Springfield is a city in the state of Massachusetts, United States, the seat of Hampden County. Springfield sits on the eastern bank of the Connecticut River near its confluence with three rivers: the western Westfield River, the eastern Chicopee River, the eastern Mill River; as of the 2010 Census, the city's population was 153,060. As of 2017, the estimated population was 154,758, making it the third-largest city in Massachusetts, the fourth-most populous city in New England after Boston and Providence, the 12th-most populous in the Northeastern United States. Metropolitan Springfield, as one of two metropolitan areas in Massachusetts, had a population of 692,942 as of 2010; the first Springfield in the New World, during the American Revolution, George Washington designated it as the site of the Springfield Armory for its central location. The Armory would play a pivotal role in the Civil War with its manufacture of the famed "Springfield rifles". Today the city is the largest in western New England, the urban and media capital of Massachusetts' section of the Connecticut River Valley, colloquially known as the Pioneer Valley.
Springfield has several nicknames – "The City of Firsts", due to the many innovations developed there, such as the first American dictionary, the first American gas-powered automobile, the first machining lathe for interchangeable parts. Hartford, the capital of Connecticut, lies 24 miles south of Springfield, on the western bank of the Connecticut River; the Hartford-Springfield region is known as the Knowledge Corridor because it hosts over 160,000 university students and over 32 universities and liberal arts colleges – the second-highest concentration of higher-learning institutions in the United States. The city of Springfield itself is home to Springfield College, Western New England University, American International College, Springfield Technical Community College, among other higher educational institutions. Springfield was founded in 1636 by English Puritan William Pynchon as "Agawam Plantation" under the administration of the Connecticut Colony. In 1641 it was renamed after Pynchon's hometown of Springfield, England, following incidents, including trade disputes as well as Captain John Mason's hostilities toward native tribes, that precipitated the settlement joining the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
During its early existence, Springfield flourished as both an agricultural settlement and trading post, although its prosperity waned during King Philip's War in 1675, when natives laid siege to it and burned it to the ground as part of the ongoing campaign. During that attack, three-quarters of the original settlement was burned to the ground, with many of Springfield's residents survived by taking refuge in John Pynchon's brick house, the "Old Fort", the first such house to be built in the Connecticut River Valley. Out of the siege, Miles Morgan and his sons were lauded as heroes; the original settlement – today's downtown Springfield – was located atop bluffs at the confluence of four rivers, at the nexus of trade routes to Boston, New York City, Montreal, with some of the northeastern United States' most fertile soil. In 1777, Springfield's location at numerous crossroads led George Washington and Henry Knox to establish the United States' National Armory at Springfield, which produced the first American musket in 1794, the famous Springfield rifle.
From 1777 until its closing during the Vietnam War, the Springfield Armory attracted skilled laborers to Springfield, making it the United States' longtime center for precision manufacturing. The near-capture of the armory during Shays' Rebellion of 1787 led directly to the formation of the U. S. Constitutional Convention. During the 19th and 20th centuries, Springfielders produced many innovations, including the first American-English dictionary. Springfield underwent a protracted decline during the second half of the 20th century, due to the decommissioning of the Springfield Armory in 1969. During the 1980s and 1990s, Springfield developed a national reputation for crime, political corruption and cronyism. During the early 21st century, Springfield sought to overcome its downgrade in reputation via long-term revitalization projects and undertook several large projects, including a $1 billion intercity rail line a $1 billion MGM casino.
Boston is the capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. The city proper covers 48 square miles with an estimated population of 685,094 in 2017, making it the most populous city in New England. Boston is the seat of Suffolk County as well, although the county government was disbanded on July 1, 1999; the city is the economic and cultural anchor of a larger metropolitan area known as Greater Boston, a metropolitan statistical area home to a census-estimated 4.8 million people in 2016 and ranking as the tenth-largest such area in the country. As a combined statistical area, this wider commuting region is home to some 8.2 million people, making it the sixth-largest in the United States. Boston is one of the oldest cities in the United States, founded on the Shawmut Peninsula in 1630 by Puritan settlers from England, it was the scene of several key events of the American Revolution, such as the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, the Battle of Bunker Hill, the Siege of Boston.
