Idron is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in south-western France. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department INSEE
Bénéjacq is a commune of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in southwestern France. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department INSEE
A Lay Abbey was a basic component of the Middle Ages in the western foothills of the northern Pyrenees. The adjective lay, it is possible to identify a hundred lay abbeys, some only by conjecture due to the disappearance of the texts. The founding principle was the creation of a parish by a lord or by a large farmer, sometimes small, in order to tithe, so that he could maintain a church. Although he was not a member of the church, the lord called himself Father, a term appearing in the 11th century; the meaning of "father", came from the Latin abbatus which came from the Hebrew abba. The Father's house was distinctive called the abadia and was to a certain extent the foundation of a parish. Considering that a tithe is one tenth of the income, only thirty farms were sufficient to build a viable lay abbey. Lay abbeys existed in the Béarn, the Bigorre and their margins. To the west, the Soule, to the north Chalosse and the Tursan south to Armagnac, the Astarac, the Adour valley. Overall, the inner basin of the Adour.
There were no lay abbeys beyond.. According to the assumptions made based on the theses of Pierre de Marca these foundations followed the Carolingian Empire, when Islam was approaching the Pyrenees. Faced with the threat of invasion, illustrated by the Viking incursions into the Adour in the 9th century, the church tolerated these foundations that allowed it to establish its presence in areas of recent or uncertain evangelization; this interpretation is discussed by modern archeo-geographers. They see local customs of tithe distribution continuing in this form; some lay abbeys became successful, with powerful lords, others remained modest parishes, or sometimes fell into disuse and were taken over by monastic abbeys, such as the Abbey of Saint-Jean de Sorde for example. In the late Middle Ages, many conflicts occurred with the Church who saw itself deprived of income while no longer weighing the threat of Islam, it was the same in Dauphiné, freed from the Saracens and the Normans in 975 living a period of feudal anarchy detrimental to ecclesiastical lordships until the end of the 12th century and the arrival of reforming bishops.
There may be two or more lay abbeys in one commune. In old Béarn a lay abbey was entitled to an income or religious rights to be held by a lay priest and, transmitted to his descendants; some of these abbeys were allowed to confer nobility on their owner. This was the case, for example, of the lay abbey of Aramits, built in "domengeadure", to say as a noble house by Gaston Phoebus around 1376; the Aramits family, whose spelling varied over time remained owners of the area until the day the son of the famous musketeer immortalized by Alexandre Dumas sold it to a cousin. It is common to confuse "Father of the clergy" and "Father priest" Alexandre Dumas was no exception with his character Aramis in The Three Musketeers. A facsimile of Henry Aramitz, he is a religious priest, or a bishop; the model of his character was a lay priest and Protestant. Marie of Aramitz was the sister of Charles Aramitz, his father and she was the wife of Jean Peyrer, another lay priest. From this union was born Jean-Armand du Peyrer the famous Count of Troisville.
According to Paul Raymond, there were two Aramits lay abbeys: Abadie-Jusan. In the absence of cartularies, burrows or notaries, it is possible to distinguish some secular abbeys by indications, such as a church in the countryside, away from the village and sometimes flanked by a large house called Labadie on maps. There are Castèth or Lassalle. In some cases, there are fortified churches, formed in part with a tower, or a gatehouse, a home; the name Abadie and its derivatives Labadie and Labadiole is the most common surname in the Hautes-Pyrenees, while there is the surname Aphatie found in la Soule
Communes of France
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are analogous to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States and Canada, Gemeinden in Germany, comuni in Italy or ayuntamiento in Spain; the United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where districts are much larger. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered; the communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France. Communes vary in size and area, from large sprawling cities with millions of inhabitants like Paris, to small hamlets with only a handful of inhabitants. Communes are based on pre-existing villages and facilitate local governance. All communes have names, but not all named geographic areas or groups of people residing together are communes, the difference residing in the lack of administrative powers.
Except for the municipal arrondissements of its largest cities, the communes are the lowest level of administrative division in France and are governed by elected officials with extensive autonomous powers to implement national policy. A commune is city, or other municipality. "Commune" in English has a historical bias, implies an association with socialist political movements or philosophies, collectivist lifestyles, or particular history. There is nothing intrinsically different between commune in French; the French word commune appeared in the 12th century, from Medieval Latin communia, for a large gathering of people sharing a common life. As of January 2015, there were 36,681 communes in France, 36,552 of them in metropolitan France and 129 of them overseas; this is a higher total than that of any other European country, because French communes still reflect the division of France into villages or parishes at the time of the French Revolution. The whole territory of the French Republic is divided into communes.
