East Jerusalem or Eastern Jerusalem is the sector of Jerusalem, occupied by Jordan during the Arab–Israeli War, as opposed to the western sector of the city, West Jerusalem, occupied by Israel. Since the 1967 Arab-Israeli War, East Jerusalem has been, along with the rest of the West Bank, occupied by Israel; this area includes Jerusalem's Old City and some of the holiest sites of Judaism and Islam, such as the Temple Mount, Western Wall, Al-Aqsa Mosque, Dome of the Rock and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, as well as a number of adjacent neighbourhoods. Israeli and Palestinian definitions of it differ; the Palestinian official position is based on the 1949 Armistice Agreements, while the Israeli position is based on the current municipality boundaries of Jerusalem. These were determined by a series of administrative enlargements decided by Israeli municipal authorities since the June 1967 Six-Day War. Despite its name, East Jerusalem includes neighborhoods to the north and south of the Old City and, in the wider definition of the term on all these sides of West Jerusalem.
The international community considers Israeli settlements in the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, to be illegal under international law. Israel disputes this interpretation. During the 1948 Arab -- Israeli War, Jerusalem was contested between Israel. At the cessation of hostilities, the two countries secretly negotiated a division of the city, with the eastern sector coming under Jordanian rule; this arrangement was formalized in the Rhodes Agreement in March 1949. David Ben-Gurion presented his party's assertion that "Jewish Jerusalem is an organic, inseparable part of the State of Israel" in December 1949, the following year, Jordan annexed East Jerusalem; these decisions were confirmed in the Knesset in January 1950 and the Jordanian Parliament in April 1950. When occupied by Israel after the 1967 Six-Day War, East Jerusalem, with expanded borders, came under direct Israeli rule, according to Ian Lustick, never formally annexed. In a unanimous General Assembly resolution, the UN declared the measures trying to change the status of the city to be invalid.
In the Palestine Liberation Organization's Palestinian Declaration of Independence of 1988, Jerusalem is stated to be the capital of the State of Palestine. In 2000, the Palestinian Authority passed a law proclaiming Jerusalem as its capital, in October 2002, this law was approved by chairman Yasser Arafat. Since that time Israel has shut down all offices and NGO organisations connected to the PLO in East Jerusalem, saying that the Oslo Accords do not permit the Palestinian National Authority to operate in Jerusalem; the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation recognised East Jerusalem as capital of the State of Palestine on 13 December 2017. East Jerusalem is a term. Arabs use the term Arab Jerusalem for this area in official English-language documents, emphasizing the predominance of the Arabic-speaking Palestinian population and distinguishing it from the Hebrew-speaking parts of Jerusalem. Israelis call the Arab-populated part of the city East Jerusalem because of its geographic location in the eastern part of the single larger Jerusalem city unit.
The term East Jerusalem is ambiguous and may be used to refer to either of the following: From 1948 to 1967 it referred to the 6.4 km2 Jordanian-ruled part of the city the predominantly Arab business district, the Old City and surrounding neighborhoods. It may be applied to the area that Israel annexed and included in municipal Jerusalem following its occupation by Israel from Jordan in 1967, which lies north and south of the former East Jerusalem; this area includes an additional approximate 64 km2 of the West Bank, including territory which included 28 villages and areas of the Bethlehem and Beit Jala municipalities under Jordanian rule. The area of East Jerusalem has been inhabited since 5,000 BCE, with settlement beginning in the Chalcolithic period. Tombs are attested by the Early Bronze Age, around 3,200 BCE. In the late second millennium BCE Settlement concentrated around the City of David, chosen because of its proximity to the Gihon Spring. Massive Canaanite constructions were undertaken, with a water channel excavated through rock drawing water to a pool inside the citadel, whose wall was a massive 23 feet thick, built from rocks some weighing up to 3 tons.
