Armenian National Academy of Sciences
The National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia is the primary body that conducts research and coordinates activities in the fields of science and social sciences in Armenia. The academy was founded on November 10, 1943 on the basis of the Armenian Branch of the Soviet Academy of Sciences, established 10 years earlier, in 1935. Among its founders were Joseph Orbeli, Stepan Malkhasyants, Ivan Gevorkian and Victor Ambartsumian. Joseph Orbeli Victor Ambartsumian Fadey Sargsyan Radik Martirosyan Division of Mathematical and Technical SciencesInstitute of Mathematics Institute of Mechanics Institute for Informatics and Automation ProblemsDivision of Physics and AstrophysicsByurakan Astrophysical Observatory Institute of Radiophysics & Electronics Institute of Applied Problems of Physics Institute for Physical ResearchDivision of Natural SciencesCenter for Ecological Noosphere Studies Institute of Biochemistry Institute of Botany G. S. Davtyan Institute of Hydroponics Problems Scientific and Production Center Armbiotechnology Institute of Biotechnology Scientific and Production Center “Armbiotechnology” “Institute of Microbiology” Scientific and Production Center “Armbiotechnology” Division of Natural Sciences Microbial Depository Center Institute of Molecular Biology Institute of Physiology Scientific Center of Zoology and Hydroecology Scientific Center of Zoology and Hydroecology- Institute of Zoology Scientific Center of Zoology and Hydroecology- Institute of Hydroecology and IchthyologyDivision of Chemistry and Earth SciencesScientific Technological Center of Organic and Pharmaceutical Chemistry Institute of Fine Organic Chemistry of Scientific - Technological Center of Organic and Pharmaceutical Chemistry Institute of Organic Chemistry of Scientific - Technological Center of Organic and Pharmaceutical Chemistry Molecular Structure Research Center of Scientific - Technological Center of Organic and Pharmaceutical Chemistry Institute of Chemical Physics Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry Institute of Geological Sciences Institute of Geophysics and Engineering Seismology after A. NazarovDivision of Armenology and Social SciencesInstitute of History Institute of Philosophy and Law M. Kotanyan Institute of Economics Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography Institute of Oriental Studies H. Acharian Institute of Language M. Abeghyan Institute of Literature Institute of Art Museum-Institute of Genocide Shirak Armenology Research Center Armenian Encyclopedia Publishing House All Armenian Foundation Financing Armenological Studies Karlen G. Adamyan Official website International Scientific-Educational Center of National Academy of Sciences of Armenia
A wine press is a device used to extract juice from crushed grapes during wine making. There are a number of different styles of presses that are used by wine makers but their overall functionality is the same; each style of press exerts controlled pressure. The pressure must be controlled with grapes, in order to avoid crushing the seeds and releasing a great deal of undesirable tannins into the wine. Wine was being made at least as long ago as 4000 BC. A basket press consists of a large basket filled with the crushed grapes. Pressure is applied through a plate, forced down onto the fruit; the mechanism to lower the plate is either a screw or a hydraulic device. The juice flows through openings in the basket; the basket style press was the first type of mechanized press to be developed, its basic design has not changed in nearly 1000 years. A horizontal screw press works using the same principle as the basket press. Instead of a plate being brought down to put pressure on the grapes, plates from either side of a closed cylinder are brought together to squeeze the grapes.
The volume of grapes handled is greater than that of a basket press. A bladder press consists of a large cylinder, closed at each end. To press the grapes, a large bladder pushes the grapes against the sides; the juice flows out through small openings in the cylinder. The cylinder rotates during the process to help homogenize the pressure, placed on the grapes. A continuous screw press differs from the above presses in that it does not process a single batch of grapes at a time. Instead it uses an Archimedes' screw to continuously force grapes up against the wall of the device. Juice is extracted, the pomace continues through to the end where it is extracted; this style of press is used to produce table wines, some countries forbid its use for higher quality wines. Flash release is a technique used in wine pressing; the technique allows for a better extraction of phenolic compounds. History of the wine press Grape stomping
The harvesting of wine grapes is one of the most crucial steps in the process of wine-making. The time of harvest is determined by the ripeness of the grape as measured by sugar and tannin levels with winemakers basing their decision to pick based on the style of wine they wish to produce; the weather can shape the timetable of harvesting with the threat of heat, rain and frost which can damage the grapes and bring about various vine diseases. In addition to determining the time of the harvest and vineyard owners must determine whether to use hand pickers or mechanical harvesters; the harvest season falls between August & October in the Northern Hemisphere and February & April in the Southern Hemisphere. With various climate conditions, grape varieties, wine styles the harvesting of grapes could happen in every month of the calendar year somewhere in the world. In the New World it is referred to as the crush; the majority of the world's wine producing regions lie between the temperate latitudes of 30° and 50° in both hemispheres with regions lying closer to the equator harvesting earlier due to their warmer climates.
