Vicente Blasco Ibáñez
Vicente Blasco Ibáñez was a journalist and best-selling Spanish novelist in various genres whose most widespread and lasting fame in the English-speaking world is from Hollywood films adapted from his works. He was born in Valencia. At university, he never went into practice, he was more interested in politics, journalism and women. He was a particular fan of Miguel de Cervantes. In politics he was a militant Republican partisan in his youth and founded a newspaper, El Pueblo in his hometown; the newspaper aroused so much controversy. In 1896, he was sentenced to a few months in prison, he made many enemies and was shot and killed in one dispute. The bullet was caught in the clasp of his belt, he had several stormy love affairs. He volunteered as the proofreader for the novel Noli Me Tangere, in which the Filipino patriot José Rizal expressed his contempt of the Spanish colonization of the Philippines, he travelled to Argentina in 1909 where Nueva Valencia and Cervantes, were created. He gave conferences on Spanish literature.
Tired and disgusted with government failures and inaction, Vicente Blasco Ibáñez moved to Paris at the beginning of World War I. When living in Paris, Ibáñez had been introduced to the poet and writer Robert W. Service by their mutual publisher Fisher Unwin, who asked Robert W. Service to act as an interpreter in the deal of a contract concerning Ibáñez, he was a supporter of the Allies in World War I. He died in Menton, France in 1928, the day before his 61st birthday, in the residence of Fontana Rosa that he built, his first published novel was “La araña negra” in 1892, an immature work that he repudiated – a study of the connections between a noble Spanish family and the Jesuits throughout the 19th century. It seems to have been a vehicle for him to express his anti-clerical views. In 1894, he published his first mature work, a novel called “Arroz y tartana”; the story is about a widow in late 19th century Valencia trying to keep up appearances in order to marry her daughters well. His next books consist of detailed studies of aspects of rural life in the farmlands of Valencia – the so-called huerta that the Moorish colonizers had created to grow crops such as rice and oranges, with a planned irrigation system in an otherwise arid landscape.
The concern with depicting the details of this lifestyle qualifies Blasco Ibáñez as an example of Costumbrismo: Flor de mayo La barraca Entre naranjos Cañas y barro These works show the influence of Naturalism which he would most have assimilated through reading Émile Zola. The characters in these works are determined by the interaction of heredity and social conditions – race, milieu, et moment – and the novelist is acting as a kind of scientist, drawing out the influences that are acting upon them at any given moment, they are powerful are sometimes flawed by heavy-handed didactic elements. For example, in La Barraca, the narrator preaches the need for these ignorant people to be better-educated. There is a strong political element – he shows how destructive it is for these poor farm-workers to be fighting each other rather than uniting against their true oppressors – the Church and the land-owners. However, alongside the preaching, there are lyrical and detailed accounts of how the irrigation canals are managed and of the workings of the age-old “tribunal de las aguas” – a court composed of farmers that meets weekly close by Valencia Cathedral to decide which farm gets to receive water when and which arbitrates on disputes on access to water.
“Cañas y barro” is adjudged the masterpiece of this phase of Blasco Ibáñez’s writings. After that, his writing changed markedly, he left behind costumbrismo and Naturalism and began to set his novels in more cosmopolitan locations than the huerta of Valencia. His plots became more melodramatic. Academic criticism of him in the English-speaking world has ignored these works, although they form by far the majority of his published output – some 30 works; some of these works attracted the attention of Hollywood studios and became the basis of celebrated films. Prominent among these is Sangre y arena, which follows the career of Juan Gallardo from his poor beginnings as a child in Seville, to his rise to celebrity as a matador in Madrid, where he falls under the spell of the seductive Doña Sol, which leads to his downfall. Ibáñez directed a 65-minute film version in 1916. There are three remakes made in 1941 and 1989, respectively, his greatest personal success came from the novel Los cuatro jinetes del Apocalipsis, which tells a tangled tale of the French and German sons-in-law of an Argentinian land-owner who find themselves fighting on opposite sides in the First World War.