In 1934, the British Mandatory authorities divided Jerusalem into 12 wards for electoral purposes. The mapping was criticized by those who believed it was drawn to ensure a Palestinian majority on the Jerusalem city council; the actual mapping suggests otherwise, according to Michael Dumper, who states that the peculiar "hook" on the western electoral borders was a gerrymander made to include as many new Jewish neighbourhoods on that side as possible, while keeping outside of the boundaries Arab villages. To the east, the city's border ended at the Old City walls, in order to exclude the contiguous Arab neighbourhood of Silwan, Ras al-Amud and At-Tur and Abu Tor; these boundaries defined the municipality down to 1948. By 1947 Palestinian Arabs constituted a majority overall in the Jerusalem district, but Jews predominated within the British municipal boundaries, 99,000 to 65,100 Arabs; the Jewish presence in eastern Jerusalem was concentrated to the Old Quarter, with a scattering present in Silwan and Sheikh Jarrah.
Of the 30 holy places in Jerusalem, only 3 were located in Western Jerusalem, with the overwhelming bulk lying within the eastern sector. During the subsequent 1948 Arab–Israeli War, a large number of Je
The District Officer, was a commissioned officer of one of the colonial governments of the British Empire, from the mid-1930s a member of the Colonial Service of the United Kingdom, responsible for a District of one of the overseas territories of the Empire. The district officer was an administrator and also a magistrate and was the link between the professional and technical services of the colonial government and the people of his district, he was at the heart of colonial administration throughout most of the British Empire, although not in British India, where the same functions were carried out by members of the Indian Civil Service, nor in the self-governing Dominions. District Officers wore uniforms, according to the climate, but their formal tunic with gold braid was reserved for ceremonial occasions; until the 1930s, each overseas possession had its own administrative service, prospective District Officers needed to apply to one or more of them. Once in post, an officer wishing to transfer to another colony or British protectorate had to make a new application to its government.
However, in the 1930s a unified Colonial Service was created, with a number of sub-services, each of its officers was a member of the civil service of a particular territory and of one of the sub-services of the Colonial Service managed by the Colonial Office, based in Whitehall. Before being appointed, a candidate was first a District Officer Cadet, undergoing a rigorous training, was promoted to Assistant District Officer after two years of successful probation and after passing examinations. On being appointed as a District Officer, he took on the administration of a District in the territory of the Empire where he was; because of the number of districts, many District Officers remained in the same role until leaving the Colonial Service. If they were promoted, they became first District Commissioners Provincial Commissioners; some rose to the pinnacle of being colonial Governors, although men were appointed as Governors whose previous careers had been in other services. In particular, the Governors of Hong Kong, Gibraltar and Bermuda were invariably senior British Army or Royal Navy officers.
Sir Colin Allan, a New Zealander, a District Officer in the Solomon Islands and Governor of the Seychelles Reginald Applin, a District Officer of the North Borneo Chartered Company a Conservative member of parliament William R. Bell, Australian-born District Officer of Malaita in the British Solomon Islands Ian Blelloch, a District Officer in Malaya Sir Jack Boles, a District Officer and District Commissioner in North Borneo Director-General of the National Trust Anastasios Christodoulou, a District Officer in Tanganyika Secretary General of the Association of Commonwealth Universities Oscar Cook, a District Officer in North Borneo a writer Sir Douglas Hall, 14th Baronet, a District Officer in Africa Governor of British Somaliland Edwin Richard Hallifax, a District Officer in Hong Kong acting Colonial Secretary Mark Herdman, a District Officer in Kenya Governor of the British Virgin Islands Tom Iremonger, a District Officer in the Western Pacific a Conservative member of parliament Gwilliam Iwan Jones, a District Officer in Bende, Nigeria Sir Donald Luddington, a District Officer in Hong Kong High Commissioner for the Western Pacific and Governor of the Solomon Islands Sir Foley Newns, a District Officer in Nigeria Cabinet Secretary Sir James Pollock, a District Officer in Ramallah District Commissioner for Jerusalem and Northern Ireland Senator Victor Purcell, a District Officer on Christmas Island an academic Tunku Abdul Rahman, a District Officer of Kedah Prime Minister of Malaya and of Malaysia Jerome Udoji, a District Officer in Nigeria, becoming the first African to be appointed in the Colonial Service Nigerian Minister of Finance Harry Graham Willis, a District Officer Provincial Commissioner, in Rhodesia Keith Wookey, a District Officer and Resident in North Borneo Sanders of the River The Scarlet Spear Pacific Destiny John Morley, Colonial Postscript: The Diary of a District Officer 1935–56 Edgar Wallace, Sanders of the River K. G. Bradley, The Diary of a District Officer Arthur Grimble, A Pattern of Islands Colonial records - National Archives Anthony Kirk-Greene, The District Officer in the African Colonial Novel at britishempire.co.uk
