The Avalon Peninsula is a large peninsula that makes up the southeast portion of the island of Newfoundland. It is 9,220 square kilometres in size; the peninsula is home to 262,410 people, about 51% of Newfoundland's population, according to the 2011 Canadian Census. The peninsula is largest city, it is connected to the main section of the island by the 5 km wide Isthmus of Avalon. The peninsula protrudes into the rich fishing zones near the Grand Banks, its four major bays—Trinity Bay, Conception Bay, St. Mary's Bay, Placentia Bay—have long been the centre of Newfoundland's fishing industry; the Avalon Peninsula is itself pinched into peninsulas by St. Mary's Conception Bay. St. John's is located in the northeast of the peninsula; the Avalon Peninsula is a noted region for Precambrian fossils, many Lagerstätten of the diverse Ediacaran biota are found on the peninsula. Mistaken Point is the original location of Aspidella terranovica; the peninsula gives its name to the ancient micro-continent Avalonia.
In 1497, explorer John Cabot led an expedition from England in an attempt to reach the Spice Islands in the East Indies, that ended up off what is now Bonavista. The first permanent English settlement was established at Cuper's Cove in 1610. Sir George Calvert was given a large land holding on the peninsula; the initial colony of Ferryland grew to a population of 100, becoming the first successful permanent settlement on Newfoundland island. In 1623 Calvert was given a Royal Charter extending the Royal lands and granting them the name Province of Avalon "in imitation of Old Avalon in Somersetshire wherein Glassenbury stands, the first fruits of Christianity in Britain as the other was in that party of America". Calvert wished to make the colony a refuge for Roman Catholics facing persecution in England. In 1625 Calvert was made the first Lord Baltimore. A series of crises and calamities led Calvert to quit the colony in 1629 for "some other warmer climate of this new world", which turned out to be Maryland, though his family maintained agents to govern Avalon until 1637, when the entire island of Newfoundland was granted by charter to Sir David Kirke and James Hamilton, 1st Duke of Hamilton.
In 1696, during King William's War, the French destroyed many English villages in the Avalon Peninsula Campaign. During Queen Anne's War, Commodore John Leake of the Royal Navy led an expedition aimed at capturing French ships around the Peninsula and burning French settlements; the expedition was successful. During this same conflict, the French attacked the fortified English port of St. John's, but were defeated, they returned and captured the town, burning it to the ground. On June 8th, 1755, three British- and three French warships met off Cape Race on the Peninsula and engaged each other in battle; this battle was one of a series that ignited the Indian War in North America. The war ironically ended on the Peninsula, at the decisive Battle of Signal Hill, in which British soldiers and artillery under the command of William Amherst drove the French occupants of St. John's from Signal Hill and into the town's fort, where they soon surrendered. Avalon Explosion British colonization of the Americas New Cambriol Snows Pond Heritage of Newfoundland - Colony of Avalon
USS Truxtun (DD-229)
USS Truxtun was a Clemson-class destroyer in the United States Navy during World War II. She was the third ship named for Thomas Truxtun. Truxtun was laid down on 3 December 1919 and launched on 28 September 1920 from William Cramp & Sons, sponsored by Miss Isabelle Truxtun Brumby, commissioned at the Philadelphia Navy Yard on 16 February 1921, Lieutenant Commander Melville S. Brown in command. Upon commissioning, Truxtun completed shakedown and began duty along the east coast with the Atlantic Fleet as a unit of Division 39, Destroyer Squadron 3, she operated with that unit along the Atlantic seaboard until the fall when she was reassigned to Division 43, Squadron 15. During the winter of 1921 and 1922, the destroyer joined the fleet in maneuvers and exercises near Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. In March 1922, Division 43 returned north to Newport, Rhode Island, to prepare for service in the Asiatic Fleet. On 22 June 1922, Truxtun departed Newport and proceeded, via the Mediterranean, the Suez Canal, the Indian Ocean, to the Far East which she reached in mid-August.
