A telephone, or phone, is a telecommunications device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are too far apart to be heard directly. In 1876, Scottish emigrant Alexander Graham Bell was the first to be granted a United States patent for a device that produced clearly intelligible replication of the human voice and this instrument was further developed by many others. The telephone was the first device in history that people to talk directly with each other across large distances. Telephones rapidly became indispensable to businesses and households, the essential elements of a telephone are a microphone to speak into and an earphone which reproduces the voice in a distant location. Until approximately the 1970s most telephones used a dial, which was superseded by the modern DTMF push-button dial. The receiver and transmitter are usually built into a handset which is held up to the ear, the dial may be located either on the handset, or on a base unit to which the handset is connected.
The transmitter converts the sound waves to electrical signals which are sent through the network to the receiving phone. The receiving telephone converts the signals into audible sound in the receiver, telephones permit duplex communication, meaning they allow the people on both ends to talk simultaneously. The first telephones were connected to each other from one customers office or residence to another customers location. Being impractical beyond just a few customers, these systems were replaced by manually operated centrally located switchboards. For greater mobility, various systems were developed for transmission between mobile stations on ships and automobiles in the middle 20th century. Hand-held mobile phone]s was introduced for personal service starting in 1973, by the late 1970s several mobile telephone networks operated around the world. In 1983, the Advanced Mobile Phone System was launched, offering a standardized technology providing portability for users far beyond the residence or office.
These analog cellular system evolved into digital networks with better security, greater capacity, better regional coverage, the public switched telephone network, with its hierarchical system of many switching centers, interconnects telephones around the world for communication with each other. With the standardized international numbering system, E.164, each line has an identifying telephone number. Although originally designed for voice communications, convergence has enabled most modern cell phones to have many additional capabilities. Since 1999, the trend for mobile phones is smartphones that integrate all mobile communication, a traditional landline telephone system, known as plain old telephone service, commonly carries both control and audio signals on the same twisted pair of insulated wires, the telephone line. The control and signaling equipment consists of three components, the ringer, the hookswitch, and a dial, the ringer, or beeper, light or other device, alerts the user to incoming calls
Sacramento is the capital city of the U. S. state of California and the seat of Sacramento County. It is at the confluence of the Sacramento River and the American River in the portion of Californias expansive Central Valley. Its estimated 2014 population of 485,199 made it the sixth-largest city in California, Sacramento is the cultural and economic core of the Sacramento metropolitan area, which includes seven counties with a 2010 population of 2,414,783. In 2002, the Civil Rights Project at Harvard University conducted for Time magazine named Sacramento Americas Most Diverse City, Sacramento became a city through the efforts of the Swiss immigrant John Sutter, Sr. his son John Augustus Sutter, Jr. and James W. Marshall. Sacramento grew quickly thanks to the protection of Sutters Fort, which was established by Sutter in 1839, the city was named after the Sacramento River, which forms its western border. The river was named by Spanish cavalry officer Gabriel Moraga for the Santísimo Sacramento, California State University, Sacramento, is the largest university in the city and one of 23 campuses in the California State University system.
University of the Pacific is a university with one of its three campuses in Sacramento. In addition, the University of California, located in nearby Davis, operates its UC Davis Medical Center and Plains Miwok Native Americans had lived in the area for perhaps thousands of years. Unlike the settlers who would eventually make Sacramento their home, these Native Americans left little evidence of their existence. Traditionally, their diet was dominated by acorns taken from the oak trees in the region, and by fruits, seeds. In 1808, the Spanish explorer Gabriel Moraga discovered and named the Sacramento Valley, a Spanish writer with the Moraga expedition wrote, Canopies of oaks and cottonwoods, many festooned with grapevines, overhung both sides of the blue current. Birds chattered in the trees and big fish darted through the pellucid depths, the air was like champagne, and drank deep of it, drank in the beauty around them. The valley and the river were christened after the Most Holy Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ, John Sutter first arrived on August 13,1839 at the divergence of the American and Sacramento Rivers with a Mexican land grant of 50,000 acres.