Ramallah is a Palestinian city in the central West Bank located 10 km north of Jerusalem at an average elevation of 880 meters above sea level, adjacent to al-Bireh. It serves as the de facto administrative capital of the Palestinian National Authority. Ramallah was an Arab Christian town. Muslims form the majority of the population of nearly 27,092 in 2007, with Christians making up a significant minority. "Ramallah" is composed of "Ram", meaning the Arabic word for God. Ancient rock-cut tombs have been found near Ramallah. Potsherds from the Crusader/Ayyubid and early Ottoman period have been found there. Ramallah has been identified with the Crusader place called Ramalie. Remains of a building with an arched doorway from the Crusader era, called al-Burj, have been identified, but the original use of the building is undetermined. Ramallah was incorporated into the Ottoman Empire in 1517 with all of Palestine. In 1596 it was listed in the tax registers as being in the nahiya of part of the Liwa of Quds.
It had a population of 9 Muslim households. It paid a fixed tax rate of 25% on wheat, olives, vines or fruit trees, goats or beehives. All of the revenue went to a waqf. Modern Ramallah was founded in the mid-1500s by the Haddadins, a clan of brothers descended from Ghassanid Christians; the Haddadins, their leader Rashid El-Haddadin, arrived from east of the Jordan River from the areas of Karak and Shoubak. The Haddadin migration is attributed to unrest among clans in that area. Rashid and his brothers were blacksmiths; the Haddadin name comes from the old word Haddad. Haddadin was attracted to the mountainous site of Ramallah because it was similar to the other mountainous areas he came from. In addition, the forested area could supply him with plenty of fuel for his forges. In 1838 American biblical scholar Edward Robinson visited the area, noting that the inhabitants were Christian "of the Greek rite". There were 200 taxable men; the village "belonged" to the Haram al-Sharif, Jerusalem, to which it paid an annual tax of 350 Mids of grain.
In 1883, the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine described Ramallah as A large Christian village, of well-built stone houses, standing on a high ridge, with a view on the west extending to the sea. It stands amongst gardens and olive-yards, has three springs to the south and one on the west. On the east there is a well. There are rock-cut tombs to the north-east with well-cut entrances, but blocked with rubbish. In the village is a Greek church, on the east a Latin convent and a Protestant schoolhouse, all modern buildings; the village lands are ecclesiastical property, belonging to the Haram of Jerusalem. About a quarter of the inhabitants are the rest Orthodox Greeks. In the 21st century, a large community of people with direct descent from the Haddadins who founded Ramallah live in the United States; the town still contains a Christian minority. The change in demographics is due to new migration of Muslims to the area, emigration of Christians from the area. Ramallah grew throughout the 17th and 18th centuries as an agricultural village.
In 1700, Yacoub Elias was the first Ramallah native to be ordained by the Eastern Greek Melkite Orthodox Church of Jerusalem, the Christian denomination that prevailed in the Holy Land at the time. In the early 19th century, the first Greek Melkite Jerusalemite Orthodox Christian church was built. In the 1850s, "The Church of Transfiguration", was built to replace it. During that same decade, the Latin Church established its presence in Ramallah, constituting the second largest Christian denomination in the city; the Roman Catholic Church established the St. Joseph's Girls' School run by St. Joseph sisters, as well as the co-educational Al-Ahliyyah College high school runs by Rosary sisters. With the influx of Muslim and Christian refugees and internal migration, new mosques and churches were built. In the 19th century, the Religious Society of Friends established a presence in Ramallah and built the Ramallah Friends Schools, one for girls and a boys' school, to alleviate the dearth of education for women and girls.