By early September and several sister destroyers of Division 43 joined the main elements of the Asiatic Fleet off Chefoo on the northern coast of China. Late in October, the fleet headed south to its winter base at Manila in the Philippines, from whence it conducted exercises until the following spring. Truxtun served with the Asiatic Fleet for the next 10 years. During that decade, she alternated summer cruises in Chinese waters with winter maneuvers in the Philippines; this routine was punctuated by special unusual assignments. For instance, in June 1924, she and the other five destroyers of Division 43 helped to form a chain of picket ships across the Yellow Sea for the Army's global flight. More however, internecine warfare in China brought Truxtun to the coast of that troubled nation to protect American lives and property, she spent a total of eight out of the 13 months between September 1926 and October 1927 patrolling the Yangtze River while competing factions in China fought one another - and otherwise neutral third parties.
The destroyer returned to the Yangtze River Patrol twice more - from 1 March to 14 April 1930 and from January through March 1932 - when internal political convulsions in China threatened foreign lives and property. On 18 April 1932, Truxtun departed Manila and the Asiatic Fleet to join the destroyers attached to the Battle Force. After stops at Guam and Hawaii, she reached Mare Island Navy Yard on 13 May. For the next seven years, she patrolled the Pacific, as far north as Alaska and as far south as the Panama Canal, participating in maneuvers with capital ships of the Battle Force. Only once, in 1934, did she leave the Pacific. On 9 April, she transited the Panama Canal. After calling at Port-au-Prince, Truxtun steamed north to New York City, arriving on 31 May. Following that visit, she patrolled the eastern seaboard. On 15 September, the destroyer stood out of Hampton Roads, retransited the canal, returned to San Diego on 9 November to resume operations with the Battle Force. On 27 April 1939, Truxtun headed for the canal once more.
She joined Destroyer Division 27, Atlantic Squadron. The destroyer patrolled the east coast of the United States. Soon after the outbreak of war in September, Truxtun began enforcing the provisions of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's proclamation of American neutrality by conducting neutrality patrols and escort duty off the Atlantic coast, in the Gulf of Mexico, in the Caribbean. In late May and early June 1940, the warship made a voyage to Casablanca in French North Africa and resumed neutrality patrols off Florida and in the Caribbean. Following repairs at Norfolk in December 1940 and January 1941, Truxtun cleared Hampton Roads on 6 February; the next day, she reached Newport, Rhode Island, where she joined Destroyer Division 63, Squadron 31. Between late February and mid-March, she made two voyages to Halifax, Nova Scotia, returning to the United States at the Washington Navy Yard on both occasions. On 15 March, the destroyer resumed patrols and exercises. For the remainder of her career, Truxtun patrolled the North Atlantic sea lanes and escorted convoys from New England and Canadian ports – via NS Argentia, Newfoundland – to Reykjavík, Iceland.
On Christmas Day 1941, Truxtun departed Boston, Massachusetts in the screen of Convoy HX-168. She arrived at Reykjavík on 13 January 1942 and, six days headed back to Argentia with Convoy ON-57. At 0410 on 18 February while acting as escort to USS Pollux in Placentia Bay, Truxtun ran aground "in a howling gale" between the outport communities of Lawn and St. Lawrence, near Chambers Cove. Under violent and freezing sea conditons she broke up immediately after grounding and, in spite of the heroic efforts of the local populace, lost 110 members of her crew to the elements. USS Pollux was wrecked with 93 fatalities, USS Wilkes grounded, but made way with no fatalities. Robert Chafe's play and Water, depicts the story of Lanier Phillips, the sole African American survivor of the sinking of Truxtun. Truxtun's name was struck from the Navy list on 25 March 1942; this article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entry can be found here. "Standing Into Danger" written by Newfoundland author Cassie brown in 1979.
The true story of a wartime disaster - The wrecking of the USS Truxtun and the USS Pollux in the North Atlantic. Http://www.navsource.org/archives/05/229.htm
Argentina the Argentine Republic, is a country located in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, the largest Spanish-speaking nation; the sovereign state is subdivided into twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires, the federal capital of the nation as decided by Congress. The provinces and the capital exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; the earliest recorded human presence in modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The Inca Empire expanded to the northwest of the country in Pre-Columbian times; the country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century.
Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The declaration and fight for independence was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city; the country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with several waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook. The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest nation in the world by the early 20th century. Following the Great Depression in the 1930s, Argentina descended into political instability and economic decline that pushed it back into underdevelopment, though it remained among the fifteen richest countries for several decades. Following the death of President Juan Perón in 1974, his widow, Isabel Martínez de Perón, ascended to the presidency, she was overthrown in 1976 by a U.