Upon gaining U. S. independence from Great Britain, it continued to be an important port and manufacturing hub as well as a center for education and culture. The city has expanded beyond the original peninsula through land reclamation and municipal annexation, its rich history attracts many tourists, with Faneuil Hall alone drawing more than 20 million visitors per year. Boston's many firsts include the United States' first public park, first public or state school and first subway system; the Boston area's many colleges and universities make it an international center of higher education, including law, medicine and business, the city is considered to be a world leader in innovation and entrepreneurship, with nearly 2,000 startups. Boston's economic base includes finance and business services, information technology, government activities. Households in the city claim the highest average rate of philanthropy in the United States; the city has one of the highest costs of living in the United States as it has undergone gentrification, though it remains high on world livability rankings.
Boston's early European settlers had first called the area Trimountaine but renamed it Boston after Boston, England, the origin of several prominent colonists. The renaming on September 7, 1630, was by Puritan colonists from England who had moved over from Charlestown earlier that year in quest for fresh water, their settlement was limited to the Shawmut Peninsula, at that time surrounded by the Massachusetts Bay and Charles River and connected to the mainland by a narrow isthmus. The peninsula is thought to have been inhabited as early as 5000 BC. In 1629, the Massachusetts Bay Colony's first governor John Winthrop led the signing of the Cambridge Agreement, a key founding document of the city. Puritan ethics and their focus on education influenced its early history. Over the next 130 years, the city participated in four French and Indian Wars, until the British defeated the French and their Indian allies in North America. Boston was the largest town in British America until Philadelphia grew larger in the mid-18th century.
Boston's oceanfront location made it a lively port, the city engaged in shipping and fishing during its colonial days. However, Boston stagnated in the decades prior to the Revolution. By the mid-18th century, New York City and Philadelphia surpassed Boston in wealth. Boston encountered financial difficulties as other cities in New England grew rapidly. Many of the crucial events of the American Revolution occurred near Boston. Boston's penchant for mob action along with the colonists' growing distrust in Britain fostered a revolutionary spirit in the city; when the British government passed the Stamp Act in 1765, a Boston mob ravaged the homes of Andrew Oliver, the official tasked with enforcing the Act, Thomas Hutchinson the Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts. The British sent two regiments to Boston in 1768 in an attempt to quell the angry colonists; this did not sit well with the colonists. In 1770, during the Boston Massacre, the army killed several people in response to a mob in Boston.
The colonists compelled the British to withdraw their troops. The event was publicized and fueled a revolutionary movement in America. In 1773, Britain passed the Tea Act. Many of the colonists saw the act as an attempt to force them to accept the taxes established by the Townshend Acts; the act prompted the Boston Tea Party, where a group of rebels threw an entire shipment of tea sent by the British East India Company into Boston Harbor. The Boston Tea Party was a key event leading up to the revolution, as the British government responded furiously with the Intolerable Acts, demanding compensation for the lost tea from the rebels; this led to the American Revolutionary War. The war began in the area surrounding Boston with the Battles of Concord. Boston itself was besieged for a year during the Siege of Boston, which began on April 19, 1775; the New England militia impeded the movement of the British Army. William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe the commander-in-chief of the British forces in North America, led the British army in the siege.