The next year, he and his party established Sutters Fort, representing Mexico, Sutter called his colony New Helvetia, a Swiss inspired name, and was the political authority and dispenser of justice in the new settlement. Soon, the colony began to grow as more and more pioneers headed west, within just a few short years, John Sutter had become a grand success, owning a ten-acre orchard and a herd of thirteen thousand cattle. Fort Sutter became a stop for the increasing number of immigrants coming through the valley. In 1847, Sutter hired James Marshall to build a sawmill so that he could continue to expand his empire, Sutter received 2,000 fruit trees in 1847, which started the agriculture industry in the Sacramento Valley. In 1848, when gold was discovered by James W. Marshall at Sutters Mill in Coloma and he hired topographical engineer William H
Marin County, California
Marin County /məˈrɪn/ is a county located in the San Francisco Bay Area of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 252,409 and its county seat is San Rafael. Marin County is included in the San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area across the Golden Gate Bridge from San Francisco, Marin County is one of the wealthiest localities in the United States, known for its affluence. In May 2009, Marin County had the fifth highest income per capita in the United States at about $91,480, the county is governed by the Marin County Board of Supervisors. The county is well known for its natural beauty and liberal politics. San Quentin Prison is located in the county, as is George Lucas Skywalker Ranch, the publisher of AutoCAD, is located there, as well as numerous other high-tech companies. The Marin County Civic Center was designed by Frank Lloyd Wright and draws thousands of visitors a year to guided tours of its arch, in 1994, a new county jail facility was embedded into the hillside nearby.
Marin Countys natural sites include the Muir Woods redwood forest, the Marin Headlands, Stinson Beach, the Point Reyes National Seashore, the United States oldest cross country running event, the Dipsea Race, takes place annually in Marin County, attracting thousands of athletes. Mountain biking was invented on the slopes of Mount Tamalpais in Marin, According to General Mariano Vallejo, who headed an 1850 committee to name Californias counties, the county was named for Marin, great chief of the tribe Licatiut. Marin had been named Huicmuse until he was baptized as Marino at about age 20, Marin / Marino was born into the Huimen people, a Coast Miwok tribe of Native Americans who inhabited the San Rafael area. Vallejo believed that Chief Marin had waged several fierce battles against the Spanish, starting in 1817, he served as an alcalde at the San Rafael Mission, where he lived from 1817 off and on until his death. The Coast Miwok Indians were hunters and gatherers whose ancestors had occupied the area for thousands of years, about 600 village sites have been identified in the county.
The Coast Miwok numbered in the thousands, there are few left and even fewer with any knowledge of their Coast Miwok lineage. Efforts are being made so that they are not forgotten, francis Drake and the crew of the Golden Hind was thought to have landed on the Marin coast in 1579 claiming the land as Nova Albion. A bronze plaque inscribed with Drakes claim to the new lands and this so-called Drakes Plate of Brass was revealed as a hoax in 2003. In 1595, Sebastian Cermeno lost his ship, the San Agustin, the Spanish explorer Vizcaíno landed about twenty years after Drake in what is now called Drakes Bay. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 828 square miles. It is the fourth-smallest county in California by land area
Direct distance dialing
Direct distance dialing is a telecommunication service feature in which a caller may, without operator assistance, call any other user outside the local calling area. Direct dialing by subscribers typically requires extra digits to be dialed as prefixes than for dialing within the area or within an area code. DDD extends beyond the boundaries of national public telephone network, DDD was the term used when the North American Numbering Plan was implemented in the 1950s. In the United Kingdom and other parts of the Commonwealth of Nations, the equivalent terms are or were STD, for subscriber trunk dialing, the first direct-dialed long-distance telephone calls were possible in the New Jersey communities of Englewood and Teaneck starting on November 10,1951. Whitehorse, had numbers from 1965, but the necessary switching equipment was not in place locally until 1972. The No.4 Crossbar switching system had been introduced in the 1940s to switch four-wire circuits and this design was further refined to serve DDD.