When this was filmed by Rex Ingram in 1921, it became the vehicle that propelled Rudolph Valentino to stardom. Rex Ingram filmed Mare Nostrum – a spy story from 1918 - in 1926 as a vehicle for his wife Alice Terry at his MGM studio in Nice. Michael Powell claimed in his memoirs that he had his first experience of working in films on that production. A further two Hollywood films can be singled out, as they were the first films that were made by Greta Garbo following her arrival at MGM in Hollywood –The Torrent (based on Entre naranjos fro
Anatole France was a French poet and successful novelist with several best-sellers. Ironic and skeptical, he was considered in his day the ideal French man of letters, he was a member of the Académie française, won the 1921 Nobel Prize in Literature "in recognition of his brilliant literary achievements, characterized as they are by a nobility of style, a profound human sympathy, a true Gallic temperament". France is widely believed to be the model for narrator Marcel's literary idol Bergotte in Marcel Proust's In Search of Lost Time; the son of a bookseller, France was a bibliophile. His father's bookstore, called the Librairie France, specialized in books and papers on the French Revolution and was frequented by many notable writers and scholars of the day. France studied at the Collège Stanislas, a private Catholic school, after graduation he helped his father by working in his bookstore. After several years he secured the position of cataloguer at Lemerre. In 1876 he was appointed librarian for the French Senate.
France began his literary career as a journalist. In 1869, Le Parnasse Contemporain published one of his poems, "La Part de Madeleine". In 1875, he sat on the committee, in charge of the third Parnasse Contemporain compilation; as a journalist, from 1867, he wrote many notices. He became famous with the novel Le Crime de Sylvestre Bonnard, its protagonist, skeptical old scholar Sylvester Bonnard, embodied France's own personality. The novel was won him a prize from the Académie française. In La Rotisserie de la Reine Pedauque France ridiculed belief in the occult, he was elected to the Académie française in 1896. France took an important part in the Dreyfus affair, he signed Émile Zola's manifesto supporting Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish army officer, falsely convicted of espionage. France wrote about the affair in his 1901 novel Monsieur Bergeret. France's works include L'Île des Pingouins which satirizes human nature by depicting the transformation of penguins into humans – after the animals have been baptized by mistake by the nearsighted Abbot Mael.
It is a satirical history of France, starting in Medieval times, going on to the writer's own time with special attention to the Dreyfus affair and concluding with a dystopian future. Les dieux ont soif is a novel, set in Paris during the French Revolution, about a true-believing follower of Maximilien Robespierre and his contribution to the bloody events of the Reign of Terror of 1793–94, it is a wake-up call against political and ideological fanaticism and explores various other philosophical approaches to the events of the time. La Revolte des Anges is considered Anatole France's most profound and ironic novel. Loosely based on the Christian understanding of the War in Heaven, it tells the story of Arcade, the guardian angel of Maurice d'Esparvieu. Bored because Bishop d'Esparvieu is sinless, Arcade begins reading the bishop's books on theology and becomes an atheist, he moves to Paris, meets a woman, falls in love, loses his virginity causing his wings to fall off, joins the revolutionary movement of angels, meets the Devil, who realizes that if he overthrew God, he would become just like God.
Arcade realizes that replacing God with another is meaningless unless "in ourselves and in ourselves alone we attack and destroy Ialdabaoth." "Ialdabaoth," according to France, is God's secret name and means "the child who wanders." He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1921. He is buried in the Neuilly-sur-Seine community cemetery near Paris. On 31 May 1922, France's entire works were put on the Index Librorum Prohibitorum of the Catholic Church, he regarded this as a "distinction". This Index was abolished in 1966. In 1877, France married Valérie Guérin de Sauville, a granddaughter of Jean-Urbain Guérin a miniaturist who painted Louis XVI, with whom he had a daughter, Suzanne, in 1881. France's relations with women were always turbulent, in 1888 he began a relationship with Madame Arman de Caillavet, who conducted a celebrated literary salon of the Third Republic. After his divorce in 1893, he had many liaisons, notably with Mme Gagey, who committed suicide in 1911. France married again to Emma Laprévotte.