S.-backed coup which installed a right-wing military dictatorship. The military government persecuted and murdered numerous political critics and leftists in the Dirty War, a period of state terrorism that lasted until the election of Raúl Alfonsín as President in 1983. Several of the junta's leaders were convicted of their crimes and sentenced to imprisonment. Argentina is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America, retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs. Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America, membership in the G-15 and G-20 major economies, it is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Union of South American Nations, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States and the Organization of Ibero-American States. Despite its history of economic instability, it ranks second highest in the Human Development Index in Latin America; the description of the country by the word Argentina has been found on a Venetian map in 1536.
In English the name "Argentina" comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, but Italian. Argentina means in Italian " of silver, silver coloured" borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine " of silver" > "silver coloured" mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the feminine form of argentin and derives from argent "silver" with the suffix -in; the Italian naming "Argentina" for the country implies Terra Argentina "land of silver" or Costa Argentina "coast of silver". In Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said l'Argentina; the name Argentina was first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto. In Spanish and Portuguese, the words for "silver" are plata and prata and " of silver" is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin.
The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region. Although "Argentina" was in common usage by the 18th century, the country was formally named "Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata" by the Spanish Empire, "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata" after independence; the 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents. The name "Argentine Confederation" was commonly used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the country's name as "Argentine Republic", that year's constitutional amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as valid. In the English language the country was traditionally called "the Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage la Argentina and resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name'Argentine Republic'.'The Argentine' fell out of fashion during the mid-to-late 20th century, now the country is referred to as "Argentina".
In the Spanish language "Argentina" is feminine, taking the feminine article "La" as the i
Area code 709
Area code 709 is the telephone area code in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador, encompassing the whole province. While the first telephone system was installed in Newfoundland in 1885, domestic long-distance calls within the Dominion of Newfoundland were first placed on a limited basis in 1921; the first long distance call from Newfoundland to Canada was made on January 10, 1939 using a shortwave radio link operated by the Canadian Marconi Company in Montréal. After confederation with Canada, the first cross-province long distance call, St. John's to Port aux Basques, was placed in 1949. At the time the original set of 86 three-digit routing codes was implemented for operator-assisted long-distance calling in Canada and the US the Newfoundland telephone system was manual. Dial telephones came to St. John's in 1948. Canada's Atlantic provinces were area code 902, which remains in use throughout Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. New Brunswick and Newfoundland were split from 902 to area code 506 in 1955.
Newfoundland and Labrador split off as its own area code, 709, in early 1962. Canadian direct distance dial locations came on-line during the next several years, beginning with the largest cities Toronto and Montreal, in 1958; the area codes served for operator routing purposes until customer dialling of long distance calls became commonplace in the 1960s. The incumbent local exchange carrier in 709 is Bell Aliant, owned by Bell Canada, formed in 1999 as a result of a merger that included NewTel Communications. There had been as many as nine companies in Newfoundland and Labrador up to 1951. Area code 709 is expected to be exhausted by 2024, at which point Newfoundland and Labrador will receive an overlay area code and 10-digit dialing will become necessary in the province. Area code 879 has been reserved as the second code for the purpose of this overlay, although the relief has been deferred indefinitely. For now and the three other Canadian area codes, 506, 807 and 867 still use 7-digit dialling and have yet to be overlaid.
Telephone numbers in Canada Canadian Numbering Administration Consortium CNA exchange list for area +1-709 Telecom archives Area Code Map of Canada
Naval Station Argentia
Naval Station Argentia is a former base of the United States Navy that operated from 1941 to 1994. It was established in the community of Argentia in what was the Dominion of Newfoundland, which became the tenth Canadian province and Labrador. Established under the British-US destroyers for bases agreement of 1940, the base was first occupied on 25 January 1941 following the expropriation of the flat headland formed by a small natural bay called Little Placentia Sound and the western end facing Placentia Bay by the Newfoundland government. Construction crews rushed to build the base as well as an adjoining air field. On 15 July 1941, the Naval Operating Base was commissioned. On 7 August 1941 the heavy cruiser USS Augusta carrying U. S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt arrived in the anchorage at Little Placentia Bay off the base. Roosevelt inspected the base construction progress and did some fishing from Augusta over the next two days. Augusta was joined by the British warship HMS Prince of Wales carrying British Prime Minister Winston Churchill on 9 August 1941.