This is unlike some other countries, such as the United States, where unincorporated areas directly governed by a county or a higher authority can be found. There are only a few exceptions: COM of Saint-Martin, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe région. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Martin became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. COM of Wallis and Futuna, which still is divided according to the three traditional chiefdoms. COM of Saint Barthélemy, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe region. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Barthélemy became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. Furthermore, two regions without permanent habitation have no communes: TOM of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands Clipperton Island in the Pacific Ocean In metropolitan France, the average area of a commune in 2004 was 14.88 square kilometres. The median area of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was smaller, at 10.73 square kilometres. The median area is a better measure of the area of a typical French commune.
This median area is smaller than that of most European countries. In Italy, the median area of communes is 22 km2. Switzerland and the Länder of Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringia in Germany were the only places in Europe where the communes had a smaller median area than in France; the communes of France's overseas départements such as Réunion and French Guiana are large by French standards. They group into the same commune several villages or towns with sizeable distances among them. In Réunion, demographic expansion and sprawling urbanization have resulted in the administrative splitting of some communes; the median population of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was 380 inhabitants. Again this is a small number, here France stands apart in Europe, with the lowest communes' median population of all the European countries; this small median population of French communes can be compared with Italy, where the median population of communes in 2001 was 2,343 inhabitants, Belgium, or Spain.
The median population given here should not hide the fact that there are pronounced differences in size between French communes. As mentioned in the introduction, a commune can be a city of 2 million inhabitants such as Paris, a town of 10,000 inhabitants, or just a hamlet of 10 inhabitants. What the median population tells us is that the vast majority of the French communes only have a few hundred inhabitants. In metropolitan France just over 50 percent of the 36,683 communes have fewer than 500 inhabitants a
Michel Grosclaude was a philosopher and French linguist, the author of works on grammar and Occitan onomastics. Born on 8 July 1926 in Nancy at, he was the son of a writer. He studied in Lyon and in Marseille and spent time in Le Chambon-sur-Lignon during the war, which had some significance for his humanistic ideas, he finished his training in Latin and philosophy at the Sorbonne. He was appointed as a professor at Chinon where he married a teacher, they sought the possibility of compatible posts and came across them in Béarn: she at Sauvelade, he in the Orthez high school where he arrived in 1958. Volunteering to take the post of secretary of the town council in Sauvelade, he was confronted for the first time with the Occitan language in its béarnaise and Gascon variants, he understood the importance of this language that he had seen at the Mistral de Marseille high school. He decided to train with the help of Roger Lapassade, a high school colleague, who in 1960 founded the association Per Noste in Orthez as a Gascon section of the Occitan Studies Institute.
Noted for his knowledge of Latin and Greek, he integrated with the association in 1965 and became a specialist and historian of the language. He would be one of the leaders of the defence of Occitan culture until his death, he became professor of Occitan and worked on the publishing of first level textbooks with Robert Darrigrand. At the same time he contributed to the magazine Per Noste País Gascons and a History of Béarn designed for teachers and students, he directed his first elementary French-Occitan dictionary for the La Civada association in Pau. He tackled writing a more complete version of this dictionary, with Gilbert Narioo, it was completed by Patric Guilhemjoan after his death in 2002. Meanwhile, he taught himself the onomastics of Occitan and made some interesting studies of Gascon toponymy and patronymy. For twelve years he hosted his 15-minute daily show, lo Cercanoms, on Ràdio País with Crestian Lamaison, one of his students, his show was open to all topics pertaining to the heritage of proper names.
Along with his job as a professor of philosophy it was little known that he was interested in many subjects, some of which he was passionate about, such as geology and book binding. He wrote, he worked with the Centre for the Study of Béarnais Protestantism and published several papers in their journal. He died on 21 May 2002, was buried at Sauvelade. La Republica Peiralada. Lo procès de l'aulhèr. La termièra sauvatja. Lo Gascon lèu e plan Le Bearn, testimonials on 1000 years of history La Gascogne, testimonials on 2000 years of history Toponymical Dictionary of the Communes of Béarn. L'Evangèli segon sant Matèu. Etymological dictionary of Gascon family names. Directory of Occitan conjugations of Gascony. Toponymical Dictionary of the Communes of Hautes-Pyrenees. Small French-Occitan dictionary, lo Civadet. 70 keys to the learning of Occitan in Gascony. JH Fondeville, The pastorala deu paisan with Gilbert Narioo. Navera pastorala bearnesa with Gilbert Narioo; the sermon of the priest of Bideren. Father Girardeau, Las macarienas.