Politically, France was an outspoken supporter of the 1917 Russian Revolution. In 1920, he gave his support to the newly founded French Communist Party. France was documented to have a brain size just three-quarters the average weight. After his death in 1924 France was the object of written attacks, including venomous assaults from the Nazi collaborator Pierre Drieu La Rochelle, the Surrealists, who published Un Cadavre as a response to the popular appeal of France, who they deemed vulgar and derivative. An admirer, the English writer George Orwell, defended him however and declared that he remained readable, that "it is unquestionable that he was attacked from political motive." "Les Légions de Varus", poem published in 1867 in the Gazette rimée. Poèmes dorés Les Noces corinthiennes Jocaste et le chat maigre Le Crime de Sylvestre Bonnard Les Désirs de Jean Servien Abeille Balthas
Enrico Ferri was an Italian criminologist and student of Cesare Lombroso, the founder of the Italian school of criminology. While Lombroso researched the purported physiological factors that motivated criminals, Ferri investigated social and economic aspects, he served as editor of the socialist daily Avanti! and, in 1884, saw his book Criminal Sociology published. His work served as the basis for Argentina’s penal code of 1921. Although at first he rejected the Italian dictator Benito Mussolini, Ferri became one of Mussolini and his National Fascist Party's main external supporters. Ferri was born in Lombardy in 1856, worked first as a lecturer and as a professor of Criminal law, having spent time as a student of Cesare Lombroso. While Lombroso researched anthropological criminology, Ferri focused more on social and economic influences on the criminal and crime rates. Ferri's research led to him postulating theories calling for crime prevention methods to be the mainstay of law enforcement, as opposed to punishment of criminals after their crimes had taken place.
He became a founder of the positivist school, he researched psychological and social positivism as opposed to the biological positivism of Lombroso. Ferri, at the time a radical, was elected to Italian Parliament in 1886. In 1893, he edited their daily newspaper, the Avanti. In 1900 and 1904 he spoke out in Congress against the roles of socialist ministers in bourgeoisie governments. Ferri favoured Italian neutrality during World War I, he was re-elected as a Socialist Party deputy in 1921. In post-war Italy, he became a supporter of Mussolini's Fascist regime. Ferri died in 1929. Criminal Sociology Socialism and Positive Science The Positive School of Criminology Criminal Sociology Socialism and Modern Science Ferri disputed Lombroso's emphasis on biological characteristics of criminals; these characteristics included slang, secret symbols and art, as well as moral insensibility and "a lack of repugnance to the idea and execution of the offence, previous to its commission, the absence of remorse after committing it".
Ferri argued that sentiments such as religion, love and loyalty did not contribute to criminal behaviour, as these ideas were too complicated to have a definite impact on a person's basic moral sense, from which Ferri believed criminal behaviour stemmed. Ferri argued that other sentiments, such as hate and vanity had greater influences as they held more control over a person's moral sense. Ferri summarized his theory by defining criminal psychology as a "defective resistance to criminal tendencies and temptations, due to that ill-balanced impulsiveness which characterises children and savages". Ferri drew comparisons between socialism and Darwinism, disputed particular works by Ernst Haeckel that highlighted contradictions between the two schools of thought. Ferri instead argued. Ferri viewed science as inversely proportional. Ferri observed that as Darwinism dealt a damaging blow to religion and the origins of the universe according to the church, so socialism rose in comparison. Thus, Ferri argued that socialism was the theory of evolution.