While in the Argentia anchorage from 9–12 August, the chiefs of staff of Britain and the U. S. met to discuss war strategies and logistics once the U. S. joined in the war. The two leaders and their aides negotiated the wording of a press release that they called a "joint statement"; that press release was issued on 14 August 1941 in Washington, D. C. and was issued in London, England. Several days the Daily Herald would characterize the public statement as being the Atlantic Charter. However, there never was a signed, legal document called the "Atlantic Charter". Neither Roosevelt nor Churchill signed it; the conference concluded the evening of 12 August 1941 with the British and American warships and their escorts passing in review before departing the area for their home ports. The joint declaration was publicly announced on 14 August after Prince of Wales had returned to UK waters. On 28 August 1941 Naval Air Station Argentia was commissioned. NAS Argentia was built on the plateau atop the triangular peninsula adjacent to Naval Station Argentia's anchorage and shore facilities.
The air station was used to base convoy protection, coastal patrol and anti-submarine aircraft, both land-based aircraft and seaplanes. While NAS Argentia was nominally an independent facility from Naval Station Argentia, both facilities are viewed as one. Beginning that summer, USS Prairie was used to house Flag Headquarters at the base. February 1942 saw the Argentia base at the centre of one of the worst accidental disasters in the US Navy's history when USS Pollux and USS Truxtun grounded and were lost with heavy casualties 75 mi southwest of the base. Over 100 victims were buried in Argentia's military cemetery. United States Army Coast Artillery Corps troops were first deployed to Argentia in early 1941, at first a single coast defence battery with two or four 155 mm guns and an anti-aircraft battery. In January 1942 construction began on two batteries of 6-inch guns, in March 1942 the United States Army established Fort McAndrew at Argentia to provide security to the navy base through an anti-aircraft battery and additional coast defence guns.
That spring the Royal Navy established a small maintenance base at Argentia to service its ships involved in convoy escort groups operating out of Halifax, Sydney, St. John's and in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. A US Navy-manned indicator loop station was at Argentia. In the spring of 1943 a 7,000 ton floating drydock was installed at Argentia, along with a ship repair facility. In August 1943, Task Force 24 Flag Headquarters moved ashore to permanent facilities after having been housed aboard USS Prairie. In 1944, Argentia served as one of the two stopover bases for the refuelling and crew changes of the six United States Navy K-class blimps that made the first transatlantic crossings of non-rigid airships. Blimps K-123 and K-130 from USN Blimp Squadron 14 left South Weymouth Naval Air Station in Massachusetts on 28 May 1944 and landed at Argentia about 16 hours later; the two K-ships flew for 22 hours to Lages Field on Terceira Island in the Azores, the second stopover base for the transatlantic flights.
The last leg was a ~20-hour flight to the squadron's final destination with Fleet Air Wing 15 at Port Lyautey, French Morocco. Blimps K-123 and K-130 were followed by K-109 and K-134 K-112 and K-101 which left South Weymouth on 11 and 27 June in 1944; these six blimps conducted nighttime anti-submarine warfare operations to complement the daytime missions flown by FAW-15 aircraft using magnetic anomaly detection to locate U-boats in the shallow waters around the Strait of Gibraltar. ZP-14 K-ships conducted minespotting and minesweeping operations in key Mediterranean ports and various escort missions including that of the convoy carrying Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill to the Yalta Conference in early 1945. In late April 1945, K-89 and K-114 left NAS Weeksville in North Carolina and flew a southern route to NAS Bermuda, the Azores, Port Lyautey, where they arrived on 1 May 1945. In 1942 the aerodrome was listed as USAAF Aerodrome - Argentia, Newfoundland at 47°19′N 53°58′W with a variation of 29 degrees west and elevation of 50 ft.
