Indre-et-Loire is a department in west-central France named after the Indre River and Loire River. In 2016, it had a population of 606,223. Sometimes referred to as Touraine, the name of the historic region, it nowadays is part of the Centre-Val de Loire region, its prefecture is subprefectures are Chinon and Loches. Indre-et-Loire is a touristic destination for its numerous monuments that are part of the Châteaux of the Loire Valley. Indre-et-Loire is one of the original 83 departments established during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790, it was created from the former province of Touraine. Its prefecture Tours was a centre of learning in the Early Middle Ages, having been a key focus of Christian evangelisation since St Martin became its first bishop around 375. From the mid-15th century, the royal court repaired with Tours as its capital. After the creation of the department it remained politically conservative, as Honoré de Balzac recorded in several of his novels. Conservative Tours refused to welcome the railways which instead were obliged to route their lines by way of Saint-Pierre-des-Corps on the city's eastern edge.
The moderate temper of the department's politics remained apparent after the Franco-Prussian War of 1870: sentiments remained predominantly pro-royalist during the early years of the Third Republic. For most of the nineteenth century, Indre-et-Loire was a rural department, but pockets of heavy-duty industrialisation began to appear towards the century's end, accompanied by left-wing politics. 1920 saw the birth of the French Communist Party at the Congress of Tours. By 1920, Saint-Pierre-des-Corps had become a major railway hub and a centre of railway workshops: it had acquired a reputation as a bastion of working class solidarity. Indre-et-Loire is part of the region of Centre-Val de Loire; the President of the General Council is Marisol Touraine of the Socialist Party. Indre-et-Loire is home to numerous outstanding châteaux that are open to the public, among them are the following: Château d'Amboise Château of Azay-le-Rideau Château de la Bourdaisière Château de Chenonceau Château de Chinon Château de la Guerche Château de Langeais Château de Loches Château de Marçay Château de Montpoupon Château de Plessis-lez-Tours Château du Rivau Château de Tours Château de Villandry Château du Clos Lucé Château d'Ussé Cantons of the Indre-et-Loire department Communes of the Indre-et-Loire department Arrondissements of the Indre-et-Loire department Prefecture website General Council website Indre-et-Loire at Curlie Official tourist website of Touraine Loire Valley
René Louis de Voyer de Paulmy d'Argenson
René-Louis de Voyer de Paulmy, Marquis d'Argenson was a French statesman. D'Argenson, the eldest son of Marc-René de Voyer de Paulmy d'Argenson, was a lawyer, held successively the posts of councillor at the parlement, maître des requêtes, councillor of state, intendant of justice and finance in Hainaut. During his five years’ tenure of the last office he was employed in provisioning the troops, who were suffering from the economic confusion resulting from John Law’s system and the aftermath of the Mississippi Bubble. D'Argenson returned to court in 1724 to exercise his functions as councillor of state. At that time he had the reputation of being a conscientious man, but ill-adapted to intrigue, was nicknamed "la bête", he entered into relations with the philosophers, was won over to the ideas of reform. He was the friend of Voltaire, a fellow-student of his at the Jesuit college Louis-le-Grand, frequented the Club de l'Entresol, the history of which he wrote in his memoirs, it was that he prepared his Considérations sur le gouvernement de la France, published posthumously by his son.
D'Argenson was the friend and counsellor of the minister Germain Louis Chauvelin. In May 1744 he was appointed member of the council of finance, in November of the same year King Louis XV chose him as secretary of state for foreign affairs, his brother, Marc-Pierre, Comte d'Argenson, being at the same time secretary of state for war. France was at that time engaged in the War of the Austrian Succession, the government had been placed by Louis XV in the hands of the two brothers; the marquis d’Argenson endeavoured to reform the system of international relations. He dreamed of a "European Republic", wished to establish arbitration between nations in pursuance of the ideas of his friend the abbé de Saint-Pierre, but he failed to realize any part of his projects. The generals negotiated in opposition to his instructions, he concluded the marriage of the Louis, the Dauphin to Maria, a daughter of King Augustus III of Poland, but was unable to prevent the election of the Francis, Grand-Duke of Tuscany as Holy Roman Emperor in 1745.