On June 17, the British captured the Charlestown peninsula in Boston, during the Battle of Bunker Hill. The British army outnumbered the militia stationed there, but it was a Py
Buckland is a town in Franklin County, United States. The population was 1,902 at the 2010 census; the town shares the village of Shelburne Falls with neighboring Shelburne. The town center at Shelburne Falls is the western end of the Bridge of Flowers, a local tourist attraction. Buckland is part of Massachusetts Metropolitan Statistical Area. Buckland was first settled in 1742 as "No Town", as it was not part of either the village of Charlemont or Ashfield, which the land belonged to as one large town. A sawmill was set up that year by Othneil Taylor and Asaph White, settlement occurred. However, the townspeople did not want to cross the Deerfield River or travel the long distance to Ashfield Village to attend services, so they petitioned the Massachusetts General Court for a separate incorporation; the town was incorporated on April 14, 1779, as Buckland named for the abundant hunting in the area. Buckland was the birthplace of Mary Lyon, founder of the Mount Holyoke Female Seminary, now known as Mount Holyoke College.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 19.9 square miles, of which 19.7 square miles is land and 0.19 square miles, or 1.05%, is water. Buckland is located in western Franklin County, is bordered by Charlemont to the north, Shelburne to the northeast, Conway to the southeast, Ashfield to the south, Hawley to the west. Buckland's town center is located 13 miles west of Greenfield, 40 miles north-northwest of Springfield, 103 miles west-northwest of Boston. Buckland lies along the banks of the Deerfield River, which bends from northward to westward along the town line. Clesson Brook and Clark Brook flow northward through town towards the river, with the former forming the main valley in the town. To either side of the valley lie several hills, including Walnut Hill, Drank Hill and Snow Mountain to the west and Mary Lyon Hill and Moonshine Hill to the east, both of which are between the two brooks. Moonshine Hill is home to a small state forest. A short section of Massachusetts Route 2, known as the Mohawk Trail, passes through the northeast corner of town.
The nearest interstate, Interstate 91, passes through nearby Greenfield. There is a ride lot located on Route 2, near the bridge over the river to Shelburne Falls. South of the river, the freight rail line passes from Conway in the east towards the Hoosac Tunnel through the mountains to the west. Buckland lies along the Charlemont bus line of the Franklin Regional Transit Authority, but has no scheduled stops in town; the nearest Amtrak station is in Greenfield, the nearest small air service is at Turners Falls. The nearest national air service is at Bradley International Airport in Connecticut; as of the census of 2000, there were 1,991 people, 772 households, 542 families residing in the town. By population, Buckland ranks ninth out of the twenty-six towns in Franklin County, 291st out of the 351 cities and towns in Massachusetts; the population density was 101.8 people per square mile, which ranks seventh in the county and 280th in the Commonwealth. There were 839 housing units at an average density of 42.9 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the town was 96.53% White, 0.45% African American, 0.45% Native American, 0.65% Asian, 0.50% from other races, 1.41% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.16% of the population. There were 772 households out of which 33.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.1% were married couples living together, 11.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.7% were non-families. 21.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.00. In the town, the population was spread out with 25.0% under the age of 18, 7.8% from 18 to 24, 26.4% from 25 to 44, 27.6% from 45 to 64, 13.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.3 males. The median income for a household in the town was $45,833, the median income for a family was $51,420.
Males had a median income of $38,684 versus $24,977 for females. The per capita income for the town was $20,033. About 3.5% of families and 6.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.9% of those under age 18 and 6.7% of those age 65 or over. Buckland employs the open town meeting form of government, is governed by a board of selectmen and an administrative assistant; the town offices, police station and fire station are all located in Shelburne Falls, with the Buckland Public Library and the town's post office located near the geographic center of town. The nearest hospital, Franklin Medical Center, is located in Greenfield, as are most of the nearest state offices. On the state level, Buckland is represented in the Massachusetts House of Representatives as part of the Second Berkshire district, represented by Paul Mark, which covers central Berkshire County, as well as portions of Hampshire and Franklin Counties. In the Massachusetts Senate, the town is part of the Hampshire and Franklin district, represented by Ben Downing, which includes most of eastern Franklin County and much of eastern Hampshire County.
The town is patrolled by the Second Barracks of Troop "B" of the Massachusetts State Police, headquartered on the Shelburne side of Shelburne Falls. On the national level, Buckland is represented in the United States House of Representatives as part of Massachusetts's 1st congressional district and has been
Deerfield is a town in Franklin County, United States. Settled near the Connecticut River in the 17th century during the colonial era, the population was 5,125 as of the 2010 census. Deerfield is part of the Springfield, Massachusetts Metropolitan Statistical Area in western Massachusetts, lying 30 miles north of the city of Springfield. Deerfield includes the villages of South Deerfield and Old Deerfield, home to two museums. Historic Deerfield is designated as a National Historic Landmark district, the organization operates a museum with a focus on decorative arts, early American material culture, history, its eleven house museums offer interpretation of society and culture from the colonial era through the late nineteenth century. The Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association operates Memorial Hall Museum, which opened in 1880, as well as the Indian House Memorial Children's Museum and Bloody Brook Tavern; the site of early 18th century colonial battles including the Raid on Deerfield, the town is a center of heritage tourism in the Pioneer Valley.