The card sorter of the 4A/CTS allowed six digit translation of the office code number dialed by the customer. This determined the proper trunk circuits to use, where separate circuit groups were used for different cities in the area code, as in the case of Oakland. The new device used metal cards similar in principle to computer punched cards, on busy days, it sounded like a machine gun firing. CTS machines were called 4A if the translator was included in the original installation, a 1970s version of 4XB, the 4A/ETS, used a computer to translate. For international dialing, Traffic Service Position System provided the computer power. The reach of DDD was limited due to the inefficiency and expense of switching equipment, one obstacle was that the majority of switching gear did not provide Automatic Number Identification. Common control switches such as 1XB switch were fairly quickly retrofitted to provide ANI, panel switch were eventually retrofitted, as were some step-by-step that were not scheduled for immediate replacement.
Even if a switch had ANI, it could not identify callers on party lines and this was only partly overcome by Tip Party Identification. As the cost of subscriber line carrier declined, party lines were phased out. In the 1960s, with the conversion still underway, plans were laid to extend Direct Dialing beyond North America. Gateway offices were set up in New York and Paris, the New York gateway was at 32 Avenue of the Americas. Other 5XB in the few years were installed with IDDD as original equipment
North Coast (California)
The North Coast of California is the region in Northern California that lies on the Pacific coast between San Francisco Bay and the Oregon border. It commonly includes Mendocino and Del Norte counties and sometimes includes two counties from the San Francisco Bay area and Sonoma. Much of the area is rural, and the city within the region with a population of over 100,000 is Santa Rosa. Despite their size, many of the cities and towns have historical importance to the State and/or regional importance. The coastline is often inaccessible, and includes cliffs and hills, streams. The southern portion of the North Coast is largely urbanized while the rest is mostly rural, the more remote northern areas are often referred to as the being located behind the Redwood Curtain. A segment of the coastline in Mendocino and Humboldt Counties is known as the Lost Coast, notable seaside beaches can be found at Marin Headlands and Point Reyes National Seashore in the south, with innumerable examples of remote or less used beaches north of the San Francisco Bay area.
Redwoods are found in many other State and local parks, other larger redwood parks include Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park, Del Norte Coast Redwoods State Park, Jedediah Smith Redwoods State Park and Redwood National and State Parks. In total, the parks of the North Coast contain the vast majority of all remaining old-growth redwoods. Interstate 580 U. S. Route 101 - Primary north–south route from San Francisco to Crescent City U. S. Route 199 - from U. S
Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Oregon is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean, on the north by Washington, on the south by California, on the east by Idaho, the Columbia River delineates much of Oregons northern boundary, and the Snake River delineates much of the eastern boundary. The parallel 42° north delineates the boundary with California and Nevada. Oregon was inhabited by indigenous tribes before Western traders, explorers. An autonomous government was formed in the Oregon Country in 1843 before the Oregon Territory was created in 1848, Oregon became the 33rd state on February 14,1859. Today, at 98,000 square miles, Oregon is the ninth largest and, with a population of 4 million, the capital of Oregon is Salem, the second most populous of its cities, with 164,549 residents. Portland is Oregons most populous city, with 632,309 residents, Portlands metro population of 2,389,228 ranks the 23rd largest metro in the nation. The Willamette Valley in western Oregon is the states most densely populated area, the tall conifers, mainly Douglas fir, along Oregons rainy west coast contrast with the lighter-timbered and fire-prone pine and juniper forests covering portions to the east.