On 10 January 1747 Louis XV thanked d'Argenson for his services. He retired into private life, eschewed the court, associated with Voltaire, Condillac and d’Alembert, spent his declining years in working at the Académie des Inscriptions, of which he was appointed president by the king in 1747, revising his Mémoires. Voltaire, in one of his letters, declared him to be "the best citizen that had tasted the ministry", he died on 26 January 1757. D'Argenson left a large number of manuscript works, of which his son, Marc Antoine René, Marquis de Paulmy, published the Considérations sur le gouvernement de France and Essais dans le goût de ceux de Montaigne; the latter, which contains many useful biographical notes and portraits of his contemporaries, was republished in 1787 as Loisirs d’un ministre d’état. D'Argenson’s most important work, however, is his Mémoires, covering in great detail the years 1725 to 1756, with an introductory part giving his recollections since the year 1696, they are, as they were intended to be, valuable "materials for the history of his time".
There are two important editions, the first, with some letters, not elsewhere published, by the marquis d’Argenson, his great-grand-nephew. Rathery, for the Société de l’Histoire de France; the other works of the marquis d’Argenson, in MS. were destroyed in the fire at the Louvre library in 1871. D'Argenson married and had a son: Marc Antoine René de Voyer, known as the marquis de Paulmy, served as Minister of War and was a noted bibliophile; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Argenson s.v. René Louis de Voyer de Paulmy". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 457–460. Endnotes: Sainte-Beuve, Causeries du lundi Levasseur. "Le Marquis d’Argenson£ in the Mémoires de l’Académie des Sciences Morales et Politiques, E. Zevort, Le Marquis d’Argenson et le ministère des affaires étrangères, G. de R. de Flassan, Histoire de la diplomatie française, Voltaire, Siècle de Louis XV E. Boutaric, Correspondance secrète inédite de Louis XV, E. Champion, "Le Marquis d’Argenson", in the Révolution française, A. Alem, D’Argenson économiste Arthur Ogle, The Marquis d’Argenson Journal et mémoires du marquis d'Argenson, in nine volumes, edited by E. J. B.
Rathery. Société de l'histoire de France, 1859–1867. Copies at Gallica
Marc-Pierre de Voyer de Paulmy d'Argenson
Marc-Pierre de Voyer de Paulmy, Comte d'Argenson was a French politician D'Argenson, a younger son of Marc-René de Voyer de Paulmy d'Argenson, was born on 16 August 1696. Following the family tradition he was councillor at the parlement of Paris, he succeeded his father as lieutenant-general of police in Paris, but held the post only five months. He received the office of intendant of Tours, resumed the lieutenancy of police in 1722. On 2 January 1724 d'Argenson was appointed councillor of state, he gained the confidence of the regent Philippe, Duke of Orleans, administering his fortune and living with his son until 1737. During this period he opened his salon to the philosophers Chaulieu, the Marquis of la Fare and Voltaire, collaborated in the legislative labours of the chancellor d'Aguesseau. In March 1737 d'Argenson was appointed director of the censorship of books, in which post he showed sufficiently liberal views to gain the approval of writers—a rare thing in the reign of Louis XV, he only retained this post for a year.
He became president of the grand council, intendant of the généralité of Paris, was admitted to the king's council. In January 1743 d'Argenson was appointed secretary of state for war in succession to Baron de Breteuil; as minister for war he had a heavy task. After consulting with Marshal Saxe, he began the reform of the new armies. To assist recruiting, he revived the old institution of local militias, however, did not come up to his expectation. In the spring of 1744 three armies were able to resume the offensive in the Netherlands and Italy, in the following year France won the Battle of Fontenoy, at which d'Argenson was present; as part of a project to rationalise and standardise the military, he set up a new military engineering school in 1744, the École royale du génie at Charleville-Mézières, which still exists today. After the 1748 Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, other significant reforms included standardising the artillery, grouping Grenadiers into separate regiments, setting up an officer training school, the École Militaire.