Eli and Sybil Jones opened "The Girls Training Home of Ramallah" in 1869. A medical clinic was established in 1883, with Dr. George Hassenauer serving as the first doctor in Ramallah. In 1889, the girls academy became the Friends Girls School; as the FGS was a boarding school, it attracted a number of girls from surrounding communities, including Jerusalem, Lydda and Beirut. The Friends Boys School was founded in 1901 and opened in 1918; the Quakers opened a Friends Meeting House for worship in the city center in 1910. According to the school's official website, most high school students choose to take the International Baccalaureate exams instead of the traditional "Tawjihi" university exams; the activity of foreign churches in Palestine in the late 19th century increased awareness of prosperity in the West. In Ramallah and Bethlehem, a few miles south, local residents began to seek economic opportunity overseas. In 1901, merchants from Ramallah emigrated to the United States and established import-export businesses, selling handm
Jerusalem is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea. It is one of the oldest cities in the world, is considered holy to the three major Abrahamic religions—Judaism and Islam. Both Israel and the Palestinian Authority claim Jerusalem as their capital, as Israel maintains its primary governmental institutions there and the State of Palestine foresees it as its seat of power. During its long history, Jerusalem has been destroyed at least twice, besieged 23 times and recaptured 44 times, attacked 52 times; the part of Jerusalem called the City of David shows first signs of settlement in the 4th millennium BCE, in the shape of encampments of nomadic shepherds. Jerusalem was named as "Urusalim" on ancient Egyptian tablets meaning "City of Shalem" after a Canaanite deity, during the Canaanite period. During the Israelite period, significant construction activity in Jerusalem began in the 9th century BCE, in the 8th century the city developed into the religious and administrative center of the Kingdom of Judah.
In 1538, the city walls were rebuilt for a last time around Jerusalem under Suleiman the Magnificent. Today those walls define the Old City, traditionally divided into four quarters—known since the early 19th century as the Armenian, Christian and Muslim Quarters; the Old City became a World Heritage Site in 1981, is on the List of World Heritage in Danger. Since 1860 Jerusalem has grown far beyond the Old City's boundaries. In 2015, Jerusalem had a population of some 850,000 residents, comprising 200,000 secular Jewish Israelis, 350,000 Haredi Jews and 300,000 Palestinians. In 2011, the population numbered 801,000, of which Jews comprised 497,000, Muslims 281,000, Christians 14,000 and 9,000 were not classified by religion. According to the Bible, King David conquered the city from the Jebusites and established it as the capital of the united kingdom of Israel, his son, King Solomon, commissioned the building of the First Temple. Modern scholars argue that Jews branched out of the Canaanite peoples and culture through the development of a distinct monolatrous — and monotheistic — religion centered on El/Yahweh, one of the Ancient Canaanite deities.
These foundational events, straddling the dawn of the 1st millennium BCE, assumed central symbolic importance for the Jewish people. The sobriquet of holy city was attached to Jerusalem in post-exilic times; the holiness of Jerusalem in Christianity, conserved in the Septuagint which Christians adopted as their own authority, was reinforced by the New Testament account of Jesus's crucifixion there. In Sunni Islam, Jerusalem is the third-holiest city, after Medina. In Islamic tradition, in 610 CE it became the first qibla, the focal point for Muslim prayer, Muhammad made his Night Journey there ten years ascending to heaven where he speaks to God, according to the Quran; as a result, despite having an area of only 0.9 square kilometres, the Old City is home to many sites of seminal religious importance, among them the Temple Mount with its Western Wall, Dome of the Rock and al-Aqsa Mosque, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Outside the Old City stands the Garden Tomb. Today, the status of Jerusalem remains one of the core issues in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict.