In the Northern Hemisphere, vineyards in Cyprus begin harvesting as early as July. In California some sparkling wine grapes are harvested in late July to early August at a unripe point to help maintain acidity in the wine; the majority of Northern Hemisphere harvesting occurs in late August to early October with some late harvest wine grapes being harvested throughout the autumn. In Germany, the United States and Canada, ice wine grapes can be harvested as late as January. In the Southern Hemisphere harvest can begin as early as January 1 in some of the warmer climate sites in New South Wales, Australia; the majority of Southern Hemisphere harvesting occurs between the months of February and April with some cool climate sites like Central Otago, New Zealand picking late harvest wine grapes in June. Recent climate changes have shifted the harvest season in some countries. Throughout the history of wine, winemakers would use the sugar and acid levels of the grape as a guide in determining ripeness.
Early winemakers tasted the grapes to gauge ripeness. Modern winemakers use a refractometer to measure high sugar levels and °Brix or titration tests to determine the titratable acidity within the grape. In recent times there has been more of an emphasis on the "physiological" ripeness of the grape in the form of tannins and other phenolics. Tasting is the only way to measure tannin ripeness, which can take experience and skill to do accurately. Viticulturalists have not yet explained the complex processes that go into the ripening of tannins but most believe it begins with the polymerization of small astringent tannins into larger molecules which are perceived by the taste buds as being softer; the question of using mechanical harvesting versus traditional hand picking is a source of contention in the wine industry. Mechanical harvesting of grapes has been one of the major changes in many vineyards in the last third of a century. First introduced commercially in the 1960s, it has been adopted in different wine regions for various economic and winemaking reasons.
In Australia, the reduced work force in the wine industry has made the use of mechanized labor a necessity. A mechanical grape harvester works by beating the vine with rubber sticks to get the vine to drop its fruit onto a conveyor belt that brings the fruit to a holding bin; as technology improves mechanical harvesters have become more sophisticated in distinguishing grape clusters from mud and other particles. Despite the improvement many harvesters still have difficulties in distinguishing between ripe, healthy grapes and unripe or rotted bunches which must be sorted out at the winemaking facility. Another disadvantage is the potential of damaging the grape skins which can cause maceration and coloring of the juice, undesirable in the production of white and sparkling wine; the broken skins bring the risk of oxidation and a loss of some of the aromatic qualities in the wine. One of the benefits of mechanical harvesting is the low cost. A harvester is able to run 24 hours a day and pick 80–200 tons of grapes, compared to the 1–2 tons that an experienced human picker could harvest.
In hot climates, where picking or in the cool of night is a priority, mechanical harvesting can accomplish these goals well. Despite the costs, some wineries prefer the use of human workers to hand-pick grapes; the main advantage is the knowledge and discernment of the worker to pick only healthy bunches and the gentler handling of the grapes. The production of some dessert wine like Sauternes and Trockenbeerenauslese require that individual berries are picked from the botrytized bunches which can only be done by hand. In areas of steep terrain, like in the Mosel, it would be impossible to run a mechanical harvester through the vineyard. In many wine regions, migrant workers are a sizable composition of the harvest time work force as well as local student and itinerant workers. Karen Ross, president of the California Association of Winegrowers, has estimated that as of 2007 as many as 70% of the employees in the California wine industry may be immigrants from Mexico
Pressing in winemaking is the process where the juice is extracted from the grapes with the aid of a wine press, by hand, or by the weight of the grape berries and clusters. Intact grape clusters were trodden by feet but in most wineries today the grapes are sent through a crusher/destemmer, which removes the individual grape berries from the stems and breaks the skins, releasing some juice, prior to being pressed. There are exceptions, such as the case of sparkling wine production in regions such as Champagne where grapes are traditionally whole-cluster pressed with stems included to produce a lighter must, low in phenolics. In white wine production, pressing takes place after crushing or/and before primary fermentation. In red wine production, the grapes are crushed but pressing doesn't take place till after or near the end of fermentation with the time of skin contact between the juice and grapes leaching color and other phenolics from the skin. 60-70% of the available juice within the grape berry, the free-run juice, can be released by the crushing process and doesn't require the use of the press.