Deerfield has numerous schools, including a private secondary preparatory school. For several decades during the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, Deerfield was the northwesternmost outpost of New England settlement, it occupies a fertile portion of the upper Connecticut River Valley now known as the Pioneer Valley. It was vulnerable to attack because of its position near the Berkshires highlands. For these reasons it was the site of intertribal warfare and several Anglo-French and Indian skirmishes during its early history. At the time of the English colonists' arrival, the Deerfield area was inhabited by the Algonquian-speaking Pocumtuck nation, who settled a major village by the same name. English colonists arrived in 1673, Deerfield was incorporated in 1677. Settlement was the result of a court case in which the government in Boston returned some of Dedham to Native American control in exchange for land in the new township of Pocumtuck, on which Dedham residents could settle.
The Dedham settlers' agent, John Plympton, signed a treaty with the Pocumtuck, including a man named Chaulk. But he had no authority to deed the land to the colonists and appeared to have only a rough idea of what he was signing. Native Americans and the English had different ideas about land use; the Pocumtuck were much reduced in number by the time the settlers arrived, as they had been victims of infectious diseases and war with the more powerful Mohawk. The settlers forcibly expelled the few Pocumtuck. At the Battle of Bloody Brook, on September 18, 1675 during King Philip's War, the dispossessed Indians destroyed a small force under the command of Captain Thomas Lathrop before being driven off by reinforcements. Colonial casualties numbered about 60. At dawn on May 19, 1676, Captain William Turner led an army of settlers in a surprise retaliatory attack on Peskeompskut, in present-day Montague a traditional native gathering place. Turner and his men killed 200 natives women and children; when the men of the tribe returned, they routed Turner's forces.
In the pre-dawn hours of February 29, 1704, during Queen Anne's War, joint French and Indian forces attacked the town in what became known as the Raid on Deerfield. They razed much of the settlement and killed 56 colonists, including 22 men, 9 women, 25 children; the attackers took 112 captives, including women and children, forced them on a months-long trek to Montreal, nearly 300 miles to the north. Many died along the way. In this period, there was an active trade in ransoming captives among both the French. Deerfield and other communities collected funds to ransom the captives, negotiations were conducted between the colonial governments; when the Massachusetts Bay Colony released the French pirate Pierre Maisonnat dit Baptiste, Canada arranged redemption of numerous Deerfield people, among them the prominent minister John Williams. He wrote a captivity narrative about his experience, published in 1707 and became well known. In addition to ransoming captives, because of losses to war and disease, families of the Mohawk and other tribes adopted younger captives into their tribes.
Such was the case with Williams's daughter Eunice, 8 years old when captured. She became assimilated and at age 16 married a Mohawk man, they had a family and she stayed with the Mohawk for the rest of her life. Most of the Deerfield captives returned to New England; as the frontier moved north, Deerfield became another colonial town with an unquiet early history. In 1753 Greenfield was incorporated. During the early nineteenth century, Deerfield's role in Northeast agricultural production declined, it was overtaken by the rapid development of the Midwestern United States as the nation's breadbasket, as transportation to eastern markets and New York City was enhanced by construction of the Erie Canal and railroads. During the Colonial Revival movement o
Hancock is a town in Berkshire County, United States. It is part of Massachusetts Metropolitan Statistical Area; the population was 717 at the 2010 census. Hancock was first settled in 1762 as the Plantation of Jericho; the town was incorporated in 1776, renamed for John Hancock. Hancock is one of only three towns in Massachusetts whose local telephone service was not provided by the former Bell System; the other two such towns are Richmond in Berkshire County, Granby, in Hampshire County. Around 1780, some families in Hancock converted to the teachings of the Shakers. By 1790, Believers in Hancock and Pittsfield established Hancock Shaker Village; the Shakers were a religious order which believed in pacifism and communal living. Worship could take the form of singing and ecstatic dance, why they were called the "Shaking Quakers", or "Shakers." The utopian sect is renowned today for its plain furniture. Hancock Shaker Village is famous for its Round Stone Barn, built in 1826. In 1959, the remaining Shakers in Hancock sold the property to a non-profit museum.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 35.8 square miles, of which 35.7 square miles is land and 0.077 square miles, or 0.19%, is water. Hancock is bordered on the north by Williamstown, on the northeast by New Ashford, on the east by Lanesborough and Pittsfield, on the south by Richmond, on the west by Canaan, New Lebanon and Berlin, New York. Most of northern Hancock occupies a valley bound by the Taconic Mountains on each side; the northern half of the valley is drained by the west branch of the Green River, a tributary of the Hoosic River, the southern half of the valley is drained by the headwaters of Kinderhook Creek, which flows southwest into New York and the Hudson River. To the west, along the New York border, stands the western escarpment of the Taconic Mountains including Misery Mountain and Rounds Mountain, while the northeastern town line is bordered by the eastern Taconic escarpment peaks of Brodie Mountain, Sheeps Heaven Mountain, Jiminy Peak.