Abundant alders in the west fix nitrogen for the conifers, stretching east from central Oregon are semi-arid shrublands, deserts and meadows. At 11,249 feet, Mount Hood is the states highest point, Oregons only national park, Crater Lake National Park, comprises the caldera surrounding Crater Lake, the deepest lake in the United States. The state is home to the single largest organism in the world, Armillaria ostoyae. Because of its landscapes and waterways, Oregons economy is largely powered by various forms of agriculture, fishing. It is the top timber-producer of the lower 48 states, Technology is another one of the states major economic forces, which began in the 1970s with the establishment of the Silicon Forest and the expansion of Tektronix and Intel. Sportswear company Nike, Inc. headquartered in Beaverton, is the states largest public corporation with a revenue of $30.6 billion. The earliest evidence of the name Oregon has Spanish origins and this chronicle is the first topographical and linguistic source with respect to the place name Oregon.
There are two other sources with Spanish origins such as the name Oregano which grows in the part of the region. Another early use of the name, spelled Ouragon, was in a 1765 petition by Major Robert Rogers to the Kingdom of Great Britain, the term referred to the then-mythical River of the West. By 1778 the spelling had shifted to Oregon, in his 1765 petition, Rogers wrote, The rout. is from the Great Lakes towards the Head of the Mississippi, and from thence to the River called by the Indians Ouragon
Daly City, California
Daly City is the largest city in San Mateo County, United States, with an estimated 2014 population of 106,094. Located immediately south of San Francisco, it is named in honor of businessman, archaeological evidence suggests the San Francisco Bay Area has been inhabited as early as 2700 BC. People of the Ohlone language group occupied Northern California from at least the 6th century, seven years later, in 1776, an expedition led by Juan Bautista de Anza selected the site for the Presidio of San Francisco, which José Joaquín Moraga would soon establish. Later the same year, the Franciscan missionary Francisco Palóu founded the Mission San Francisco de Asís, as part of the founding, the priests claimed the land south of the mission for sixteen miles for raising crops and for fodder for cattle and sheep. In 1778, the priests and soldiers marked out a trail to connect San Francisco to the rest of California, at the top of Mission Hill, the priests named the gap between San Bruno Mountain and the hills on the coast La Portezuela.
La Portezuela was referred to as Dalys Hill, the Center of Daly City, during Spanish rule, the area between San Bruno Mountain and the Pacific remained uninhabited. Upon independence from Spain, prominent Mexican citizens were granted land parcels to establish large ranches, Rancho Buri Buri was granted to Jose Sanchez in 1835 and covered 14,639 acres including parts of modern-day Colma, San Bruno, South San Francisco, and Millbrae. Rancho Laguna de la Merced was 2,219 acres acres, following the Mexican Cession of California at the end of the Mexican–American War the owners of Rancho Laguna de La Merced tried to claim land between San Bruno Mountain and Lake Merced. An 1853 US government survey declared that the area was in fact government property. There was a land rush as settlers, mainly Irish established ranches in farms in parts of what is now the neighborhoods of Westlake, Serramonte. A decade later, several families left as increase in the fog density killed grain, the few remaining families switched to dairy and cattle farming as a more profitable enterprise.
In the late 19th century as San Francisco grew and San Mateo County was established, Daly City gradually grew including homes, Daly City served as a location where San Franciscans would cross over county lines to gamble and fight. As tensions built in approach to the American Civil War, California was divided between pro-slavery, and Free Soil advocates, two of the main figures in the debate were US Senator David C. Broderick, a Free Soil advocate and David S. Terry who was in favor of extension of slavery into California. Quarreling and political fighting between the two led to a duel in the Lake Merced area at which Terry mortally wounded Broderick. The site of the duel is marked with two shafts were the men stood, and designated is California Historical Landmark number 19. On the morning of April 18,1906 a major earthquake struck just off the coast of Daly City near Mussel Rock. After quake and subsequent fire destroyed many San Franciscans homes, they left to temporary housing on the ranches of the area to the south, including the large one owned by John Daly
San Jose, California
San Jose, officially the City of San José, is the economic and political center of Silicon Valley and the largest city in Northern California. With an estimated 2015 population of 1,026,908, it is the third most populous city in California and the tenth most populous in United States. Located in the center of the Santa Clara Valley, on the shore of San Francisco Bay. San Jose is the county seat of Santa Clara County, the most affluent county in California. San Jose is the largest city in both the San Francisco Bay Area and the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland Combined Statistical Area, which contain 7.7 million and 8.7 million people respectively. Before the arrival of the Spanish, the area around San Jose was inhabited by the Ohlone people, San Jose was founded on November 29,1777, as the Pueblo of San José de Guadalupe, the first civilian town founded in Spanish Alta California. When California gained statehood in 1850, San Jose became the states first capital, following World War II, San Jose experienced an economic boom, with a rapid population growth and aggressive annexation of nearby cities and communities carried out in the 1950s and 60s.