The remaining 30-40% that comes from pressing can have higher pH levels, lower titratable acidity higher volatile acidity and higher phenolics than the free-run juice depending on the amount of pressure and tearing of the skins and will produce more astringent, bitter wine. Winemakers keep their free-run juice and pressed wine separate during much of the winemaking process to either bottle separately or blend portions of each to make a more complete, balanced wine. In practice the volume of many wines are made from 85-90% of free-run juice and 10-15% pressed juice; the timing of pressing and the methods used will influence other decisions in the winemaking process. In white wine making, pressing happens after harvest and crushing. Here, the biggest decision will be how much pressure to apply and how much pressed juice the winemakers wants in addition to the free-run juice; some grape varieties, such as Sémillon and Aurore have "liquidy" pulps that releases juice without needing much pressure that could risk tearing the skins.
Other varieties, such as Catawba, have much tougher pulps. In red wine production the timing of when to press is one of the most important decisions in the wine making process since that will be the moment that maceration and phenolic extraction ceases; some winemakers use the decreasing sugar level scale and press once the wine has reached complete dryness. Winemakers will use taste to determine if the wine has extracted enough tannins to produce a balanced wine and may press before complete dryness. Though removing the skins by pressing removes some solids that the wine yeast need to complete fermentation and the benefits of pressing early is balanced by the risk of potential stuck fermentation; the quality of the vintage year and the overall ripeness of the harvested grapes may play a role since in cool years when the grapes are harvested under-ripe, the tannins in the grape are very "green" and harsh. In these years winemakers might press early, a process that the Australians call "short vatting".
In warmer years, the tannins may be full ripe or "sweet" and the winemaker may decide to do a period of extended maceration and not press the grapes for as long as a month after fermentation has completed. The pressed juice will require some additional treatment, which can be done separately to the pressed juice alone or to the entire batch of wine if the pressed juice is blended with the free-run; these treatments may include acid adjustments to lower pH, extended settling periods for clarification and additional racking to remove the extra suspended solids and the use of fining agents to remove extra solids or excess tannins. Grape pulp contains a lot of pectins that create colloid coagulation with these solids that will make the wine difficult to stabilize; some winemakers will use pectolytic enzymes during the maceration process to help break down the cell walls to allow the release of more juice freely. These enzymes are used with white wines to assist in clarification; the type of pressing used and the amount of suspended solids plays a particular role in filtering decisions as a high amount of suspended solids can clog and damage expensive filters.
The earliest wine press was the human foot or hand and squeezing grapes into a bag or container where the contents would ferment. The pressure applied by these manual means was limited and these early wines were pale in color and body. Humans discovered that more juice could be extracted and a better wine could be produced if they developed ways of pressing, it begin with the ancient Egyptians who developed a "sack press" made of cloth, squeezed with the aid of a giant tourniquet. The ancient Greeks and Romans developed large wooden wine presses that utilized large beams and windlasses to exert pressure on the pomace; that style of wine press would evolve into the basket press used in the Middle Ages by wine estates of the nobility and Catholic Church. There are many church records that showed feudal land tenants were willing to pay a portion of their crop to use a landlord's wine press if it was available; this was because added volume of wine that pressing could produce versus manual treading was substantial enough to justify the cost.