Maria Blanga, era darrèra deras aurostèras dera vath Aspa History of Béarn with Dominique Bidot-Germa and Jean-Paul Duchon. French-Occitan Dictionary, 45,000 entries, with Gilbert Narioo and Patric Guilhemjoan
Nouvelle-Aquitaine is the largest administrative region in France, located in the southwest of the country. The region was created by the territorial reform of French Regions in 2014 through the merger of three regions: Aquitaine and Poitou-Charentes, it covers 84,061 km2 – or 1⁄8 of the country – and has 5,800,000 inhabitants.. The new region was established on 1 January 2016, following the regional elections in December 2015, it is the largest region in France by area, with a territory larger than that of Austria. Its largest city, together with its suburbs and satellite cities, forms the 7th-largest metropolitan area of France, with 850,000 inhabitants; the region has 25 major urban areas, among which the most important after Bordeaux are Bayonne, Poitiers, La Rochelle, as well as 11 major clusters. The growth of its population marked on the coast, makes this one of the most attractive areas economically in France. After Île-de-France, New Aquitaine is the premier French region in research and innovation, with five universities and several Grandes Ecoles.
The agricultural region of Europe with the greatest turnover, it is the French region with the most tourism jobs, as it has three of the four historic resorts on the French Atlantic coast:, as well as several ski resorts, is the fifth French region for business creation. Its economy is based on agriculture and viticulture, tourism, a powerful aerospace industry, digital economy and design and pharmaceutical industries, financial sector, industrial ceramics. Many companies specializing in surfing and related sports have located along the coast; the new region includes major parts of Southern France, marked by Basque, Oïl cultures. It is the "indirect successor" to medieval Aquitaine, extends over a large part of the former Duchy of Eleanor of Aquitaine; the region's interim name Aquitaine-Limousin-Poitou-Charentes was a hyphenated placename, known as ALPC, created by hyphenating the merged regions' names – Aquitaine and Poitou-Charentes – in alphabetical order. In June 2016, a working group headed by historian Anne-Marie Cocula, a former vice president of Aquitaine, proposed the name "Nouvelle Aquitaine".
The decision came after the popular favorite, "Aquitaine", faced resistance by regional politicians from Limousin and Poitou-Charentes. The other popular favorite, "Grande Aquitaine," was rejected for its connotation with a feeling of superiority. Alain Rousset, president of the region, concurred with the working group's conclusion, reaffirming that he considered the acronym "ALPC" no choice at all. For those deploring the loss of "Limousin" and "Poitou-Charentes", he noted that the predecessor region of Aquitaine subsumed the identities of the Périgord or the Pays Basque, which did not disappear during its 40 years of operation. On 27 June 2016, just a few days ahead of the 1 July deadline, the Regional council unanimously adopted Nouvelle-Aquitaine as the region's permanent name. France's Conseil d'État approved Nouvelle-Aquitaine as the new name of the region on 28 September 2016, effective two days later. For the recent history of each former administrative regions and departments before 2016, For the history of past entities covering much of the area of the region before the French revolution, At 84,061 square kilometers, the region Nouvelle-Aquitaine is larger than French Guiana, which makes it the largest region in France.
Nouvelle-Aquitaine is delimited by four other French regions, three autonomous communities in Spain to the south, the North Atlantic Ocean to the west. Nouvelle-Aquitaine comprises twelve departments: Charente, Charente-Maritime, Corrèze, Dordogne, Landes, Lot-et-Garonne, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Deux-Sèvres and Haute-Vienne, its largest city and only metropolis is Bordeaux, in the heart of an urban agglomeration of nearly one million inhabitants. Taking into consideration the urban area, the new region is home to six of the fifty largest metropolitan areas of French territory: Bordeaux Bayonne Limoges Poitiers Pau La Rochelle. In addition, the region has a network of medium towns scattered throughout its territory, including: Angoulême Agen Brive-la-Gaillarde Niort Périgueux Bergerac Villeneuve-sur-Lot Dax Mont-de-Marsan The region covers a large part of the Aquitaine Basin and a small portion of the Paris Basin and the Limousin plate and the western part of the Pyrenees, it is part of five watersheds facing the Atlantic Ocean: Loire, Charente and Dordogne (and their extension, the
Gave de Pau
The Gave de Pau is a river of south-western France. It takes its name from the city Pau; the river is 183 kilometres long, its source is at the Cirque de Gavarnie in the Pyrenees mountains. The Gave de Pau joins the Gave d'Oloron in Peyrehorade to form the about 10-kilometre long Gaves réunis, a left tributary of the Adour; the Gaves réunis is considered to be part of the Gave de Pau. Its main tributaries are the Néez, the Ouzoum and the Ousse; the Gave de Pau flows through the following départements and towns: Hautes-Pyrénées: Argelès-Gazost, Lourdes. Pyrénées-Atlantiques: Pau, Orthez. Landes: Peyrehorade. Http://www.geoportail.fr The Gave de Pau at the Sandre database