Howard de Walden Estate
The Howard de Walden Estate is a property estate in Marylebone, owned by the Howard de Walden family. As of 2014 the estate was estimated to be worth £3.2 billion. The Estate dates from 1715 when Edward Harley, 2nd Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimer began the development of Cavendish Square in London, the streets around it; this land had formed part of the Marylebone Estate of the Dukes of Newcastle. It had passed from Margaret Holles, née Cavendish, daughter of the 2nd Duke of Newcastle, to her daughter Henrietta Cavendish Harley. At the death of Henrietta's husband, the 2nd Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimer, in 1741, this new Harley Estate passed to his only daughter, Margaret Cavendish Harley, who in 1734 had married William Bentinck, 2nd Duke of Portland, it was subsequently known as the Portland, was handed down to successive Dukes of Portland. In 1879, the 5th Duke of Portland died without issue and his estates were divided between his sisters, according to the terms of the 4th Duke's will, his cousin, who succeeded him as the sixth Duke.
The Portland Estate passed to the last surviving sister, Lucy Ellis, the widow of the 6th Lord Howard de Walden, has remained in this family since then. The Estate holds the freehold to over 850 properties; the main area extends north west to Hallam Street and south to Wigmore Street. A large tract of the estate, which included properties along the Eastern edge of Marylebone were sold in 1925 to Sir John Ellerman; this land is now owned by the Langham Estate. The Howard de Walden Estate includes property on Marylebone High Harley Street. In the 1990s the Estate took steps to revitalise the High Street, adding new shops including the Waitrose supermarket. 110 and 112 Harley Street Howard de Walden Estate Marylebone
Open-pit, open-cast or open cut mining is a surface mining technique of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit or borrow. This form of mining differs from extractive methods that require tunnelling into the earth, such as long wall mining. Open-pit mines are used when deposits of commercially useful ore or rocks are found near the surface, it is applied to ore or rocks found at the surface because the overburden is thin or the material of interest is structurally unsuitable for tunnelling. In contrast, minerals that have been found underground but are difficult to retrieve due to hard rock, can be reached using a form of underground mining. To create an open-pit mine, the miners must determine the information of the ore, underground; this is done through drilling of probe holes in the ground plotting each hole location on a map. The information gained through the holes with provide an idea of the vertical extent of the ore's body; this vertical information is used to pit tentative locations of the benches that will occur in the mine.
It is important to consider the grade and economic value of the ore in the potential pit. Open-pit mines that produce building materials and dimension stone are referred to as "quarries." Open-pit mines are enlarged until either the mineral resource is exhausted, or an increasing ratio of overburden to ore makes further mining uneconomic. When this occurs, the exhausted mines are sometimes converted to landfills for disposal of solid wastes. However, some form of water control is required to keep the mine pit from becoming a lake, if the mine is situated in a climate of considerable precipitation or if any layers of the pit forming the mine border productive aquifers. Open-pit mining is to be considered one of the most dangerous sectors in the industrial world, it causes significant effects to miners health, as well as damage to the ecological land. Open-pit mining causes changes to vegetation and bedrock, which contributes to changes in surface hydrology, groundwater levels, flow paths. Additionally, open-pit produces harmful pollutants depending on the type of mineral being mined, the type of mining process being used.
Open-cast mines are dug on benches. The interval of the benches depends on the deposit being mined, the mineral being mined, the size of the machinery, being used. Large mine benches are 12 to 15 metres thick. In contrast, many quarries do not use benches, as they are shallow. Mining can be conducted on more than one bench at a time, access to different benches is done with a system of ramps; the width of each bench is determined by the size of the equipment being used 20-40 metres wide. Downward ramps are created to allow mining on a new level to begin; this new level will become progressively wider to form the new pit bottom. Most walls of the pit are mined on an angle less than vertical. Waste rock is stripped when the pit becomes deeper, therefore this angle is a safety precaution to prevent and minimize damage and danger from rock falls. However, this depends on how weathered and eroded the rocks are, the type of rocks involved, it depends on the amount of structural weaknesses occur within the rocks, such as a faults, joints or foliations.