The field was listed as "All hard surfaced" and had three runways listed as follows: United States Army Coast Artillery Corps troops were first deployed to Argentia in January 1941 Battery A of the 57th
Invasion of Poland
The Invasion of Poland, known in Poland as the September Campaign or the 1939 Defensive War, in Germany as the Poland Campaign, was an invasion of Poland by Germany that marked the beginning of World War II. The German invasion began on 1 September 1939, one week after the signing of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact between Germany and the Soviet Union; the Soviets invaded Poland on 17 September following the Molotov–Tōgō agreement that terminated the Soviet and Japanese Battles of Khalkhin Gol in the east on 16 September. The campaign ended on 6 October with Germany and the Soviet Union dividing and annexing the whole of Poland under the terms of the German–Soviet Frontier Treaty. German forces invaded Poland from the north and west the morning after the Gleiwitz incident. Slovak military forces advanced alongside the Germans in northern Slovakia; as the Wehrmacht advanced, Polish forces withdrew from their forward bases of operation close to the Polish–German border to more established defense lines to the east.
After the mid-September Polish defeat in the Battle of the Bzura, the Germans gained an undisputed advantage. Polish forces withdrew to the southeast where they prepared for a long defence of the Romanian Bridgehead and awaited expected support and relief from France and the United Kingdom. While those two countries had pacts with Poland and had declared war on Germany on 3 September, in the end their aid to Poland was limited. On 17 September, the Soviet Red Army invaded Eastern Poland, the territory that fell into the Soviet "sphere of influence" according to the secret protocol of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. Facing a second front, the Polish government concluded the defence of the Romanian Bridgehead was no longer feasible and ordered an emergency evacuation of all troops to neutral Romania. On 6 October, following the Polish defeat at the Battle of Kock and Soviet forces gained full control over Poland; the success of the invasion marked the end of the Second Polish Republic, though Poland never formally surrendered.
On 8 October, after an initial period of military administration, Germany directly annexed western Poland and the former Free City of Danzig and placed the remaining block of territory under the administration of the newly established General Government. The Soviet Union incorporated its newly acquired areas into its constituent Belarusian and Ukrainian republics, started a campaign of Sovietization. In the aftermath of the invasion, a collective of underground resistance organizations formed the Polish Underground State within the territory of the former Polish state. Many of the military exiles that managed to escape Poland subsequently joined the Polish Armed Forces in the West, an armed force loyal to the Polish government-in-exile. On 30 January 1933, the National Socialist German Workers' Party, under its leader Adolf Hitler, came to power in Germany. While the Weimar Republic had long sought to annex territories belonging to Poland, it was Hitler's own idea and not a realization of Weimar plans to invade and partition Poland, annex Bohemia and Austria, create satellite or puppet states economically subordinate to Germany.
As part of this long-term policy, Hitler at first pursued a policy of rapprochement with Poland, trying to improve opinion in Germany, culminating in the German–Polish Non-Aggression Pact of 1934. Earlier, Hitler's foreign policy worked to weaken ties between Poland and France, attempted to manoeuvre Poland into the Anti-Comintern Pact, forming a cooperative front against the Soviet Union. Poland would be granted territory to its northeast in Ukraine and Belarus if it agreed to wage war against the Soviet Union, but the concessions the Poles were expected to make meant that their homeland would become dependent on Germany, functioning as little more than a client state; the Poles feared that their independence would be threatened altogether. How can they demand the rights of independent states?"The population of the Free City of Danzig was in favour of annexation by Germany, as were many of the ethnic German inhabitants of the Polish territory that separated the German exclave of East Prussia from the rest of the Reich.
The so-called Polish Corridor constituted land long disputed by Poland and Germany, inhabited by a Polish majority. The Corridor had become a part of Poland after the Treaty of Versailles. Many Germans wanted the urban port city of Danzig and its environs to be reincorporated into Germany. Danzig city had a German majority, had been separated from Germany after Versailles and made into the nominally independent Free City. Hitler sought to use this as casus belli, a reason for war, reverse the post-1918 territorial losses, on many occasions had appealed to German nationalism, promising to "liberate" the German minority still in the Corridor, as well as Danzig; the invasion was referred to by Germany as the 1939 Defensive War since Hitler proclaimed that Poland had attacked Germany and that "Germans in Poland are persecuted with a bloody terror and are driven from their homes. The series of border violations, which are unbearable to a great power, prove that the Poles no longer are willing to respect the German frontier."Poland participated with Germany in the partition of Czechoslovakia that followed the Munich Agreement, although they were not part of the agreement.
