These are my sons and I am free to make my own decisions."Despite Skeikh Khalid's repeated claims on his personal website that he has in his possession a decree re-instating him as crown prince, such a document has never been recognized by the Government or Ras Al Khaimah or the United Arab Emirates. The decree was never published in the UAE nor does it have an official document number, both of which are necessary for such a decree to take effect. For this reason, the official UAE informational website, www.uaeinteract.com lists HH Sheikh Saud bin Saqr Al Qasimi as Crown Prince and Deputy Ruler of Ra's al-Khaimah. Moreover, the UAE embassy in Washington, DC stated that "Khalid bin Saqr Al-Qasimi holds no official role in the local government of the emirate or the Federal Government of the United Arab Emirates.

As such, his words, views, or expressions do not represent the official position of any governmental agency in the UAE, either local or federal." According to The Guardian, "Khalid and his aides are trying to destabilize the current regime

Reading electric multiple units

The Reading electric multiple units were a fleet of electric multiple units operated by the Reading Company on its Philadelphia commuter rail lines. The majority were constructed by Bethlehem Steel in 1931–1933; some cars, rebuilt in 1964–1965 and christened "Blueliners", remained in service with Conrail and the Southeast Pennsylvania Transportation Authority until 1990. Several have been preserved. Bethlehem Steel produced a total of 100 cars composed of three types: coaches, baggage-coaches, baggage-coach-RPO; each car carried the same dimensions: 72 feet 11 1⁄2 inches long, 10 feet 2 1⁄2 inches wide, 15 feet 6 inches high. The coaches weighed between 127,400–129,000 pounds. Power was supplied via overhead lines to two traction motors built by either Westinghouse or General Electric. Maximum power output ranged from 275 to 300 horsepower. In normal operation speed was limited to 70 miles per hour, although a maximum of 80 miles per hour was possible; the coaches, designated EPA and EPB, carried a total of 86 passengers.

The nine coach-baggage cars, designated ECA and ECB seated 62 each, while the two baggage-coach-RPOs, designated ECC, seated 38. A single restroom was located at the vestibule end. Externally the eight motor cars that American Car and Foundry built were similar to the older Bethlehem Steel cars; the primary difference was that they carried four traction motors instead of two and could develop 1,100 horsepower. Another important difference was the use of an oil-cooled transformer; as was common for the period the coolant contained polychlorinated biphenyl. The presence of PCBs in the transformers led to the premature retirement of the ACF cars in lieu of a rebuild. At 158,300 pounds the cars were heavier than the Bethlehem-built cars; the Reading undertook the electrification of its Philadelphia commuter lines in the late 1920s. The first lines electrified were the Ninth Street Branch, New Hope Branch, the Bethlehem Branch as far as Lansdale, the Doylestown Branch, the New York Branch to West Trenton.

To protect this service the Reading ordered 89 electric multiple units from Bethlehem Steel: 61 coaches, seven baggage-coaches, two baggage-coach-RPOs. These were supplemented by twenty unpowered coach trailers converted from existing coaches; the new electrified services began operation on July 26, 1931. The Reading extended electrification to the Norristown Branch and Chestnut Hill Branch in 1933. For this service the Reading ordered 30 additional cars from Bethlehem Steel, identical to the first batch: 28 coaches and two baggage-coaches. Following World War II Reading bought eight more coaches, this time from American Car and Foundry, they were paired with eight unpowered coach trailers converted from existing coaches. The new equipment arrived in 1949. Between 1963–1965 the Reading rebuilt 38 of the cars; these were designated RER and popularly known as "Blueliners" from their distinctive white-and-blue livery. The rebuilt cars were renumbered into the 9101–9138 range. Un-rebuilt cars were known colloquially as "Reading'green' cars" as they remained in their original livery.

Both the green cars and the Blueliners continued running under Conrail and SEPTA. Blueliners were the last cars to operate to West Chester in 1986 when service on the West Chester Branch was cut back to Elwyn. SEPTA retired the last of its Blueliners from revenue service in 1990. Coates, Wes. Electric trains to Reading Terminal. Flanders, NJ: Railroad Avenue Enterprises. OCLC 24431024. Finkel, Kenneth. Philadelphia Then and Now: 60 Sites Photographed in the Past and Present. New York: Dover Publications. ISBN 978-0-486-25790-7. Middleton, William D.. When the Steam Railroads Electrified. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-33979-9. Randall, W. David. Railway Passenger Car Annual, Volume I, 1973-1974. Park Forest, IL: RPC Publications. Williams, Gerry. Trains, Trolleys & Transit: A Guide to Philadelphia Area Rail Transit. Piscataway, NJ: Railpace Company. ISBN 978-0-9621541-7-1. OCLC 43543368