Machine pressing became more widespread in the 17th and 18th century as
Oak is used in winemaking to vary the color, tannin profile and texture of wine. It can be introduced in the form of a barrel during the fermentation or aging periods, or as free-floating chips or staves added to wine fermented in a vessel like stainless steel. Oak barrels can impart other qualities to wine through evaporation and low level exposure to oxygen. In early wine history, the amphora was the vessel of choice for the storage and transportation of wine. Due to the perishable nature of wood material it is difficult to trace the usage of barrels in history; the Greek historian Herodotus noted that ancient Mesopotamians used barrels made of palm wood to transport wine along the Euphrates. Palm is a difficult material to bend and fashion into barrels and wine merchants in different regions experimented with different wood styles to find a better wood source; the use of oak has been prevalent in winemaking for at least two millennia, first coming into widespread use during the time of the Roman Empire.
In time, winemakers discovered that beyond just storage convenience, wine kept in oak barrels took on properties that improved it by making it softer and, in some cases, better-tasting. The porous nature of an oak barrel allows evaporation and oxygenation to occur in wine but not at levels that would cause oxidation or spoilage; the typical 59-gallon barrel can lose anywhere from 51⁄2 to 61⁄2 gallons in a year through evaporation. This allows the wine to concentrate its aroma compounds. Small amounts of oxygen are allowed to pass through the barrel and act as a softening agent upon the wine's tannins; the chemical properties of oak can have a profound effect on wine. Phenols within the wood interact to produce vanilla type flavors and can give the impression of tea notes or sweetness; the degree of "toast" on the barrel can impart different properties affecting the tannin levels as well as the aggressive wood flavors. The hydrolyzable tannins present in wood, known as ellagitannins, are derived from lignin structures in the wood.
They help protect the wine from reduction. Wines can be barrel fermented in oak or placed in oak after fermentation for a period of aging or maturation. Wine matured in oak receives more oak flavors and properties than wine fermented in oak because yeast cells present in fermentation interact with and "latch on" to oak components; when dead yeast cells are removed as lees some oak properties go with them. Characteristics of white wines fermented in oak include extra silky texture. White wines fermented in steel and matured in oak will have a darker coloring due to heavy phenolic compounds still present. Flavor notes used to describe wines exposed to oak include caramel, smoke and vanilla. Chardonnay is a varietal with distinct flavor profiles when fermented in oak, which include coconut and cloves notes; the "toastiness" of the barrel can bring out varying degrees of toffee notes in red wine. The length of time a wine spends in the barrel is dependent on the varietal and finished style the winemaker desires.
The majority of oak flavoring is imparted in the first few months the wine is in contact with oak, while longer term exposure adds light barrel aeration, which helps precipitate phenolic compounds and quickens the aging process. New World Pinot noir may spend less than a year in oak. Premium Cabernet Sauvignon may spend two years; the tannic Nebbiolo grape may spend four or more years in oak. High end Rioja producers will sometimes age their wines up to ten years in American oak to get a desired earthy cedar and herbal character; the species of oak used for American oak production is the Quercus alba, a white oak species, characterized by its fast growth, wider grains and lower wood tannins. It is found in most of the Eastern United States as well as Missouri and Wisconsin where many wine barrels are from. In Oregon the Quercus garryana white oak has started to gain usage due to its closer similarities to European oak. In France, both the Quercus robur and Quercus petraea are considered apt for wine making, the latter is considered far superior for its finer grain and richer contribution of aromatic components like vanillin and its derivates, methyl-octalactone and tannins, as well as phenols and volatile aldehydes.
French oak comes from one or more primary forests: Allier, Nevers, Tronçais and Vosges. The wood from each of these forests has different characteristics. Many winemakers utilize barrels made from different cooperages and degrees of toasting in blending their wines to enhance the complexity of the resulting wine. Italian winemakers have had a long history of using Slavonian oak from the Quercus robur, known for its tight grain, low aromatics and medium level tannins. Slavonian oak tends to be used in larger barrel sizes with the same barrels reused for many more years before replacement. Prior to the Russian Revolution, Quercus petraea oak from the Baltic/European states from Hungary was the most sought after wood for French winemaking; the trees in the Hungarian Zemplén Mountains grow slower in the volcanic soil and smaller, creating fine tight grain which sequentially lends itself to a delicate extraction. The hemicellulose in the Hungarian oak breaks down more and conveys an exceptional selection of toasted, sugary, woody and caramel-like flavors – imparting these aromas with less intensity, slower than American or French oak.