An edict of 1 November 1751 granted patents of nobility to all. In addition to his duties as minister of war he had the supervision of the printing, postal administration and general administration of Paris, he was responsible for the arrangement of the promenade of the Champs Élysées and for the plan of the present Place de la Concorde. He was exceedingly popular, although the court favourites hated him, he had the support of the king. After the attempt of Robert-François Damiens to assassinate King Louis XV, Louis abandoned d'Argenson to the machinations of the court favourites and dismissed both him and his colleague, the Comte d'Arnouville. D'Argenson was exiled to his château and estate at Les Ormes near Saumur, but he had found posts for his brother, René Louis, Marquis d'Argenson, as minister of foreign affairs, for his son Marc René as master of the horse, for his nephew Marc Antoine René as commissary of war. From the time of his exile he lived in the society of philosophers, he had been elected member of the Académie des Inscriptions in 1749.
Diderot and d’Alembert dedicated the Encyclopédie to him, Voltaire, Charles-Jean-François Hénault, Jean-François Marmontel visited him in his exile. After the death of Madame de Pompadour he obtained permission to return to Paris, died 22 August 1764, a few days after his return; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Argenson s.v. Marc Pierre de Voyer de Paulmy". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 457–460
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, five are overseas departments, which are classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, these were called general councils; each council has a president. Their main areas of responsibility include the management of a number of social and welfare allowances, of junior high school buildings and technical staff, local roads and school and rural buses, a contribution to municipal infrastructures. Local services of the state administration are traditionally organised at departmental level, where the prefect represents the government; the departments were created in 1790 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity.
All of them were named after physical geographical features, rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The division of France into departments was a project identified with the French revolutionary leader the Abbé Sieyès, although it had been discussed and written about by many politicians and thinkers; the earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of d'Argenson. They have inspired similar divisions in some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a two-digit number, the "Official Geographical Code", allocated by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. Overseas departments have a three-digit number; the number is used, for example, in the postal code, was until used for all vehicle registration plates. While residents use the numbers to refer to their own department or a neighbouring one, more distant departments are referred to by their names, as few people know the numbers of all the departments.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as "the 45". In 2014, President François Hollande proposed to abolish departmental councils by 2020, which would have maintained the departments as administrative divisions, to transfer their powers to other levels of governance; this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René d'Argenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration. Before the French Revolution, France gained territory through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces. During the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved in order to weaken old loyalties; the modern departments, as all-purpose units of the government, were created on 4 March 1790 by the National Constituent Assembly to replace the provinces with what the Assembly deemed a more rational structure.
Their boundaries served two purposes: Boundaries were chosen to break up France's historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences and build a more homogeneous nation. Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a day's ride of the capital of a department; this was a security measure, intended to keep the entire national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of many rural areas far from any centre of government; the old nomenclature was avoided in naming the new departments. Most were named after other physical features. Paris was in the department of Seine. Savoy became the department of Mont-Blanc; the number of departments 83, had been increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleon's defeats in 1814–1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size and the number of departments was reduced to 86.
In 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice and a portion of the Var department; the 89 departments were given numbers based on the alphabetical order of their names. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. A small part of Haut-Rhin became known as the Territoire de Belfort; when France regained the ceded departments after World War I, the Territoire de Belfort was not re-integrated into Haut-Rhin. In 1922, it became France's 90th department; the Lorraine departments were not changed back to their original boundaries, a new Moselle department was created in the regaine
Marc René, Marquis de Voyer de Paulmy d’Argenson
Marc René, Marquis de Voyer de Paulmy d’Argenson, known as the Marquis de Voyer was a French army officer. Marc René, the son of Marc-Pierre de Voyer de Paulmy d'Argenson, the minister of war, was born in Paris on 20 September 1721. René served in the army of Italy and the army of Flanders in the War of the Austrian Succession, was mestre de camp of the regiment of Berry cavalry at the Battle of Fontenoy, where he was promoted brigadier, he was associated with his father in his work of reorganizing the army, was made inspector of cavalry and dragoons, succeeded his father as master of the horse. He introduced English horses into France. René was lieutenant-general of Upper Alsace in 1753 and governor of Vincennes in 1754, served afterwards under Prince of Soubise in the Seven Years' War, he was wounded at the Battle of Crefeld in 1758, was promoted lieutenant-general. He followed his father into exile on their country estate at Château des Ormes, in the last years of the reign of Louis XV. sided with the malcontents headed by Duke of Choiseul.