It coerced Czechoslovakia to surrender the region of Český Těšín by issuing an ultimatum to that effect
Anti-submarine warfare is a branch of underwater warfare that uses surface warships, aircraft, or other submarines to find and deter, damage, or destroy enemy submarines. Successful anti-submarine warfare depends on a mix of sensor and weapon technology and experience. Sophisticated sonar equipment for first detecting classifying and tracking the target submarine is a key element of ASW. To destroy submarines, both torpedos and naval mines are used, launched from air and underwater platforms. ASW involves protecting friendly ships; the first attacks on a ship by an underwater vehicle are believed to have been during the American Revolutionary War, using what would now be called a naval mine but what was called a torpedo, though various attempts to build submarines had been made before this. The first self-propelled torpedo was launched from surface craft; the first submarine with a torpedo was Nordenfelt I built in 1884-1885, though it had been proposed earlier. By the outbreak of the Russo-Japanese War all the large navies except the German had acquired submarines.
In 1904 all still defined the submarine as an experimental vessel and did not put it into operational use. There were no means to detect submerged U-boats, attacks on them were limited at first to efforts to damage their periscopes with hammers; the Royal Navy torpedo establishment, HMS Vernon, studied explosive grapnel sweeps. A similar approach featured a string of 70 lb charges on a floating cable, fired electrically. Tried were dropping 18.5 lb hand-thrown guncotton bombs. The Lance Bomb was developed, also. Firing Lyddite shells, or using trench mortars, was tried. Use of nets to ensnare U-boats was examined, as was a destroyer, HMS Starfish, fitted with a spar torpedo. To attack at set depths, aircraft bombs were attached to lanyards. Problems with the lanyards tangling and failing to function led to the development of a chemical pellet trigger as the Type B; these were effective at a distance of around 20 ft. The best concept arose in a 1913 RN Torpedo School report, describing a device intended for countermining, a "dropping mine".
At Admiral John Jellicoe's request, the standard Mark II mine was fitted with a hydrostatic pistol preset for 45 ft firing, to be launched from a stern platform. Weighing 1,150 lb, effective at 100 ft, the "cruiser mine" was a potential hazard to the dropping ship. During the First World War, submarines were a major threat, they operated in North Sea, Black Sea and Mediterranean as well as the North Atlantic. They had been limited to calm and protected waters; the vessels used to combat them were a range of fast surface ships using guns and good luck. They relied on the fact a submarine of the day was on the surface for a range of reasons, such as charging batteries or crossing long distances; the first approach to protect warships was chainlink nets strung from the sides of battleships, as defense against torpedoes. Nets were deployed across the mouth of a harbour or naval base to stop submarines entering or to stop torpedoes of the Whitehead type fired against ships. British warships were fitted with a ram with which to sink submarines, U-15 was thus sunk in August 1914.
RN in June 1915 began operational trials of the Type D depth charge, with a 300 lb charge of TNT and a hydrostatic pistol, firing at either 40 or 80 ft, believed to be effective at a distance of 140 ft. In July 1915, the British Admiralty set up the Board of Invention and Research to evaluate suggestions from the public as well as carrying out their own investigations; some 14,000 suggestions were received about combating submarines. In December 1916, the RN set up its own Anti-Submarine Division but relations with the BIR were poor. After 1917 most ASW work was carried out by ASD. In the U. S. a Naval Consulting Board was set up in 1915 to evaluate ideas. After American entry into the war in 1917, they encouraged work on submarine detection; the U. S. National Research Council, a civilian organization, brought in British and French experts on underwater sound to a meeting with their American counterparts in June 1917. In October 1918, there was a meeting in Paris on "supersonics", a term used for echo-ranging, but the technique was still in research by the end of the war.
The first recorded sinking of a submarine by depth charge was U-68, sunk by Q-ship HMS Farnborough off Kerry, Ireland 22 March 1916. By early 1917, the Royal Navy had developed indicator loops which consisted of long lengths of cables lain on the seabed to detect the magnetic field of submarines as they passed overhead. At this stage they were used in conjunction with controlled mines which could be detonated from a shore station once a'swing' had been detected on the indicator loop galvanometer. Indicator loops used with controlled mining were known as'guard loops'. By July 1917, depth charges had developed to the extent that settings of between 50–200 ft were possible; this design would remain unchanged through