Southern Hancock, where the Shaker Village is located, is dominated by the Taconic peaks of Pittsfield State Forest, including Tower Mountain, Smith Mountain, Berry Hill, Honwee Mountain, Doll Mountain, Shaker Mountain. Berry Pond, the highest water body in Massachusetts at over 2,070 feet above sea level, sits near the summit of Berry Hill; the highest point in Hancock is a summit of Misery Mountain. U. S. Route 20 passes from Pittsfield to the New York state line. Massachusetts Route 43 passes through town, from the northern border with Williamstown, is the main route through town, turning along Kinderhook Creek and into New York. There are no roads within the town. There is no bus or air service within the town; the nearest services are in Pittsfield to the south, Williamstown and North Adams to the north. The nearest airport with nationally connecting flights is Albany International Airport 40 miles northwest of town; as of the census of 2000, there were 721 people, 296 households, 209 families residing in the town.
Hancock ranks 25th out of the 32 towns in Berkshire County by population, 335th out of the 351 in Massachusetts. The population density was 20.2 people per square mile, making it the least densely populated town in Berkshire County, thirteenth-least in the Commonwealth. There were 472 housing units at an average density of 13.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.36% White, 0.28% African American, 0.55% Asian, 0.14% from other races, 1.66% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.39% of the population. There were 296 households out of which 29.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.2% were married couples living together, 5.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.1% were non-families. 23.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.84. In the town, the population was spread out with 24.1% under the age of 18, 3.6% from 18 to 24, 29.8% from 25 to 44, 29.7% from 45 to 64, 12.8% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 110.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.8 males. The median income for a household in the town was $45,347, the median income for a family was $50,625. Males had a median income of $35,000 versus $28,750 for females; the per capita income for the town was $22,250. About 6.1% of families and 5.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.4% of those under age 18 and 9.8% of those age 65 or over. Hancock is governed by the open town meeting form of government, is governed by a board of selectmen; the town has its own volunteer fire department. The town has its own library, Taylor Memorial Library, other public services. On the state level, Hancock is represented in the Massachusetts House of Representatives as part of the First Berkshire District, which covers northern and central Berkshire County and has been represented by Gailanne M. Cariddi since January 2013. Prior to the 2010 Massachusetts redistricting of the House and Senate Hancock was in the Second Berkshire District.
In the Massachusetts Senate, the town is represented as part of the Berkshire, Hampshire an
Amherst is a town in Hampshire County, United States, in the Connecticut River valley. As of the 2010 census, the population was 37,819, making it the highest populated municipality in Hampshire County; the town is home to Amherst College, Hampshire College, the University of Massachusetts Amherst, three of the Five Colleges. The name of the town is pronounced without the h, giving rise to the local saying, "only the'h' is silent", in reference both to the pronunciation and to the town's politically active populace. Amherst has three census-designated places. Amherst is part of Massachusetts Metropolitan Statistical Area. Lying 22 miles north of the city of Springfield, Amherst is considered the northernmost town in the Hartford-Springfield Metropolitan Region, "The Knowledge Corridor"; the earliest known document of the lands now comprising Amherst is the deed of purchase dated December 1658 between John Pynchon of Springfield and three native inhabitants, referred to as Umpanchla and Chickwalopp.