The rapid growth of the high-technology and electronics industries further accelerated the transition from a center to an urbanized metropolitan area. Results of the 1990 U. S. Census indicated that San Jose had officially surpassed San Francisco as the most populous city in Northern California, by the 1990s, San Jose and the rest of Silicon Valley had become the global center for the high tech and internet industries. San Jose is considered to be a city, notable for its affluence. San Joses location within the high tech industry, as a cultural, political. San Jose is one of the wealthiest major cities in the United States and the world, and has the third highest GDP per capita in the world, according to the Brookings Institute. Major global tech companies including Cisco Systems, eBay, Adobe Systems, PayPal, Samsung, Prior to European settlement, the area was inhabited by several groups of Ohlone Native Americans. The first lasting European presence began with a series of Franciscan missions established from 1769 by Junípero Serra, San Jose came under Mexican rule in 1821 after Mexico broke with the Spanish crown.
It became part of the United States, after it capitulated in 1846, on March 27,1850, San Jose became the second incorporated city in the state, with Josiah Belden its first mayor. San Jose was Californias first state capital, and hosted the first, today the Circle of Palms Plaza in downtown is the historical marker for the first state capital. The city was a station on the Butterfield Overland Mail route, in the period 1900 through 1910, San Jose served as a center for pioneering invention and impact in both lighter-than-air and heavier-than-air flight. These activities were led principally by John Montgomery and his peers, the City of San Jose has established Montgomery Park, a Monument at San Felipe and Yerba Buena Roads, and John J. Montgomery Elementary School in his honor
Englewood, New Jersey
Englewood is a city located in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States. Englewood was incorporated as a city by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on March 17,1899, from portions of Ridgefield Township, with the creation of the City of Englewood, Englewood Township was dissolved. An earlier referendum on March 10,1896, was declared unconstitutional, Englewood Township, the citys predecessor, is believed to have been named in 1859 for the Engle family. Other sources indicate that the name is derived from wood ingle, meaning woody nook, numerous other settlements in the United States were named for Englewood as settlement in North America expanded westward. J. Wyman Jones is credited with convincing residents to choose Englewood for the name when it was incorporated over such alternatives as Brayton. Englewood, like the rest of New Jersey, was populated by Lenape Native Americans prior to European colonization, the Lenape who lived in the Englewood region were of the turtle clan which used a stylized turtle as its symbol, but little else is known of those inhabitants.
In 1664, after the Dutch surrendered all of New Netherland to England, the English were generous with land grants, and many families, not only English but Dutch and Huguenot, settled the area, which during the colonial era was known as the English Neighborhood. From 1906 until March 16,1907, when it burned down, Englewood was the site of Upton Sinclairs socialist-inflected intentional community, associated with the project were Charlotte Perkins Gilman and Sinclair Lewis. The United States telephone industry introduced direct distance dialing to the public in Englewood, on November 10,1951, Englewood Mayor M. Leslie Denning made the first customer-dialed long distance call, to Mayor Frank Osborne of Alameda, California. Two years after his graduation from Fordham University, Vince Lombardi began his coaching career at Englewoods St. Cecilia High School. Unincorporated communities and place names located partially or completely within the city include Highwood, the city borders Bergenfield, Englewood Cliffs, Fort Lee, Leonia and Tenafly.