The walls are stepped. The inclined section of the wall is known as the batter, the flat part of the step is known as the bench or berm; the steps in the walls help prevent. In some instances additional ground support is required and rock bolts, cable bolts and shotcrete are used. De-watering bores may be used to relieve water pressure by drilling horizontally into the wall, enough to cause failures in the wall by itself. A haul road is situated at the side of the pit, forming a ramp up which trucks can drive, carrying ore and waste rock. Open-pit mines create a significant amount of waste. One million tons of ore and waste rock can move from the largest mines per day, a couple thousand tons moved from small mines per day. There is four main operations in a mine that contribute to this load: drilling, blasting and hauling. Waste rock is hauled to a waste dump. Waste dumps can be piled at the surface of the active pit, or in mined pits. Leftover waste from processing the ore is called tailings, is in the form of a slurry.
This is pumped to a tailings settling pond, where the water is reused or evaporated. Tailings dams can be toxic due to the presence of unextracted sulfide minerals, some forms of toxic minerals in the gangue, cyanide, used to treat gold ore via the cyanide leach process. If proper environmental protections are not in place, this toxicity can harm the surrounding environment. Open-pit mining involves the process of disrupting the ground, which leads to the creation of air pollutants; the main source of air pollutants comes from the transportation of minerals, but their are various other factors including drilling and the loading and unloading of overburden. These type of pollutants cause significant damage to public health and safety in addition to damaging the air quality; the inhalation of these pollutants can cause issues to the lungs and increase mortality. Furthermore, the pollutants affect fauna in the areas surrounding open-pit mines. Open-pit gold mining is one of the highest potential mining threats on the environment as it affects the air and water chemistry.
The exposed dust may be toxic or radioactive, making it a health concern for the workers and the surrounding communities. A form of open-
Balkan Dream Properties
Balkan Dream Properties was an international real estate company with offices in London, Moscow and Svilengrad, as well as in Bulgaria’s resorts Sunny Beach, Golden Sands, Bansko and Varna. The company operates one of the largest real estate networks in Bulgaria, its logo is a Bulgarian folklore detail. In September 2007, at a gala in London’s Grosvenor Square Marriott Hotel, Balkan Dream Properties was recognized as Best real estate agency Website for Bulgaria at the International Property Awards; the company won Best real estate agency and Best real estate agency Website awards in 2006. Costa Rica Velez Realty
Economy of the United Kingdom
The economy of the United Kingdom is developed and market-orientated. It is the fifth-largest national economy in the world measured by nominal gross domestic product, ninth-largest by purchasing power parity, twenty second-largest by GDP per capita, comprising 3.5% of world GDP. In 2016, the UK was the tenth-largest goods exporter in the world and the fifth-largest goods importer, it had the second-largest inward foreign direct investment, the third-largest outward foreign direct investment. The UK is one of the most globalised economies, it is composed of England, Scotland and Northern Ireland; the service sector dominates, contributing around 80% of GDP. Britain's aerospace industry is the second-largest national aerospace industry, its pharmaceutical industry, the tenth-largest in the world, plays an important role in the economy. Of the world's 500 largest companies, 26 are headquartered in the UK; the economy is boosted by North Sea gas production. There are significant regional variations in prosperity, with South East England and North East Scotland being the richest areas per capita.
The size of London's economy makes it the largest city by GDP in Europe. In the 18th century the UK was the first country to industrialise, during the 19th century it had a dominant role in the global economy, accounting for 9.1% of the world's GDP in 1870. The Second Industrial Revolution was taking place in the United States and the German Empire; the costs of fighting World War I and World War II further weakened the UK's relative position. In the 21st century, the UK remains a great power with the ability to project power and influence around the world. Government involvement is exercised by Her Majesty's Treasury, headed by the Chancellor of the Exchequer, the Department for Business and Industrial Strategy. Since 1979 management of the economy has followed a broadly laissez-faire approach; the Bank of England is the UK's central bank, since 1997 its Monetary Policy Committee has been responsible for setting interest rates, quantitative easing, forward guidance. The currency of the UK is the pound sterling, the world's fourth-largest reserve currency after the United States Dollar, the Euro and the Japanese Yen, is one of the 10 most-valued currencies in the world.
The UK is a member of the Commonwealth, the European Union, the G7, the G20, the International Monetary Fund, the Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Bank, the World Trade Organization, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and the United Nations. After the Second World War, a new Labour government nationalised the Bank of England, civil aviation, telephone networks, gas and the coal and steel industries, affecting 2.3 million workers. Post-war, the United Kingdom enjoyed a long period without a major recession; the annual rate of growth between 1960 and 1973 averaged 2.9%, although this figure was far behind other European countries such as France, West Germany and Italy. Deindustrialisation meant the closure of operations in mining, heavy industry, manufacturing, resulting in the loss of paid working-class jobs; the UK's share of manufacturing output had risen from 9.5% in 1830 during the Industrial Revolution to 22.9% in the 1870s. It fell to 13.6% by 1913, 10.7% by 1938, 4.9% by 1973.