During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, West Jerusalem was among the areas captured and annexed by Israel while East Jerusalem, including the Old City, was captured and annexed by Jordan. Israel captured East Jerusalem from Jordan during the 1967 Six-Day War and subsequently annexed it into Jerusalem, together with additional surrounding territory. One of Israel's Basic Laws, the 1980 Jerusalem Law, refers to Jerusalem as the country's undivided capital. All branches of the Israeli government are located in Jerusalem, including the Knesset, the residences of the Prime Minister and President, the Supreme Court. While the international community rejected the annexation as illegal and treats East Jerusalem as Palestinian territory occupied by Israel, Israel has a stronger claim to sovereignty over West Jerusalem. A city called Rušalim in the execration texts of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt is but not universally, identified as Jerusalem. Jerusalem is called Urušalim in the Amarna letters of Abdi-Heba.
The name "Jerusalem" is variously etymologized to mean "foundation of the god Shalem". Shalim or Shalem was the name of the god of dusk in the Canaanite religion, whose name is based on the same root S-L-M from which the Hebrew word for "peace" is derived; the name thus offered itself to etymologizations such as "The City of Peace", "Abode of Peace", "dwelling of peace", alternately "Vision of Peace" in some Christian authors. The ending -ayim indicates the dual, thus leading to the suggestion that the name Yerushalayim refers to the fact that the city sat on two hills; the form Yerushalem or Yerushalayim first appears in the Book of Joshua. According to a Midrash, the name is a combination of "Yireh" and "Shalem" the two names were un
Al-Bireh, al-Birah, or el-Bira is a Palestinian city in the central West Bank, 15 kilometers north of Jerusalem. It is situated on the central ridge running through the West Bank and is 860 meters above sea level, covering an area of 22.4 square kilometers. Because of its location Al-Bireh served as an economic crossroad between the north and south, along the caravan route between Jerusalem and Nablus. According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics, the city had a population of 39,202 in the 2007 census. Edward Robinson in the early 19th century thought Al-Bireh was the biblical Be'eroth, but modern scholars believe Be'eroth was located at Kh. el-Burj near Beit Iksa. Claude Reignier Conder and others identified it with Beirothah of the Samaritan chronicles; the Crusaders named the town Birra. It was called Castrum Mahomeria, Magna Mahomeria or Mahomeria Major, it was one of 21 villages given by King Godfrey as a fief to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. In 1114, the gift was re-confirmed by Baldwin I of Jerusalem.
In 1156, 92 people from Mahomeria pledged their allegiance to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, a further 50 names were added in the next three decades. Hence, it has been estimated that the total Frankish population at this time was 500-700; the Crusaders built a castle and hospice there. The latter two buildings were built by the Knights Templar in 1146 and belonged to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre; the Ayyubids under Saladin drove away the Crusaders from Birra when they reconquered interior Palestine after the Battle of Hattin in 1187, demolished the town. Yaqut al-Hamawi mentions seeing the ruins a few times during his travels in the area. Nearing the end of Ayyubid rule, in 1280, the modern town of al-Bireh was an inhabited village; the Ayyubids built a mosque in the town dedicated to Umar ibn al-Khattab adjacent to the church ruins. Potsherds from the Crusader/Ayyubid era have been found. Al-Bireh, like the rest of Palestine, was incorporated into the Ottoman Empire in 1517, in the census of 1596 the village, called Bira al-Kubra, was a part of the nahiya of Al-Quds, under the administration of the liwa of Al-Quds.
It had a population of 45 households, all Muslim, paid taxes on wheat, olive trees, fruit trees, occasional revenues, beehives and/or goats. Half of the revenue went to a waqf. In the spring of 1697, Henry Maundrell noted at Al Bireh, which he called Beer, the remains of a Church, which he wrote was built by Empress Helena. After the 1834 Arab revolt in Palestine, the Ottoman authorities conscripted many men from Al-Bireh as soldiers. In 1838, when Robinson visited, 60 had been taken away to be soldiers, out of a total population of 700; when French explorer Victor Guérin visited the village in 1863, he found it to have 800 inhabitants. Socin, citing an official Ottoman village list compiled around 1870, noted that Al-Bireh had a population of 399 Muslims in 142 houses, 20 "Greeks" in 5 houses, though that population count included men, only, it was further noted that the name meant "The cistern". Hartmann found. In 1883, the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine described Bireh as a good-sized village, with "fairly well built" houses.