At the end of his life, he became one of the main supporters of Benito Mussolini. He started to consider fascism as an expression of socialist ideals, that fascism was the "affirmation of the state against liberal individualism". Enrico Ferri Archive at marxists.org Works by Enrico Ferri at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Enrico Ferri at Internet Archive Newspaper clippings about Enrico Ferri in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
An anniversary is the date on which an event took place or an institution was founded in a previous year, may refer to the commemoration or celebration of that event. For example, the first event is the initial occurrence or, the inaugural of the event. One year would be the first anniversary of that event; the word was first used for Catholic feasts to commemorate saints. Most countries celebrate national anniversaries called national days; these could be the date of independence of the nation or the adoption of a new constitution or form of government. The important dates in a sitting monarch's reign may be commemorated, an event referred to as a "jubilee". Birthdays are the most common type of anniversary, on which someone's birthdate is commemorated each year; the actual celebration is sometimes moved for practical reasons, as in the case of an official birthday. Wedding anniversaries are often celebrated, on the same day of the year as the wedding occurred. Death anniversary; the Latin phrase dies natalis has become a common term, adopted in many languages in intellectual and institutional circles, for the anniversary of the founding of an institution, such as an alma mater.
In ancient Rome, the Aquilae natalis was the "birthday of the eagle", the anniversary of the official founding of a legion. Anniversaries of nations are marked by the number of years elapsed, expressed with Latin words or Roman numerals. Latin terms for anniversaries are straightforward those relating to the first twenty years, or multiples of ten years, or multiples of centuries or millennia In these instances, the name of the anniversary is derived from the Latin word for the respective number of years. However, when anniversaries relate to fractions of centuries, the situation is not as simple. Roman fractions were based on a duodecimal system. From 1⁄12 to 8⁄12 they were expressed as multiples of twelfths and from 9⁄12 to 11⁄12 they were expressed as multiple twelfths less than the next whole unit—i.e. A whole unit less 3⁄12, 2⁄12 or 1⁄12 respectively. There were special terms for quarter and three-quarters. Dodrans is a Latin contraction of de-quadrans which means "a whole unit less a quarter" (de means "from".
Thus for the example of 175 years, the term is a quarter century less than the next whole century or 175 =. In Latin, it seems that this rule did not apply for 1½. While secundus is Latin for "second", bis for "twice", these terms are not used such as in sesqui-secundus. Instead sesqui is used by itself. Many anniversaries have special names. Etiquette in Society, in Business, in Politics and at Home by Emily Post, published in 1922, contained suggestions for wedding anniversary gifts for 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 50, 75 years. Wedding anniversary gift suggestions for other years were added in editions and publications. Speaking, the longer the period, the more precious or durable the material associated with it. See wedding anniversary for a general list of the wedding anniversary symbols. Furthermore, there exist numerous overlapping contradictory lists of anniversary gifts, separate from the'traditional' names; the concepts of a person's birthday stone and zodiac stone, by contrast, are fixed for life according to the day of the week, month, or astrological sign corresponding to the recipient's birthday.
List of historical anniversaries Quinquennial Neronia Wedding anniversary
The May Revolution was a week-long series of events that took place from May 18 to 25, 1810, in Buenos Aires, capital of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. This Spanish colony included the territories of present-day Argentina, Paraguay and parts of Brazil; the result was the removal of Viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros and the establishment of a local government, the Primera Junta, on May 25. It was the first successful revolution in the South American Independence process; the May Revolution was a direct reaction to Spain's Peninsular War. In 1808, King Ferdinand VII of Spain abdicated in favor of Napoleon, who granted the throne to his brother, Joseph Bonaparte. A Supreme Central Junta led resistance to Joseph's government and the French occupation of Spain, but suffered a series of reversals that resulted in the Spanish loss of the northern half of the country. On February 1, 1810, French troops gained control of most of Andalusia; the Supreme Junta retreated to Cadiz and dissolved itself, the Council of Regency of Spain and the Indies replaced it.