According to the deed, "ye Indians of Nolwotogg upon ye River of Quinecticott" sold the entire area in exchange for "two Hundred fatham of Wampam & Twenty fatham, one large Coate at Eight fatham wch Chickwollop set of, of trusts, besides severall small giftes". Amherst was first visited by Europeans as early as 1665 when Nathaniel Dickinson surveyed the lands for its mothertown Hadley; the first permanent English settlements arrived in 1727, it was part of Hadley when it gained precinct status in 1734. It gained township in 1759; when it incorporated, the colonial governor assigned the town the name "Amherst" after Jeffery Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst. Many colonial governors at the time scattered his name amidst the influx of new town applications, why several towns in the Northeast bear the name. Amherst was a hero of the French and Indian War who, according to popular legend, singlehandedly won Canada for the British and banished France from North America. Popular belief has it that he supported the American side in the Revolutionary War and resigned his commission rather than fight for the British.
Baron Amherst remained in the service of the Crown during the war—albeit in Great Britain rather than North America—where he organized the defense against the proposed Franco-Spanish Armada of 1779. Nonetheless, his previous service in the French and Indian War meant he remained popular in New England. Amherst is infamous for recommending, in a letter to a subordinate, the use of smallpox-covered blankets in warfare against the Native Americans along with any "other method that can serve to Extirpate this Execrable Race". For this reason, there have been occasional ad hoc movements. Suggested new names have included "Emily", after Emily Dickinson. Amherst celebrated its 250th anniversary in 2009; the Amherst 250th Anniversary Celebration Committee and Amherst Historical Society organized events, including a book published by the Historical Society and written by Elizabeth M. Sharpe, Amherst A to Z. According to the United States Census Bureau, Amherst has a total area of 27.7 square miles, of which 27.6 square miles are land and 0.12 square miles, or 0.48%, are water.
The town is bordered by Hadley to the west and Leverett to the north, Shutesbury and Belchertown to the east, Granby and South Hadley to the south. The highest point in the town is on the northern shoulder of Mount Norwottuck at the southern border of the town; the town is nearly equidistant from both the southern state lines. Amherst's ZIP Code of 01002 is the second-lowest number in the continental United States after Agawam. Amherst has a humid continental climate that under the Köppen system marginally falls into the warm-summer category, it is interchangeable with the hot-summer subtype dfa with July means hovering around 71.4 °F. Winters are cold and snowy, albeit daytime temperatures remain above freezing. Under the 2012 USDA Plant Hardiness Zone system, Amherst is in zone 5b; as of the 2010 U. S. Census, there were 37,819 people, 9,259 households, 4,484 families residing in the town. There were 9,711 housing units; the racial makeup of the town was 76.9% White, 5.4% Black or African American, 0.2% Native American, 10.9% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 2.4% some other race, 4.1% from two or more races.
7.3 % of the population were Latino of any race. Of the 9,259 households in the town, 23.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.6% were headed by married couples living together, 16.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 51.6% were non-families. Of all households, 27.3% were made up of individuals, 9.7% were someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 2.88. In the town, 10.0% of the population were under the age of 18, 55.7% were from 18 to 24, 13.3% were from 25 to 44, 13.6% were from 45 to 64, 7.4% were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 21.6 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.7 males. For the period 2011-15, the estimated median annual income for a household
Holyoke is a city in Hampden County, United States, that lies between the western bank of the Connecticut River and the Mount Tom Range. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 39,880; as of 2017, the estimated population was 40,341. Sitting 8 miles north of Springfield, Holyoke is part of the Springfield Metropolitan Area, one of the two distinct metropolitan areas in Massachusetts. Holyoke is among the early planned industrial cities in the United States. Built in tandem with the Holyoke Dam to utilize the water power of Hadley Falls, it is one of a handful of cities in New England built on the grid plan. During the late 19th century the city produced an estimated 80% of the writing paper used in the United States and was home to the largest paper mill architectural firm in the country, as well as the largest paper and alpaca wool mills in the world. Although a smaller number of businesses in Holyoke work in the paper industry today, it is still referred to as "The Paper City". Today the city contains a number of specialty manufacturing companies, as well as the Massachusetts Green High Performance Computing Center, an intercollegiate research facility which opened in 2012.