Overseas competition, lack of innovation, trade unionism, the welfare state, loss of the British Empire, cultural attitudes have all been put forward as explanations. It reached crisis point in the 1970s against the backdrop of a worldwide energy crisis, high inflation, a dramatic influx of low-cost manufactured goods from Asia. During the 1973 oil crisis, the 1973–74 stock market crash, the secondary banking crisis of 1973–75, the British economy fell into the 1973–75 recession and the government of Edward Heath was ousted by the Labour Party under Harold Wilson, which had governed from 1964 to 1970. Wilson formed a minority government in March 1974 after the general election on 28 February ended in a hung parliament. Wilson secured a three-seat overall majority in a second election in October that year; the UK recorded weaker growth than many other European nations in the 1970s. In 1976, the UK was forced to apply for a loan of £2.3 billion from the International Monetary Fund. Denis Healey Chancellor of the Exchequer, was required to implement public spending cuts and other economic reforms in order to secure the loan, for a while the British economy improved, with growth of 4.3% in early 1979.
However, following the Winter of Discontent, when the UK was hit by numerous public sector strikes, the government of James Callaghan lost a vote of no confidence in March 1979. This triggered the general election on 3 May 1979 which resulted in Margaret Thatcher's Conservative Party forming a new government. A new period of neo-liberal economics began with this election. During the 1980s, many state-owned industries and utilities were privatised, taxes cut, trade union reforms passed and markets deregulated. GDP fell by 5.9% but growth subsequently returned and rose to an annual rate of 5% at its
Opal Property Group
Opal Property Group Limited referred to as Opal, was a company based in the United Kingdom which operates a number of large property developments in UK cities, targeted at students and private renters. Founded in 1998 by Stuart Wall, Opal was the largest provider of private student accommodation in the UK, providing accommodation for 20,000 students; the company went into administration in 2013 and its properties were transferred to other organisations. The company was founded in 1998. In March 2013, the company reported that one of its subsidiaries, Ocon Construction, was to be put into administration; the parent company Opal may be broken up. 13 further Opal property subsidiaries in Liverpool, Bradford, Huddersfield, Leicester and Wolverhampton went into administration in March. As of April 2013, much of the various sub companies in the group were in the hands of administrators with various property management companies brought in to oversee the developments whilst buyers were sought. Opal's properties include: Birmingham - Opal 1 in Highgate Leeds Opal 1 Opal 2 Opal Tower Leicester - halls of residence including Opal Court, nominated for the 2007 Carbuncle Cup London Opal 1 in Hoxton Opal 2 in Greenwich Opal 3 in Holloway Opal 4 in Tufnell Park Manchester - accommodation blocks around Whitworth Street Nottingham - halls of residence with common room and gymnasium Newport - Opal 1 Sheffield Opal 1 near the Devonshire Quarter Opal 2 in Netherthorpe Opal 3 in Netherthorpe
Allied London is a property development and investment company that develops landmark projects ranging from re-use to regeneration developments across retail, office, residential and leisure sectors. The company offers rental options, they own several buildings in the Spinningfields area of Manchester, as well as Glasgow and London. The company was founded in 1909 and became a private company with Michael Ingall as its CEO from September 2000. Allied London's properties include: The Bonded Warehouse The Old Granada Studios Civil Justice Centre SpinningfieldsHardman Square 3 Hardman Street The Lawns The Avenue The Avenue North Tower 12 Leftbank Leeds Dock Aldersgate Brunswick Centre 20 Cannon Street Poplar, London Herbal House 28 Savile Row Skypark In April 2014 Allied London launched hello Work, to provide hot desking, co-working and studios alongside a community and events programme for SMEs. Allied London hello Work
The Peel Group
The Peel Group is an infrastructure and real estate investment group. It owns holdings in land and property, logistics, retail and media. Peel's direct and indirect investments extend to 40m of investment property and over 13,000 hectares of land. Peel is one of the largest property investment companies in the United Kingdom, has its UK head office at the Trafford Centre, in Greater Manchester; the Trafford Centre which opened in 1998, is regarded as Peel's first landmark development. The centre was sold in 2011 to Capital Shopping Centres for £1.6 billion, making it the largest property acquisition in British history and the biggest European property deal of 2011. Other projects which Peel have developed include MediaCityUK, Liverpool John Lennon Airport, Doncaster Sheffield Airport, Gloucester Quays and Frodsham Wind Farm; the group is led by John Whittaker, who maintains a 75% majority stake in the group, with the Olayan Group owning a 25% stake. Born in Bury, Lancashire in 1942, John Whittaker was born into an independently wealthy and entrepreneurial Roman Catholic family, with interests in the historical Northwest cotton industry and property.