Many winemakers favor the softer, creamier texture that Hungarian oak offers their wines. French winema
Fermentation in winemaking
The process of fermentation in winemaking turns grape juice into an alcoholic beverage. During fermentation, yeasts transform sugars present in the juice into carbon dioxide. In winemaking, the temperature and speed of fermentation are important considerations as well as the levels of oxygen present in the must at the start of the fermentation; the risk of stuck fermentation and the development of several wine faults can occur during this stage, which can last anywhere from 5 to 14 days for primary fermentation and another 5 to 10 days for a secondary fermentation. Fermentation may be done in stainless steel tanks, common with many white wines like Riesling, in an open wooden vat, inside a wine barrel and inside the wine bottle itself as in the production of many sparkling wines; the natural occurrence of fermentation means it was first observed long ago by humans. The earliest uses of the word "fermentation" in relation to winemaking was in reference to the apparent "boiling" within the must that came from the anaerobic reaction of the yeast to the sugars in the grape juice and the release of carbon dioxide.
The Latin fervere means to boil. In the mid-19th century, Louis Pasteur noted the connection between yeast and the process of the fermentation in which the yeast act as catalyst and mediator through a series of a reaction that convert sugar into alcohol; the discovery of the Embden–Meyerhof–Parnas pathway by Gustav Embden, Otto Fritz Meyerhof and Jakub Karol Parnas in the early 20th century contributed more to the understanding of the complex chemical processes involved in the conversion of sugar to alcohol. In winemaking, there are distinctions made between ambient yeasts which are present in wine cellars, vineyards and on the grapes themselves and cultured yeast which are isolated and inoculated for use in winemaking; the most common genera of wild yeasts found in winemaking include Candida, Klöckera/Hanseniaspora, Metschnikowiaceae and Zygosaccharomyces. Wild yeasts can produce unique-flavored wines. Few yeast, lactic and acetic acid bacterial colonies live on the surface of grapes, but traditional wine makers in Europe, advocate use of ambient yeast as a characteristic of the region's terroir.
The cultured yeasts most used in winemaking belong to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae species. Within this species are several hundred different strains of yeast that can be used during fermentation to affect the heat or vigor of the process and enhance or suppress certain flavor characteristics of the varietal; the use of different strains of yeasts is a major contributor to the diversity of wine among the same grape variety. Alternative, non-Saccharomyces cerevisiae, yeasts are being used more prevalently in the industry to add greater complexity to wine. After a winery has been in operation for a number of years, few yeast strains are involved in the fermentation process; the use of active dry yeasts reduces the variety of strains that appear in spontaneous fermentation by outcompeting those strains that are present. The addition of cultured yeast occurs with the yeast first in a dried or "inactive" state and is reactivated in warm water or diluted grape juice prior to being added to the must.
To thrive and be active in fermentation, the yeast needs access to a continuous supply of carbon, sulfur, phosphorus as well as access to various vitamins and minerals. These components are present in the grape must but their amount may be corrected by adding nutrients to the wine, in order to foster a more encouraging environment for the yeast. Newly formulated time-release nutrients manufactured for wine fermentations, offer the most advantageous conditions for yeast. Oxygen is needed as well, but in wine making, the risk of oxidation and the lack of alcohol production from oxygenated yeast requires the exposure of oxygen to be kept at a minimum. Upon the introduction of active yeasts to the grape must, phosphates are attached to the sugar and the six-carbon sugar molecules begin to be split into three-carbon pieces and go through a series of rearrangement reactions. During this process, the carboxylic carbon atom is released in the form of carbon dioxide with the remaining components becoming acetaldehyde.