News of these events arrived in Buenos Aires on May 18, brought by British ships. Viceroy Cisneros tried to maintain the political status quo, but a group of criollo lawyers and military officials organized an open cabildo on May 22 to decide the future of the Viceroyalty. Delegates denied recognition to the Council of Regency in Spain and established a junta to govern in place of Cisneros, since the government that had appointed him Viceroy no longer existed. To maintain a sense of continuity, Cisneros was appointed president of the Junta. However, this caused much popular unrest, so he resigned under pressure on May 25; the newly formed government, the Primera Junta, included only representatives from Buenos Aires and invited other cities of the Viceroyalty to send delegates to join them. This resulted in the outbreak of war between the regions that accepted the outcome of the events at Buenos Aires and those that did not; the May Revolution began the Argentine War of Independence, although no formal declaration of independence was issued at the time and the Primera Junta continued to govern in the name of the deposed king, Ferdinand VII.
As similar events occurred in many other cities of the continent, the May Revolution is considered one of the early events of the Spanish American wars of independence. Historians today debate whether the revolutionaries were loyal to the Spanish crown or whether the declaration of fidelity to the king was a necessary ruse to conceal the true objective—to achieve independence—from a population, not yet ready to accept such a radical change. A formal declaration of independence was issued at the Congress of Tucumán on July 9, 1816; the United States' declaration of independence from Great Britain in 1776 led criollos to believe that revolution and independence from Spain were feasible. Between 1775 and 1783, the American patriots of the Thirteen Colonies waged the American Revolutionary War against both the local loyalists and the Kingdom of Great Britain establishing a popular government in the place of the British monarchy; the fact that Spain aided the colonies in their struggle against Britain weakened the idea that it would be a crime to end one's allegiance to the parent state.
The ideals of the French Revolution of 1789 spread across Europe and the Americas as well. The overthrow and execution of King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette ended centuries of monarchy and removed the privileges of the nobility. Liberal ideals in the political and economic fields developed and spread through the Atlantic Revolutions across most of the Western world; the concept of the divine right of kings was questioned by the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, by the oft-quoted statement that "all men are created equal" in the United States Declaration of Independence and by the Spanish church. However, the spread of such ideas was forbidden in the Spanish territories, as was the sale of related books or their unauthorized possession. Spain instituted those bans when it declared war on France after the execution of Louis XVI and retained them after the peace treaty of 1796. News of the events of 1789 and copies of the publications of the French Revolution spread around Spain despite efforts to keep them at bay.
Many enlightened criollos came into contact with liberal authors and their works during their university studies, either in Europe or at the University of Chuquisaca. Books from the United States found their way into the Spanish colonies through Caracas, owing to the proximity of Venezuela to the United States and the West Indies; the Industrial Revolution started in Britain, with the use of plateways and steam power. This led to dramatic increases in the productive capabilities of Britain, created a need for new markets to sell its products; the Napoleonic Wars with France made this a difficult task, after Napoleon imposed the Continental System, which forbade his allies and conquests to trade with Britain. Thus Britain needed to be able to trade with the Spanish colonies, but could not do so because the colonies were restricted to trade only with their parent state. To achieve their economic objectives, Britain tried to invade Rio de la Plata and conquer key cities in Spanish America; when that failed, they chose to promote the Spanish-American aspirations of emancipation from Spain.
The mutiny of Aranjuez in 1808 led King Charles IV of Spain to abdicate in favor of his son, Ferdinand VII. Charles IV requested.
Angela Isadora Duncan was an American and French dancer who performed to acclaim throughout Europe. Born in California, she lived in Western Europe and the Soviet Union from the age of 22 until her death at age 50, when her scarf became entangled in the wheels and axle of the car in which she was riding. Isadora Duncan was born in San Francisco, the youngest of the four children of Joseph Charles Duncan, a banker, mining engineer and connoisseur of the arts, Mary Isadora Gray, her brothers were Raymond Duncan. Soon after Isadora's birth, her father was exposed in illegal bank dealings, the family became poor, her parents divorced when she was an infant, her mother moved with her family to Oakland, where she worked as a seamstress and piano teacher. From ages six to ten, Isadora attended school; as her family was poor and her three siblings earned money by teaching dance to local children. In 1896, Duncan became part of Augustin Daly's theater company in New York, but she soon became disillusioned with the form and craved a different environment with less of a hierarchy.