In 1896 the population of Bireh was estimated to be about 1,080 persons. Until 1917, the city served as a administrative center for the Ottoman Empire. In the 1922 census of Palestine conducted by the British Mandate authorities, Al-Bireh had a population of 1,479; the population had increased in the 1931 census to 2,292. In the 1945 statistics, the town's residents numbered 2,920. Of this, 5,162 dunams were plantations and irrigable land, 11,226 used for cereals, while 759 dunams were built-up land. In the wake of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War and the 1949 Armistice Agreements, Al-Bireh came under Jordanian rule. In 1961, the population of Bira was 14,510. During the Six-Day War, on June 6, 1967, Israeli troops occupied the city, Al-Bireh has been under Israeli occupation since. In 1994, the civil administration of the city was turned over to the Palestinian National Authority under the Oslo Accords. Al-Bireh is the second largest center of Palestinian administration after Gaza. Besides the governor’s headquarters, it hosts a considerable number of governmental, non-governmental, private organizations, including the Ministries of Transportation, Information, Public Works and Higher Education, as well as the Palestine Broadcasting Corporation and the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics.
Due to its proximity with Ramallah, the cities form a single constituency for elections to the Palestinian National Authority. After the 1995 accords, 39.8% of village land belongs to Area A, 5% to Area B, while the remaining 55.2% is Area C. The 1997 census carried out by the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics counted 27,856 residents half male and half female; the majority of the inhabitants were Palestinian refugees. In the 2007 PCBS census, there were 38,202 people living in the city. Al-Bireh is inhabited by 5 major clans: Hamayel,Qar'an,'Abed, Karakra, At Taweel and Ar Rafidi. Al-Bireh established a city council headed by mayor Eid Musa in 192
Arabic is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia in the east and the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, in the Sinai Peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, derived from Classical Arabic; as the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is taught in schools and universities, is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, the official language of 26 states, the liturgical language of the religion of Islam, since the Quran and Hadith were written in Arabic. Modern Standard Arabic follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic, uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties.
Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era in modern times. Due to its grounding in Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic is removed over a millennium from everyday speech, construed as a multitude of dialects of this language; these dialects and Modern Standard Arabic are described by some scholars as not mutually comprehensible. The former are acquired in families, while the latter is taught in formal education settings. However, there have been studies reporting some degree of comprehension of stories told in the standard variety among preschool-aged children; the relation between Modern Standard Arabic and these dialects is sometimes compared to that of Latin and vernaculars in medieval and early modern Europe. This view though does not take into account the widespread use of Modern Standard Arabic as a medium of audiovisual communication in today's mass media—a function Latin has never performed. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe in science and philosophy.
As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence in vocabulary, is seen in European languages Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid-9th to mid-10th centuries. Many of these words relate to related activities; the Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history; some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Spanish, Kashmiri, Bosnian, Bengali, Malay, Indonesian, Punjabi, Assamese, Sindhi and Hausa, some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times.
Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims, Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by as many as 422 million speakers in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography. Arabic is a Central Semitic language related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, various other Semitic languages of Arabia such as Dadanitic; the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include: The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense; the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense.
The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms. The development of an internal passive. There are several features which Classical Arabic, the modern Arabic varieties, as well as the Safaitic and Hismaic inscriptions share which are unattested in any other Central Semitic language variety, including the Dadanitic and Taymanitic languages of the northern Hejaz; these features are evidence of common descent from Proto-Arabic. The following features can be reconstructed with confidence for Proto-Arabic: negative particles m *mā.
The Rockefeller Museum the Palestine Archaeological Museum, is an archaeology museum located in East Jerusalem that houses a large collection of artifacts unearthed in the excavations conducted in Mandatory Palestine, in the 1920s and 1930s. The museum is under the management of the Israel Museum and houses the head office of the Israel Antiquities Authority. Prior to the establishment of the Rockefeller Museum, the British Mandate Department of Antiquities and British School of Archaeology were housed in an old building in Jerusalem with a small exhibition hall; the only other archaeological museum at the time was the Franciscan Biblical Museum, built in 1902. In 1906, the Jewish National Fund began to negotiate the purchase of Karm el-Sheikh, a tract of land facing the northeastern corner of the Old City walls, to house the Bezalel School of Art and Crafts; the founder of the school, Boris Schatz envisaged a museum and university that would overlook the Temple Mount. In 1919, town planner Patrick Geddes proposed the establishment of an antiquities museum at this site.