The absence of oxygen in this anaerobic process allows the acetaldehyde to be converted, by reduction, to ethanol. During the conversion of acetaldehyde, a small amount is converted, by oxidation, to acetic acid which, in excess, can contribute to the wine fault known as volatile acidity. After the yeast has exhausted its life cycle, they fall to the bottom of the fermentation tank as sediment known as lees. Yeast ceases its activity whenever all of the sugar in must has been converted into other chemicals or whenever the alcohol content has reached 15% alcohol per unit volume; the metabolism of amino acids and breakdown of sugars by yeasts has the effect of creating other biochemical compounds that can contribute to the flavor and aroma of wine. These compounds can be considered "volatile" like aldehydes, ethyl acetate, fatty acids, fusel oils, hydrogen sulfide and mercaptans or "non-volatile" like glycerol, acetic acid and succinic acid. Yeast has the effect during fermentation of releasing glycoside hydrolase which can hydrolyse the
Areni is a village in the Vayots Dzor Province of Armenia. It is best known for its wine production, although the majority of wine produced locally is from the nearby village of Getap; the church of S. Astvatsatsin is a single-nave two-aisled domed Armenian church completed in the year 1321, is located atop a plateau overlooking the Arpa River and Areni, it was designed by the architect and sculptor Momik, best known for his high-relief carvings at the monastery of Noravank. Nearby are the 13th century ruins of lord Tarsaitch Orbelian of Syunik's palace, moved from Yeghegis to Areni during that time. Ruins of a 13th-century bridge built by Bishop Sarkis in 1265-1287 are one kilometer northeast of the church. At the same location are the remains of an older bridge. In 2007, an Armenian-Irish team decided to do test excavations in the cave site of Areni 1. Two test trenches in the front and rear galleries revealed Chalcolithic Age and Early Bronze Age layers dating back to 5000-4000 BCE. Excavations during 2007-2008 uncovered 3 pot burials in the rear chamber of the cave.
Each pot contained a Copper Age human skull with no associated grave goods. All skulls belong to sub-adults of 9–16 years of age; these are being analyzed by the team's biological anthropologist. Remarkably, one skull contained a piece of a well-preserved brain tissue; this is the oldest known human brain from the Old World. The cave has offered surprising new insights into the origins of modern civilizations, such as evidence of a wine-making enterprise and an array of culturally diverse pottery. Excavations yielded an extensive array of Copper Age artifacts dating to between 4,200 and 3,900 BCE; the new discoveries within the cave move early bronze-age cultural activity in Armenia back by about 800 years. Additional discoveries at the site include metal knives, seeds from more than 30 types of fruit, remains of dozens of cereal species, cloth, grass and dried grapes and prunesIn January 2011 archaeologists announced the discovery of the earliest known winery, the Areni-1 winery, seven months after the world's oldest leather shoe, the Areni-1 shoe, was discovered in the same cave.
The winery, over six-thousand years old, contains a wine press, fermentation vats and cups. Archaeologists found grape seeds and vines of the species Vitis vinifera. Patrick McGovern, a biomolecular anthropologist at the University of Pennsylvania, commenting on the importance of the find, said, "The fact that winemaking was so well developed in 4000 BC suggests that the technology goes back much earlier." In August 2014, a fiction alternative history novel entitled Origins: Discovery was released that featured the village of Arpa during the period 1930 until 1952, the Areni-1 Cave. Natural habitats include semi-desert, calcareous grasslands, juniper woodlands alternated with cliffs and rocky outcrops. Vicinity of Areni community have been considered as a Prime Butterfly Area, where wide variety of rare butterflies, including Papilio alexanor, Colias chlorocoma, Colias aurorina, Pseudochazara schahrudensis, Tomares romanovi, Callophrys paulae, number of others can be observed; the area is interesting for bird observations, being inhabited by Egyptian Vulture, White-throated Robin, Eastern Rock Nuthatch, Black-headed Bunting, number of other species.
Areni-1 shoe Areni-1 winery Areni Church Noravank Vayots Dzor Province Areni at GEOnet Names Server Report of the results of the 2001 Armenian Census, National Statistical Service of the Republic of Armenia Kiesling, Rediscovering Armenia: Guide, Armenia: Matit Graphic Design Studio Brady Kiesling, Rediscovering Armenia, p. 119. Butterfly Conservation Armenia: Gnishik PBA. http://www.butterfly-conservation-armenia.org/gnisheek.html Armenian Bird Census Council: Birdwatching. Http://www.abcc-am.org/birdwatching.html Hin Areni Winery