By the 1960s, John's branch of the family owned property and quarries, which in the Government-created boom infrastructure investment period of the 1960s supplied aggregates to the motorway building programme, such as the M62 from Liverpool to Leeds. Having rejected joining the priesthood, in the mid-1960s Whittaker began reviving the family's exhausted quarry assets, removing residual aggregates for the locally growing construction industry along the M62 corridor. Once a quarry was exhausted, Whittaker turned it into an approved landfill waste site. Excess cash was invested into purchasing a series of residual cotton businesses, which owned their own property assets; the cotton businesses were conglomerated into a single consolidated business, using new built steel buildings built on top of the now full and environmentally re-profiled land fill assets - thereby finding a third use for the former family quarries. The old and large cotton mill property assets of the former cotton businesses were refurbished as mixed-use light-industrial and latterly residential units, with the Whittaker family business owning the assets freehold and hence retaining ground rent income.
Between 1971 and 1987, Whittaker acquired Bridgewater Estates and John Bright's. Having a respect for the region's industrial heritage, inspired by the Peel Tower in his native Bury, Whittaker decided to retain the name Peel Mills Ltd for his now wholly owned property and cotton business. Throughout the 1970s, Peel Mills focused on the renovation and letting of industrial units, so that by 1977 the annual company statement and accounts reflected the fact that the majority of the groups commercial activity was within property development. By the 1980s the group had progressed to the development of new-build industrial units and out-of-town retail superstores. From 1971 onwards, Whittaker began acquiring shares in the Manchester Ship Canal Company. Unlike most other British canals, the Manchester Ship Canal was never nationalised post-World War 2 by Clement Attlee's Labour government. However, the waterway had fallen into disrepair, its constructed width and rarely-dredged depth being resultantly too small for many of the larger seafaring vessels of the time.
In 1984 Salford City Council used a derelict land grant to purchase the eastern/northern part of the MSC-owned Manchester docks within the borough of Salford from MSC, rebranding the area as Salford Quays. Principal developers Urban Waterside began redevelopment work the following year, by which time traffic on the canal's upper reaches had declined to such an extent that MSC proposed closing it above Runcorn. After a bitter and public investor battle, after selling its cotton business for £22million in cash, in 1987 Peel Mills acquired the required 80%+ majority of the shares in MSC to allow MSC to be resultantly privatised, gained 100% holding in 1993; the MSC land assets have become a key hub for the Peel Group, with numerous developments on the banks of the canal. Changing its name to reflect its property business focus to Peel Holdings, the largest asset of the Group was the Trafford Centre. In 1987, Peel submitted a planning application for a large shopping centre development on land attached to the Manchester Ship Canal, adjacent to the M63, now the M60, in Trafford, Greater Manchester.
The centre opened in 1998 after one of the most prolonged and expansive planning processes in British history. In 1997, the Peel Group became involved in airport ownership for the first time. A 76% shareholding in Liverpool Airport was acquired, with Peel taking complete control in 2001 and renaming the airport Liverpool John Lennon Airport. In 2002, Liverpool John Lennon Airport opened its new terminal following an investment of £32.5 million by Peel. RAF Finningley was purchased in 1999, redeveloped as Robin Hood Airport Doncaster Sheffield, opening in 2005.. Doncaster Sheffield Airport was the first commercial airport to open in the UK for 55 years. In 2002, Barton Aerodrome was purchased by the Manchester Ship Canal Development Company and was subsequently renamed City Airport Manchester; the final addition to the Peel Airports portfolio was Durham Tees Valley Airport, with a 75% stake being bought in 2003 - ownership of the remaining 25% of DTVA was retained by several local councils. Results were mixed, the Peel Group began looking for an outside investor for Peel Airports.