As of the census of 2010, there were 27,147 people,10,057 households, the population density was 5,524.6 per square mile. There were 10,695 housing units at a density of 2,176.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 45. 28% White,32. 58% Black or African American,0. 54% Native American,8. 10% Asian,0. 04% Pacific Islander,9. 73% from other races, and 3. 72% from two or more races. [[Hispanic |Hispanic or Latino of any race were 27. 48% of the population,27. 3% of all households were made up of individuals, and 9. 6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the family size was 3.24. In the city, the population was out with 22. 2% under the age of 18,7. 7% from 18 to 24,28. 9% from 25 to 44,27. 0% from 45 to 64. The median age was 38.9 years, for every 100 females there were 90.0 males
The Golden Gate is a strait on the west coast of North America that connects San Francisco Bay to the Pacific Ocean. It is defined by the headlands of the San Francisco Peninsula and the Marin Peninsula, the strait is well known today for its depth and powerful tidal currents from the Pacific Ocean. Many small whirlpools and eddies can form in its waters, with its strong currents, rocky reefs and fog, the Golden Gate is the site of over 100 shipwrecks. The Golden Gate is often shrouded in fog, especially during the summer, heat generated in the California Central Valley causes air there to rise, creating a low pressure area that pulls in cool, moist air from over the Pacific Ocean. The Golden Gate forms the largest break in the hills of the California Coast Range, allowing a persistent, dense stream of fog to enter the bay there. Before the Europeans arrived in the 18th century, the area around the strait, descendants of both tribes remain in the area. The strait was surprisingly elusive for early European explorers, presumably due to this persistent summer fog.
The strait is not recorded in the voyages of Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo nor Francis Drake, the strait is unrecorded in observations by Spanish galleons returning from the Philippines that laid up in nearby Drakes Bay to the north. These galleons rarely passed east of the Farallon Islands, fearing the possibility of rocks between the islands and the mainland, the first recorded observation of the strait occurred nearly two hundred years than the earliest European explorations of the coast. Until the 1840s, the strait was called the Boca del Puerto de San Francisco, on 1 July 1846, before the discovery of gold in California, the entrance acquired a new name. Frémont wrote, To this Gate I gave the name of Chrysopylae, or Golden Gate, for the reasons that the harbor of Byzantium was called Chrysoceras. In the 1920s, no bridge spanned the watery expanse between San Francisco and Marin in California—so when the U. S, post Office issued a postage stamp on 1 May 1923, celebrating The Golden Gate, the issue naturally portrayed the scene without a bridge.
The Golden Gate Bridge is a bridge spanning the Golden Gate. As part of both US Highway 101 and California Route 1, it connects the city of San Francisco on the tip of the San Francisco Peninsula to Marin County. The Golden Gate Bridge was the longest suspension span in the world when completed in 1937. Since its completion, the length has been surpassed by eight other bridges. It still has the second longest suspension bridge span in the United States. In 2007, it was ranked fifth on the List of Americas Favorite Architecture by the American Institute of Architects, Golden Gate Park, located in San Francisco, California, is a large urban park consisting of 1,017 acres of public grounds
Oakland /ˈoʊklənd/ is the largest city and the county seat of Alameda County, United States. The city was incorporated in 1852, Oaklands territory covers what was once a mosaic of California coastal terrace prairie, oak woodland, and north coastal scrub. Its land served as a resource when its hillside oak and redwood timber were logged to build San Francisco. In the late 1860s, Oakland was selected as the terminal of the Transcontinental Railroad. Following the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, many San Francisco citizens moved to Oakland, enlarging the citys population, increasing its housing stock and it continued to grow in the 20th century with its busy port, and a thriving automobile manufacturing industry. Oakland is known for its sustainability practices, including a top-ranking for usage of electricity from renewable resources, in addition, due to a steady influx of immigrants during the 20th century, along with thousands of African-American war-industry workers who relocated from the Deep South during the 1940s.