Holyoke is home to the Volleyball Hall of Fame and known as the "Birthplace of Volleyball", as the internationally played Olympic sport was invented and first played at the local YMCA chapter by William G. Morgan in 1895. While working for the Holyoke Water Power Company in the 1880s, hydraulic engineer Clemens Herschel invented the Venturi meter to determine the water use of individual mills in the Holyoke Canal System; this device, the first accurate means of measuring large-scale flows, is used in a number of engineering applications today, including waterworks and carburators, as well as aviation instrumentation. Powered by these municipally owned canals, Holyoke has among the lowest energy rates in the Commonwealth, as of 2016 between 85% and 90% of the city's energy was carbon neutral, with administrative goals in place to reach 100% in the immediate future. English colonists arrived in the Connecticut River Valley in 1633, when traders from the Plymouth Plantation established a post at Windsor, Connecticut.
In 1636, Massachusetts Bay Colony assistant treasurer and Puritan iconoclast William Pynchon led a group of settlers from Roxbury, Massachusetts to the Valley to establish Springfield on land scouts had found to be advantageous for farming and trading. This settlement was built north of the Connecticut River's first major falls, Enfield Falls, where seagoing vessels had to transfer cargo into smaller shallops to continue northward on the river. Due to its proximity to the banks of the river Springfield became a successful settlement on the Bay Path to Boston, as well as the Massachusetts Path to Albany; the settlement spanned both sides of the river but was partitioned in 1774 with the land on the western bank becoming West Springfield, Massachusetts. This area allotted to landowners on the east side of the river in Springfield, was settled by colonists by 1655. Holyoke as a geographic entity was incorporated as a parish; the area's first post office, "Ireland", was established June 3, 1822, with Martin Chapin as first postmaster.
Another, "Ireland Depot", was established February 26, 1847, with John M. Chapin as first postmaster, assumed the town name upon Holyoke's incorporation. Though the name Hampden was considered, the area was subsequently named for earlier Springfield settler William Pynchon's son-in-law, Elizur Holyoke, who had first explored the area in the 1650s. Following land acquisitions and development by the Hadley Falls Company, the town of Holyoke was incorporated on March 14, 1850; the first official town meeting took place a week on March 22, 1850. A part of Northampton known as Smith's Ferry was separated from the rest of the town by the creation of Easthampton in 1809; the shortest path to downtown Northampton was on a road near the Connecticut River oxbow, subject to frequent flooding. The neighborhood became the northern part of Holyoke in 1909. Holyoke had few inhabitants until the construction of the dam and the Holyoke Canal System in 1849 and the subsequent construction of water-powered mills paper mills, the first and last to operate in the city, being those of the Parsons Paper Company.
At one point over 25 paper mills were in operation in the city. The Holyoke Machine Company, manufacturer of the Hercules water turbine, was among many industrial developments of the era. Holyoke's population rose from just under 5,000 in 1860 to over 60,000 in 1920. Due to this staggering growth the municipality was incorporated as a city on April 7, 1873, only 23 years after its initial incorporation as the "Town of Holyoke"; that year the city elected its first mayor, William B. C. Pearsons, who, a quarter-century earlier, had established himself among the first lawyers in the city, was the first editorial writer of the area newspaper-of-record, the Hampden Freeman, best known as the Holyoke Transcript-Telegram. In 1888, Holyoke's paper industry spurred the foundation of the American Pad & Paper Company, which as of 2007 is one of the largest suppliers of office products in the world. Holyoke was previously the location of the headquarters of the American Writing Paper Company, a trust company established in 1899 with the merging of 23 rag paper mills, 13 of which were located in Holyoke.
At one point the company was the largest producer of fine papers in the world, however incompetent leadership lacking technical knowledge of the industry, a