Boychiks in the Hood

Boychiks in the Hood is a 1995 memoir by Robert Eisenberg that chronicles Eisenberg's travels around the world visiting different Hasidic communities. Einsenberg wrote the memoir as a way to explore communities where Yiddish was the first language spoken among all generations, it is recognized as a reputable source for information on Hasidic life. The book's first chapter, eponymously named Boychiks in the Hood, takes place in Williamsburg and was published as a 1992 feature article in The Village Voice. Boychiks in the Hood is a first-person narrative memoir detailing the happenings of the Hasidic Jewish underground; as a secular Jew, Eisenberg relies on his knowledge of Yiddish to gain access to many insular ultra-Orthodox communities, where Yiddish is the native language. Robert begins his travels in Williamsburg, Brooklyn, NY where he spends Shabbat with members of the Satmar Hasidic sect, he goes on to explore the Bobover Hasidic sect nearby in Boro Park, Brooklyn, NY before venturing out into more isolated Hasidic communities throughout the United States.

Shortly after his interactions with the Brooklyn, NY Hasidic communities, Robert travels to a kosher meat factory in St. Paul, where he witnesses cows being slaughtered. After traveling across the United States and meeting with different Hasidim, Eisenberg travels abroad where he chronicles his experiences with Hasidic Grateful Dead fans in Antwerp, dives into an Hasidic festival for Rosh Hashana in Uman and concludes his travels on a Hasidic farm in Israel. Described as "insightful and very funny," by the Los Angeles Times Book Review, Boychiks was embraced by both popular publications as well as Jewish publications. New York Times Book Review stated that the memoir "evokes the energy and intensity of Orthodox Jewish communities beautifully.... A sympathetic travelogue...lively and absorbing”, The Washington Post states "it benefits from author Robert Eisenberg's high energy level and his engaging personality." In 2010, New York Magazine's David Edelstein described Eisenberg's memoir as an "excellent book about Hasidic life."

Since its initial release, Boychiks in the Hood has been referenced in numerous scholarly books such as Catskill Culture: A Mountain Rat's Memories of the Great Jewish Resort Area, Postville U. S. A: Surviving Diversity in Small-Town America, Words on Fire: The Unfinished Story of Yiddish

Lula J. Davis

Lula Johnson Davis was Secretary for the Majority of the United States Senate from 2008 to 2011. Davis was born in Louisiana, she received a B. S. in office administration and an M. Ed. in guidance counseling from Southern University in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. She began her career with the Senate as a legislative correspondent for Senator Russell B. Long of Louisiana. After Senator Long retired from the Senate in January 1987, Davis worked as an office assistant for the Democratic Policy Committee’s Senate floor staff office. In 1993, she became a member of the Democratic floor staff. In 1995, she was promoted to chief floor assistant. In 1997, she assumed the position of assistant secretary. After the retirement of Martin P. Paone, in January 2008, the Senate elected Davis Secretary for the Majority; as Secretary for the Majority, she was a senior procedural advisor to the Senate Majority Leader, Senator Harry Reid, supervised the day-to-day Senate schedule. In so doing, she worked with Secretary for the Minority David J. Schiappa.

Davis told Senators what they could not do when it came to rules and procedure. Davis was called “one of the most powerful unelected people in the U. S. Senate.” Davis retired at the end of the 111th Congress. Official Senate biography

Drop That Kitty

"Drop That Kitty" is a song by American rapper Ty Dolla Sign, featuring English singer Charli XCX and American singer Tinashe. The track was produced by Cashmere Cat; the song was written by Ty Dolla Charlotte Atichison. It was released as digital download in the United States on February 17, 2015 intended as the first single from Free TC but was scrapped. Sign raps the track's main verses, while XCX sings its chorus hook and Tinashe its bridge and pre-chorus hook; the lyrical content in the song serve as a four-step dance instructional and contain several sexual euphemisms and innuendos. It discusses a scenario of meeting someone attractive in a club and communicating basest desires to them, while extolling the virtues of physical flexibility; the song garnered positive reviews from music critics, who complimented its club and crossover appeal, as well as XCX and Tinashe's vocal delivery. Time called it the sequel and successor to Iggy Azalea's "Fancy". An accompanying music video for "Drop That Kitty" has been filmed in Los Angeles and was released on April 15, 2015.