To further the project, the Mandate authorities proposed a special tourism tax in 1924. Visiting Palestine in 1925, during the days of the British Mandate, James Henry Breasted and director of the University of Chicago's Oriental Institute, recognized the need for an archaeological museum in Jerusalem to house important regional finds. Encouraged by Lord Plumer, the British High Commissioner, Breasted approached American philanthropist John D. Rockefeller, Jr. who agreed to donate two million dollars toward the project. He had offered to build an archeological museum in Cairo, but he was turned down due to pressure from the British government, anxious to keep America from establishing a foothold in the region; the museum was designed by Austen Harrison, chief architect of the Mandatory Department of Public Works, who drew up blueprints for a white limestone building integrating eastern and western architectural elements. The cornerstone of the new museum was laid on June 19, 1930, but construction was delayed due to the discovery of tombs dating to the fifth century B.
C. at the building site. The museum features a stone bas-relief of the meeting of Asia and Africa above the main entrance together with ten stone reliefs illustrating different cultures and a gargoyle fountain in the inner courtyard carved in 1934 by the British sculptor Eric Gill. Gill produced stone carved signage throughout the museum in English and Arabic; the museum opened to the public on January 13, 1938. It was called the Palestine Archaeological Museum, but was known as the Rockefeller Museum; until the final days of the Mandate period, the museum was administered by the British Palestine Government. On 1 April 1948 it was closed for the public. On 20 April 1948, the High Commissioner appointed a council of international trustees to administer the museum; the council consisted of twelve members: two representing the High Commissioner, one from the British Academy, one from the British Museum, one from the French National Academy, one from the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, two from the Antiquities Departments of the Egyptian, Lebanese, Iraqi or Transjordanian governments.
The board run the museum until 1966. In the 1950s controversies came up about objects removed by the two sides to Amman and the Israeli side respectively. After the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, the museum became a secondary headquarters of the Jordanian Department of Antiquities, headed by Gerald Lankester Harding until 1956. In 1966, the museum was nationalized by King Hussein during the Jordanian annexation of the West Bank. Seven months when the 1967 Six-Day War broke out, the museum was captured by an Israeli paratroop brigade, its hexagonal tower was used as a lookout. Fierce fighting took place here between Israeli and Jordanian forces, culminating in an Israeli victory; the Museum was officially renamed as the Rockefeller Museum. Since 1967, the museum has been jointly managed by the Israel Museum and the Israel Department of Antiquities and Museums. Inside what was to have been the rear courtyard of the museum stood one of the oldest pine trees in the country. According to Arab legend, on the site of this pine tree, Ezra the Scribe sat and wrote the Torah for Israel.
The stump may still be seen behind the museum. The museum's first curator was John H. Iliffe, who arranged the artifacts in chronological order, from two million years ago to 1700 AD. Among the museum's prized possessions are 8th-century wooden panels from the al-Aqsa Mosque and 12th-century marble lintels from the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Most of the collection consists of finds from the 1930s. On display are artifacts unearthed in Jerusalem, Ashkelon, Lachish and Jericho. One of the Lachish letters is on permanent display at the museum, as are the statuary and stucco decorations from the Umayyad Hisham's Palace; some of the Dead Sea Scrolls discovered at Qumran between 1947 and 1956, consisting of Jewish texts and commentaries, were housed in the Rockefeller Museum. In 1967, following the Israeli capture of East Jerusalem, for preservation, scrolls were relocated to the Shrine of the Book, a specially designed building on the grounds of the Israel Museum, with the ownership of these scrolls having been contested since.
The Copper Scroll was taken to the Jordan Archaeological Museum in Amman. Memoirs