He was appointed inspector of the seaboard, put the roadstead of the island of Aix in a state of defence during the American War of Independence. He caught malaria while attempting to drain the marshes of Rochefort, died at Château des Ormes on 18 September 1782. René had at least one son, Marc-René de Voyer de Paulmy d'Argenson; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Argenson s.v. Marc René". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 457–460
A hamlet is a small human settlement. In different jurisdictions and geographies, hamlets may be the size of a town, village or parish, be considered a smaller settlement or subdivision or satellite entity to a larger settlement; the word and concept of a hamlet have roots in the Anglo-Norman settlement of England, where the old French hamlet came to apply to small human settlements. In British geography, a hamlet is considered smaller than a village and distinctly without a church; the word comes from Anglo-Norman hamelet, corresponding to Old French hamelet, the diminutive of Old French hamel. This, in turn, is a diminutive of Old French ham borrowed from Franconian languages. Compare with modern French hameau, Dutch heem, German Heim, Old English hām and Modern English home. In Afghanistan the counterpart of the hamlet is the qala meaning "fort" or "hamlet"; the Afghan qala is a fortified group of houses with its own community building such as a mosque, but without its own marketplace. The qala is the smallest type of settlement in Afghan society, trumped by the village, larger and includes a commercial area.
In Australia a hamlet is a small village. A hamlet differs from a village in having no commercial premises, but has residences and may have community buildings such as churches and public halls. In Canada's three territories, hamlets are designated municipalities; as of January 1, 2010: Northwest Territories had 11 hamlets, each of which had a population of less than 900 people as of the 2016 census. In Canada's provinces, hamlets are small unincorporated communities within a larger municipality, such as many communities within the single-tier municipalities of Ontario or within Alberta's specialized and rural municipalities. Canada's two largest hamlets—Fort McMurray and Sherwood Park—are located in Alberta, they each have populations, within their main urban area, in excess of 60,000—well in excess of the 10,000-person threshold that can choose to incorporate as a city in Alberta. As such, these two hamlets have been further designated by the Province of Alberta as urban service areas. An urban service area is recognized as equivalent to a city for the purposes of provincial and federal program delivery and grant eligibility.
During the 18th century, for rich or noble people, it was up-to-date to create their own hameau in their gardens. They were a group of some houses or farms with rustic appearance, but in fact were comfortable; the best known is the Hameau de la Reine built by the queen Marie-Antoinette in the park of the Château de Versailles. Or the Hameau de Chantilly built by Prince of Condé in Chantilly, Oise. Lieu-dit is another name for hamlet; the difference is that a hamlet is permanently inhabited. The German word for hamlet is Weiler. A Weiler has, compared to no infrastructure; the houses and farms of a Weiler can be scattered. In North West Germany, a group of scattered farms is called Bauernschaft. In a Weiler there are no street names, the houses are just numbered. In different states of India, there are different words for hamlet. In Haryana and Rajasthan it is called "dhani" or "Thok". In Gujarat a hamlet is called a "nesada". In Maharashtra it's called a "pada". In southern Bihar in the Magadh division, a hamlet is called a "bigha".
All over Indonesia, hamlets are translated as kampung. They are known as dusun in Central Java and East Java, banjar in Bali, jorong or kampuang in West Sumatra. In Pakistan a hamlet is called a gron. In Poland a hamlet is called osada, is a small rural settlement differing by type of buildings or inhabited by population connected with some place or workplace, it can be a part of other settlement, like village. In Romania hamlets are called cătunuri, they represent villages that contain several houses at most, they are considered villages, statistically, they are placed in the same category. Like villages, they do not have a separate administration, thus are not an administrative division, but are part of a parent commune. In the Russian language there are several words which mean "a hamlet", but all of them are equal; the most common word is деревня. A hamlet in Russia has a church, some little shops, a school and a local culture center, in which different culture events and national holidays take place.
A hamlet in Russia consists of several tens of wooden houses. In the past hamlets were the most common kind of settlement in Russia, but nowadays many hamlets in Russia are settled only during the summer as places for vacation because people go to towns and cities in order to find better