There are cameo appearances by Wiz Khalifa, DJ Mustard and O. T. Genasis. "Drop That Kitty" was produced by Cashmere Cat. In January 2015, Sign confirmed that he had collaborated with Charli XCX and Tinashe on his upcoming studio album, Free TC. In an interview with KZON, XCX stated: "I was working on a song for another artist and Ty came on worked on it too, it became this song. That's all I can say". On February 10, 2015, images from a music video shot in Los Angeles, which featured Sign, XCX, Wiz Khalifa and Keke Palmer, were leaked online by fan site, Tinashe Brazil. "Drop That Kitty" was announced as Sign's upcoming single, featuring XCX and Tinashe. The song premiered online on February 16, 2015. "Drop That Kitty" was released as digital download in the United States on February 17, 2015. "Drop That Kitty" is a "club-friendly," hip hop song. It features "bouncy" synthesizer production, a minimal, "stinging" beat. Sign raps the track's main verses, XCX sings its chorus hook, while Tinashe sings its bridge and chorus pre-hook.

Sign and Tinashe solicit a crooning technique in their vocal delivery, with Tinashe's being more melodically influenced, while XCX incorporates her characteristic, pop punk "cheerleader-esque" chanting. The Source wrote, "There's $ign's signature sleaze, XCX’s Top 40, pep rally hook voice, Tinashe's sexy steez". Musically, "Drop That Kitty" has been compared to Iggy Azalea's "Fancy", the works of DJ Mustard. "Drop That Kitty" serves as a departure from Sign's accustomed sound, with some critics stating that his previous single "Stand For" catered to his core audience, "Drop That Kitty" to a crossover audience. The track's lyrical content serve as a four-step dance instructional, consisting of the lines: "Drop that kitty down low," "Pop that kitty down low," "Shop that like a window" and "Take that video phone", it contains several euphemisms and innuendos, namely in Sign's lyrics, "Shake it like a salt shaker" and "Make it clap for a stack". It includes Sign boasting, "I got a pit bull, make the kitty run from it".

The track's lyrics discuss a scenario of meeting someone attractive in a club and communicating basest desires to them, while extolling the virtues of physical flexibility. Jason Lipshutz of Billboard observed, "The command'pop that kitty down low' is reason to believe that these three are singing about more than domestic pets". While Brenna Ehrlich of MTV News said the track was "decidedly not about mistreating felines". Ian Servantes of Complex noted that "Drop That Kitty" was "highly sexualized" and fitting for clubs of both the stripping and non-stripping variety; the song garnered positive reviews from music critics. Jezebel's Jia Tolentino called it "basically'America the Beautiful' at the club, of every variety," and added, "I'm just going to be reasonable here and say this is the best song I've heard". Paper felt "Drop That Kitty" was "infectious" and an "undeniable jam," and praised XCX's chant and Tinashe's "soulful" crooning. Bradley Stern of MuuMuse said the track was a "thumper" and described Tinashe's vocal on it as "beamed in directly from the stars above".

In his review of the song, Stern went on to opine, "'Kitty' isn't something any of them would drop solo: It's a combined effort of feisty pop hooks, cool crooning and hip-hop heat all in one go". Fuse's Zach Dionne viewed it as "the new ode" to "dropping, clapping, etc". Writing for XXL, Paul Thompson stated that "Drop That Kitty" should become "an inescapable club song" for the Spring of 2015. Ehrlich called it "sexy" and opined that its release would have been fitting to coincide with Valentine's Day. HotNewHipHop's Kevin Goddard, Rap-Up commended XCX and Tinashe's "commanding" and "catchy" delivery. Robin Murray of Clash commented: "Could it strike big? Well, with a chorus like that there's no reason why it wouldn't...". Writing for Time, Nolan Feeney said that "Drop That Kitty" was a "worthy successor to'Fancy'" and called it "the'Fancy' sequel you didn't know you needed". Feeney, opined that XCX and Tinashe did the "heavy lifting" on the track while Sign was "a mere footnote". Conversely, Music Times writer Ryan Middleton felt that Sign " it home" with the track's main verses.

Hip-Hop Wired's Chris Thomas wrote, "Though this record isn't what we're accustomed to hearing from Ty Dolla, don't be surprised if it makes him a more renowned name". Zara Golden of The Fader said the track was "a wash of the wit and unabashed raunch we've come to expect from Ty—but it is more radio-friendly". In a mixed review, Vulture's Dee Lockett felt that the track's collaborators had the potential to produce a song "consider