Her father, along with his third wife and their daughter, died in 1898 when the British passenger steamer SS Mohegan ran aground off the coast of Cornwall. Duncan began her dancing career at a early age by giving lessons in her home to neighbourhood children, this continued through her teenage years, her novel approach to dance was evident in these early classes, in which she "followed fantasy and improvised, teaching any pretty thing that came into head". A desire to travel brought her to Chicago, where she auditioned for many theater companies finding a place in Augustin Daly's company; this took her to New York City where her unique vision of dance clashed with the popular pantomimes of theater companies. In New York, Duncan took some classes with Marie Bonfanti but was disappointed in ballet routine. Feeling unhappy and unappreciated in America, Duncan moved to London in 1898, she performed in the drawing rooms of the wealthy, taking inspiration from the Greek vases and bas-reliefs in the British Museum.
The earnings from these engagements enabled her to rent a studio, allowing her to develop her work and create larger performances for the stage. From London, she traveled to Paris, where she was inspired by the Louvre and the Exposition Universelle of 1900. In 1902, Loie Fuller invited Duncan to tour with her; this took Duncan all over Europe as she created new works using her innovative technique, which emphasized natural movement in contrast to the rigidity of tradition ballet. She spent most of the rest of her life touring the Americas in this fashion. Despite mixed reaction from critics, Duncan became quite popular for her distinctive style and inspired many visual artists, such as Antoine Bourdelle, Auguste Rodin, Arnold Rönnebeck, Abraham Walkowitz, to create works based on her. Duncan disliked the commercial aspects of public performance, such as touring and contracts, because she felt they distracted her from her real mission, namely the creation of beauty and the education of the young.
To achieve her mission, she opened schools to teach young women her philosophy of dance. The first was established in 1904 in Germany; this institution was the birthplace of the "Isadorables", Duncan's protégées who would continue her legacy. Duncan adopted all six girls in 1919, they took her last name. After about a decade in Berlin, Duncan established a school in Paris, shortly closed because of the outbreak of World War I. In 1910, Duncan met the occultist Aleister Crowley at a party, an episode recounted by Crowley in his Confessions, he refers to Duncan as "Lavinia King", would use the same invented name for her in his novel Moonchild. Crowley wrote of Duncan that she "has this gift of gesture in a high degree. Let the reader study her dancing, if possible in private than in public, learn the superb'unconsciousness' —, magical consciousness — with which she suits the action to the melody." Crowley was, in fact, more attracted to Duncan's bohemian companion Mary Dempsey, with whom he had an affair.
Desti had come to Paris in 1901 where she soon met Duncan, the two became inseparable. Desti appeared in Moonchild, as "Lisa la Giuffria" She joined Crowley's occult order, helping him to write his magnum opus Magick under her magical name of "Soror Virakam". Desti wrote a memoir of her experiences with Duncan. In 1911, the French fashion designer Paul Poiret rented a mansion — Pavillon du Butard in La Celle-Saint-Cloud — and threw lavish parties, including one of the more famous grandes fêtes, La fête de Bacchus on June 20, 1912, re-creating the Bacchanalia hosted by Louis XIV at Versailles. Isadora Duncan, wearing a Greek evening gown designed by Poiret, danced on tables among 300 guests. Duncan, said to have posed for the photographer Eadweard Muybridge, placed an emphasis on "evolutionary" dance motion, insisting that each movement was born from the one that preceded it, that each movement gave rise to the next, so on in organic succession, her dancing defined the force of progress, change and liberation.
In France, as elsewhere, Duncan delighted her audience. In 1914, Duncan moved to the United States and transferred her school there