Oakland is the most ethnically diverse city in the country. The earliest known inhabitants were the Huchiun Indians, who lived there for thousands of years, the Huchiun belonged to a linguistic grouping called the Ohlone. In Oakland, they were concentrated around Lake Merritt and Temescal Creek, in 1772, the area that became Oakland was claimed, with the rest of California, by Spanish settlers for the King of Spain. In the early 19th century, the Spanish crown granted the East Bay area to Luis María Peralta for his Rancho San Antonio, the grant was confirmed by the successor Mexican republic upon its independence from Spain. Upon his death in 1842, Peralta divided his land among his four sons, Most of Oakland fell within the shares given to Antonio Maria and Vicente. The portion of the parcel that is now Oakland was called encinal—Spanish for oak grove—due to the oak forest that covered the area. In 1851, three men—Horace Carpentier, Edson Adams, and Andrew Moon—began developing what is now downtown Oakland, on May 4,1852, the Town of Oakland incorporated.
Two years later, on March 25,1854, Oakland re-incorporated as the City of Oakland, with Horace Carpentier elected the first mayor, the city and its environs quickly grew with the railroads, becoming a major rail terminal in the late 1860s and 1870s. In 1868, the Central Pacific constructed the Oakland Long Wharf at Oakland Point, a number of horsecar and cable car lines were constructed in Oakland during the latter half of the 19th century. The first electric streetcar set out from Oakland to Berkeley in 1891, at the time of incorporation, Oakland consisted of the territory that lay south of todays major intersection of San Pablo Avenue and Fourteenth Street. The city gradually annexed farmlands and settlements to the east and the north, Oaklands rise to industrial prominence, and its subsequent need for a seaport, led to the digging of a shipping and tidal channel in 1902. This resulted in the town of Alameda being made an island
Santa Clara Valley
The Santa Clara Valley runs south-southeast from the southern end of San Francisco Bay in Northern California in the United States. The northern, urbanized end of the valley is part of a locally known as the South Bay and part of the electronics, research. Most of the Santa Clara Valley is in Santa Clara County, including its county seat, the valley, named after the Spanish Mission Santa Clara, was for a time known as the Valley of Hearts Delight for its high concentration of orchards, flowering trees, and plants. Until the 1960s it was the largest fruit production and packing region in the world with 39 canneries, once primarily agricultural because of its highly fertile soil, Santa Clara Valley is now largely urbanized, although its far southern reaches south of Gilroy remain agrarian. The most northern areas are considered part of Silicon Valley. As Silicon Valley is not a valley, parts of the San Francisco Peninsula farther north are included in the Silicon Valley region as well. Locally, the areas of Santa Clara Valley are referred to as part of the South Bay.
Few traces of its agricultural past can still be found, and it was one of the first commercial wine-producing regions in California, utilizing high-quality French varietal vines imported from France. The northern end of the Santa Clara Valley is at the tip of the San Francisco Bay. The valley is bounded by the Santa Cruz Mountains on the southwest, which separate Santa Clara Valley from the Pacific Ocean, the valley is approximately 30 miles long by 15 miles wide. Its largest city, by an 86. 7% margin, is San Jose, the population of the valley is 1.81 million people along with approximately 865,700 wage and salary jobs. Santa Clara Valley has a Mediterranean semi-arid climate, Mission Santa Clara de Asís with control over a vast tract of land stretching from Palo Alto to Gilroy was founded by Franciscans in 1777. San Jose was founded in 1777 by Spain as an agricultural pueblo and it is the oldest town in California. In Spanish and Mexican times the land was devoted to cattle, following the Mexican–American War San Jose was briefly the Capital of California.
In 1860, as an American town, the population of San Jose was 4,579, for a time wheat became the main crop, but in the 1870s fruit gradually became the main crop and processing of fruit by drying or canning the predominant industry. The railroad reached San Jose in 1860, the valley with its scenic beauty, mild climate, and thousands of acres of blooming fruit trees was known as The Valley of Hearts Delight. Prunes were the crop and were shipped internationally. Water was supplied from an artesian aquifer, when the water table dropped wells were pumped